Skip to main content

Full text of "Modern Persian conversation-grammar : with reading lessons, English-Persian vocabulary and Persian letters"

See other formats











DAVID NUTT, 57-59 Long Acre. DULAU & Co., 37 Soho Square. 

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & Co., St. Dunstan's Hoxise, Fetter 
Lane, Fleet Street. 


31 Union Square. 254 Fifth Avenne. 25 Park Place. 

BOSTON. C. A. KOEHLER & Co., 149A Tremont Street. 



The method of Craapey-Otto-Sanar is my own private property, 
having been acquired by purchase from the authors. The text-books 
made after this method are incessantly improved. All rights, espe- 
cially the right of making new editions, and the right of translation 
for all languages, are reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impres- 
sions will be prosecuted according to law. I am thankful for com- 
munications relating to these matters. 

Heidelberg. Julius Orroos. 


Persian, the Italian of the East, has long been 
recognised as one of the most euphonious, expressive 
and important of Oriental languages. Unfortunately, 
however, to most Englishmen who have spent any 
time in India, Persian is known only in its antique 
form and pronunciation, which are still in large 
measure retained on the Afghan frontier and in other 
parts of India. This prevents the student from being 
intelligible to the natives of Persia, should he for any 
reason find it desirable to visit that country. The 
writer's own experience enables him to speak with 
some little authority on this subject. Having studied 
and learnt to speak Persian in the Panjab, he found, 
on endeavouring to enter into conversation with Shir- 
azts in Bombay, that he was almost if not quite 
unintelligible to them, since many of the words, 
phrases and idioms he had learnt from the pages of 
Sa'di and other classical Persian authors have become 
obsolete and have been superseded by others in the 
modern language as spoken in Persia itself. It was 
as if a foreigner, having discovered some corner of 
the world in which English was still spoken by the 
learned, just as it occurs in the Elizabethan writers 
and with the pronunciation of that distant day, had 
learnt the language from them and then tried to con- 
verse with the English people of to-day. His conver- 
sation would seem at once stilted and vulgar, and it 
would amuse everyone with whom he came in contact. 

The Civil and Military authorities in England 
and India now, however, seem to have begun to grasp 
the fact that Indian Persian is somewhat like what 
the French of 'Stratford atte Bowe' was in olden times, 
and to feel the desirability of favouring the study of 
the language as actually spoken in Persia itself. In 


order, possibly, to assist in the attainment of this 
object, the Publisher of this Series of Conversation 
Grammars (the 'Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method') has done me 
the honour to entrust me with the preparation of the 
present volume, which I trust will prove useful to 
students and will not be found unworthy of a place 
among the many excellent Handbooks on other lan- 
guages which have rendered the Series so well known 
in many lands. 

The aim of this Volume is to provide the Student 
with a thoroughly practical and up-to-date Introduction 
to the study of the Modern Persian Language. There- 
fore everything obsolete has, whenever it could not 
be profitably omitted, been admitted only in such a 
manner as to shew clearly the changes which have 
occurred in the language in process of time, and to 
warn the student against using too antiquated words 
and employing modes (') of expression which are not 
now used, or are used in a different sense. 

A residence of more than seven years in Persia 
itself (in addition to many years' previous study of 
the language) and conversation with all classes of the 
people have, I trust, in some slight degree, fitted me 
for the task which I have been invited to undertake. 
I am much indebted to Aqa Mirza Asadu'llah of Is- 
fahan, who has carefully revised the Persian Text of 
the Stories contained in this Grammar, and has also 
been consulted about every matter of importance. My 
sincere thanks are due to the Rev. C. H. Stileman 
M. A., the Secretary of the C. M. S. Persia Mission, 
for his great kindness in going carefully through the 
MS. of this Grammar with me, and for the many 

1 The danger of this is well illustrated by the narrative 
of what actually occurred to a learned Orientalist who had 
studied Persian in the Panjab and then happened to be tra- 
velling in Persia. Handing his horse's bridle to a native servant 
he said, 'Asp i mdra hidftyat kun.' He doubtless meant to say 
'Lead my horse' in Modern Persian 'Asbamrtt jildu bikun' : 
but what he actually did say denoted 'Guide my horse in the 
way of salvation'. The Persian's surprise at the commission 
with which he was entrusted is more easily imagined than 

valuable suggestions he has made. Coming from such 
a careful and accurate student of the language as he 
is, these have been of great service to me. 

The Reading Lessons subjoined at the end of 
this book are taken in part from the Sad Hikaydt, 
and in part from the Journal of the late Shah's Third 
Visit to Europe. The former book is well known, in 
India especially; but its style is somewhat antiquated, 
and not a few of the words used in it are now ob- 
solete. I have therefore had it rewritten by Mirza 
Asadu'llah, with the object of bringing its style and 
phraseology into complete accord with the best mo- 
dern standard. The first sixteen Stories are given as 
Exercises in the Grammar itself, in the usual print- 
ing type; and the rest, to the end of Story 34, 
are lithographed in the Naskh charakter in the Read- 
ing lessons. The style in which the Shah's Journal 
is composed, at once free and elegant, may be said 
to have now become the model for such compositions 
in Persian. The extracts from it are given in the 
Nasta'liq character. Until the Student can read these 
Extracts freely, he should not attempt to read the 
Persian Letters contained in Appendix F. The Shikas- 
teh hand in which they are for the most part written 
is somewhat difficult to decipher, and the Key should 
here be carefully consulted by the Learner, in order 
to test his success in solving the enigmas which will 
plentifully present themselves in this part of his 
course of study. These Letters are a selection from 
those actually received from various Persian friends. 
The variety of the handwriting has been carefully 
reproduced, but the necessity of obliterating certain 
proper names etc. has produced some erasures here and 
there in them, for which the reader's indulgence is 
requested. It will be noticed that the Reading Les- 
sons are paged as is usual in Persian books, and 
begin at the end of the Volume. 

It is unnecessary to add to the bulk of this 
volume by appending a Persian-English Vocabulary, 
as Palmer's Smaller Persian-English Dictionary will 
supply all that the beginner will require. The ad- 


vanced student will find Steingass' Persian Dictionary 

It remains for me to acknowledge my obligations 
to Ibrahim's, Forbes' and Dr. Rosen's Persian Gram- 
mars, from which I have borrowed useful suggestions, 
though I have ventured to differ from them whenever 
accuracy required. 

The system of transliteration adopted is an exact 
one, and this will enable the student, without any 
sacrifice of accuracy, to dispense with the Persian 
character in the first few Exercises and thus to learn 
something of the language before beginning to read 
the Persian type, a method which experience has 
shewn to be very useful and profitable. The Persian 
character is, however, used in the reproduction of 
these Lessons in the Key. The English of the passages 
for translation into Persian has, it will be observed, 
an Oriental colouring, as it is a translation from the 
Persian original given in the Key. Many of the histor- 
ical passages are taken (with a few slight alterations 
and simplifications) from Mirza Hairat's Persian Ver- 
sion of Sir John Malcolm's History of Persia. 

Bedford. W> St. Clair-Tisdall. 



Preface Ill 

Persian Paradigms IX 

Introduction: Letters, Pronunciation, Consonants, Vowels; 
other orthographical signs: Letters not found in pure 
Persian words, 128 1 

Beading Exercise 13 

First Part. 

Elements of Persian Grammar. 

First Lesson: Nouns and Adjectives 14 

Second Lesson: Nouns and adjectives continued; Ifafeh . . 18 

Third Lesson: Use of -ru, -i etc 24 

Fourth Lesson: Personal Pronouns 29 

Fifth Lesson : Numerals 34 

Sixth Lesson: Relative and Interrogative Pronouns ... 41 

Seventh Lesson: The Reflexive Pronoun 47 

Eighth Lesson: Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections . 53 
Ninth Lesson : Language of the Common People .... 60 
Tenth Lesson : The Verb in General : Active Voice : Tenses 

from the Infinitive 66 

Eleventh Lesson: The Verb, Active Voice continued] Tenses 

from the Root (Imperative) 73 

Twelfth Lesson: The Verb continued: Auxilaries: Tenses of 

Rare Occurrence 81 

Thirteenth Lesson: Passive Voice: Order of Words in a 

Sentence; Oratio Recta and Oratio Obliqua 94 

Appendix to the 13 th Lesson: Irregular Verbs 103 

Fourteenth Lesson: The Causative Verb: Compound and 

Prepositional Verbs 108 

Fifteenth Lesson: Defective, Impersonal and Contracted 

Verbs 116 

Sixteenth Lesson: Use of Tenses of the Verb . 122 

Second Part. 

The Arabic Element in Persian: Compound Words: Idioms: 
Government of Verbs. Page 

Introductory Observations on Arabic Words in Persian . . 129 
Seventeenth Lesson: Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives 131 



Eighteenth Lesson: Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. . 137 
Nineteenth Lesson: Irregular and Double Plurals . . . 14-P 
Twentieth Lesson: Voices of the Regular Arabic Trili- 

teral Verb IF 

Twenty-first Lesson: Arabic Verbal Forms continued: Verbs 

with Feeble Radicals etc 1 

Twenty-second Lesson: Formation of Arabic Derivative 

Nouns and Adjectives It 

Twenty-third Lesson : Formation of Persian Derivative 

Nouns, Adjectives and Adverbs 16 l t ' 

Twenty-fourth Lesson : Persian Compound Nouns and Ad- 
jectives 177 

Twenty-fifth Lesson: Turkish Compounds: Use of Iztifeh 

as a Relative Pronoun 183 

Twenty-sixth Lesson: Government of Verbs simple and 

compound , 188 

Twenty-seventh Lesson: Certain Persian Idioms .... 194 

Twenty-eighth Lesson: Parsing 201 

Twenty-ninth Lesson: Notes on Polite Conversation . . 204 
Thirtieth Lesson: Some Persian Proverbs . . 208 

Appendix A: Arabic Phrases in constant use in Persian 215 

Appendix B : Arabic Calendar 217 

Appendix C: The Siydq Method of Reckoning 219 

Appendix D: Money, Weights and Measures . . . . . 220 

Appendix E: Itineraries 222 

Appendix F: Persian Letters 225 

English-Persian Vocabulary 249 

Reading Lessons (paged afresh from the end of the book). 


1. From the Sad Hikdyat 1 

2. From the Shah's Third Journey to Europe 24 


1. The Persian Language is written from right 
to left. Its Alphabet consists of the 28 Arabic letters 
with the addition of four others required to express 
sounds (P, ch, z, g) not recognised in Classical Arabic, 
- in all 32. These with the Transcription of each 
used in this Grammar are given in the following Table. 



(separate) 1 











-?-(or omitted) 

(Vide 5) 







As in English 






















., Eng. s 







j? n 3 






ch in church 








n h 




:J - 


Scotch eft in loch 








.. Italian d 








Eng. z 






j ' 


.. Italian r 








Eng. z 








French j in jour 








English s 








: sh 









Persian Conv.-Grammar. 





(separate) 1 

eg o 



Initial I 









As English z 








Italian t 








Eng. z 








(Vide 5) 



l\ r 



A guttural hard g 







As Eng. f 








A guttural hard k 








As Eng. k 








gin go, got 








11 11 * 








n 11 m 








n n n 







v (vide 5) 

11 11 V 








5? J) t 







y (trc'dfe 5) 

consoaanUl t/ 

(Note that the dots of o, (J and ^^ instead of being placed 
beside one another, are often placed one above the other. Gaf 
is usually printed exactly like Kaf.) 

It should be observed that the distinction be- 
tween Capital and Small Letters is unknown in Per- 
sian. Each letter always retains its own sound, except 
that j before v_ and <_> is pronounced m, the jj in the 
word UT (= 'Mr.') is pronounced , and final & in 
Arabic words, when it should be fully written <s, is 
often pronounced a: it is then transcribed a\ 

2. The student should notice that each letter 
has in reality only one form. The apparent diversity 
of forms is due to the facts that (1) most of the letters 
may be united to the preceding or to the following 
letter, and (2) that when a letter is separate or occurs 
at the end of a word, a nourish is in most cases ad- 
ded, partly for ornament and partly to shew that it 

Pronunciation of consonants. 3 

ends the word. In most Arabic MSS. the dot of the 
final nun is placed not in the middle but at the right 
hand corner of the letter. This is sometimes the case 
with the dots of final o and also. Hence it is clear 
that even these letters have really only one form each. 
The only letters which have no final flourish are I j 
i j J j j ^ k. All but the two last of these nine letters 
are incapable (except in the Shikdsteh or broken hand) 
of being united with the letter which may immediately 
follow in the same word. 

3. There are several different varieties of the 
Persian character. The most important of these are 
the Naskh, the Nastdliq, and the Shikdsteh.* The first 
and second of these are used in lithographing books, 
while the third is a running hand commonly used in 
letter-writing. But they are all mere varieties of the 
character given in the Table above. 


Too much attention cannot be paid to the ac- 
quisition of a correct pronunciation. This is perhaps 
of more importance than is even grammatical accuracy. 

I. Consonants. 

4. All the letters in the Table are considered 
to be consonants, though in practice we may say that 
I, j and t are often used as vowels. They are, how- 
ever, never called such, but are known as the weak 
letters, because their sound so readily melts into that 
of the vowel which immediately precedes them. 

5. The sound of most of the letters is suffi- 
ciently indicated in the Table, though some call for 
further elucidation. Alif has properly the sound of the 
smooth breathing in Greek, i. e. the sound of the hiatus 

1 Specimens of all three are given in this Grammar. The 
Reading Lessons to the end of the Stories are in Naskh, and the 
rest in Nasta'lfq. The letters are in Shikdsteh. Printing from 
metal types is still rare in Persia, most hooks being lithographed. 
Hence the student will find a knowledge of all three kinds of 
script necessary. 


i Pronunciation of consonants. 

heard between two words, the former of which ends 
and the latter begins with a vowel, as lie eats. Alif 
has this sound when it begins a word, and also when 
in Arabic words adopted into Persian it is found in 
the middle of a word with a hamzeh ( ) above it, as 

in ^ol". Otherwise Alif has the sound of a ( 8). 
Initial Alif is not generally indicated in transcription, 
it being understood that whenever a Persian or Arabic 
word in transcription begins with a vowel, in the 
original it begins with Alif. Thus we transcribe ^jl, 
'A'dab, politeness, ddab, and 'Isfahan (jl^-l) is trans- 
cribed Isfahan. In Persian the 'Ain (?-} has exactly the 
same sound as the initial Alif, the strongly guttural 
sound which the letter has in Arabic never being 
heard. Vav () is the English v except under the cir- 
cumstances mentioned in 9. After in Persian 
words the j is almost always silent; when such is the 
case a dot is placed under the v in transcription, as 
jji-, Khvud. 'self, but _>y-, Rhud, 'helmet'. Ye (^) is 
y when it begins a syllable, it is also strictly speak- 
ing y when it ends the syllable (vide 10).$ In 
the latter case, if g follows U or , the ye is very 
slightly pronounced and may even be omitted, as ^U 
jay, 'place': btguy, 'speak', often written and pronoun- 
ced ja, bigu. But should the ye follow luimzeli, as in ^*U 
'a place', the second syllable begins with hamzeh and 
the ye is pronounced i (vide 19). 

6. Te and Ta (c> and 1} have one and the same 
sound in Persian, which is that of the Italian , formed 
by placing the point of the tongue against the point 
of the upper teeth, and not against the gum as in 
English. Dal (.>) is a soft d formed in a similar man- 
ner. Se, Sin, and Sad (,. u-, ^) are in Persian pro- 
nounced just like the English s in such. They never 
adopt the z sound which the English s has at the end 
of words. He and He (^ and ,) are in Persian pro- 
nounced alike, as the h in have, but . at the end of a 

Pronunciation of vowels. 5 

word is not pronounced after /atheh ( 7), except in 
e j (dak), 'ten', and in cases in which the / atheh is used 
by contraction instead of alif, as <6, mdh for U, mah, 
'the moon'; A.L shah for Aa, sfta7&, 'a king'. Nor is the 
c pronounced in ^ Tdli, 'who', 'that', *>. C/M&, 'what', 
<~v 5i7i, 'three', ^ fo'/a, 'to', (though it is in ^ &i&, 'good'). 
Zal, ze, zad, Za (j J, J^> i;) have all alike in Persian 
the sound of e. Re (j) is pronounced more decidedly 
than in English, but less so than in French. Such a 
word as j& (fagvr), for example, must not be pro- 
nounced faqiah, as Englishmen have a tendency to 
pronounce such words. Ghain and Qaf (^ and J>) are 
gutturals and resemble hard g and fc respectively, but 
are formed far back in the mouth by a movement of 
the uvula and throat. Great care should be taken not 
to confound them with the ordinary g and &, which 
are J^ and jT in Persian. The latter two letters are 
seldom distinguished from one another in Persian 
printing, the second stroke of the S being usually 
omitted, but in pronunciation they are carefully 

II. Vowels. 

7. In all languages there are three original 
short vowel sounds, a, I, u, which when lengthened 
become a, I, u as heard in Italian. In Persian the 
three short vowels are represented by the signs fdtheh 
( ), Msrch (- / ), and zammeh () respectively, and 
these are shortened forms of the weak letters I, & 
and j. The long sounds of the same three vowels are 
denoted by writing after each short vowel its corre- 
sponding weak letter, as c-alj, dasht, 'he had', c-jl 

'/Isf, 'he is', c...; btst, 'twenty'. The signs for the short 

vowels are hardly ever actually inserted in Persian, 
except when absolutely necessary to distinguish between 
words that might otherwise be confounded with one 
another, as ^ muhr, 'a seal', ^ mihr, 'kindness'. Even 
in such instances their insertion is optional, as the 

6 Pronunciation of vowels. 

reader is supposed to know the meaning from the 
context and to be able to suppty the short vowels 
from his knowledge of the language. 

8. Whenever alif occurs anywhere except at 
the beginning of a word or syllable, (where, to shew 
that it is long, if it be so, the sign madd [-^-] or 'ex- 
tension' should properly be placed over it), this letter 
should be pronounced as a long . Then in nearly all 
parts of Persia it has the sound of a in hall, though 
very occasionally the flatter sound of a in after may 
be heard (vide 5). But note that in ordinary con- 
versation, not only among the uneducated but even 
among Persians of almost every class, unless they are 
for some special reason on their guard, the letter a 
before n and ni 1 in purely Persian words is pronoun- 
ced M; thus nan, bread, is almost always pronounced 
nun. The same rule applies to a few Arabic words of 
a similar kind which are of such general use as to 
have practically become Persian, as in 'dm (f^)), 'a gift', 
pronounced in'um or even an c um. This ought not to 
be imitated but should be observed. 

9. Vav (j) preceded by zdmmeh (expressed or 
understood) sounds like u (Italian). "When preceded by 
fdtheh and not followed by another vowel, the two 
letters (fatheh and vav) together form a diphthong au, 
pronounced as the French au or the English long o. 
In all other cases vav is simply the English v (vide 5). 

10. Ye (<) when preceded by Msreh serves to 
lengthen the sound of that letter ( 7); the two to- 
gether are therefore pronounced like I in Italian or 
ee in English. ("We might transcribe by iy, but it is 
more convenient to write bist for c , than biust, which 

.-* V ' 


latter would, strictly speaking, be a more exact trans- 
cription.) "When ye is preceded by fdtheh, the resulting 
diphthong ay or ai is now generally pronounced like 
ai in the English word ail, though the older sound of 
ai in aisle is occasionally heard. The latter sound is 

1 For the working ont of this rule I am indebted to the 
Rev. W. A. Rice, M. A., of Shiraz. 

Pronunciation of vowels. 

now, however, nearly obsolete, except in dib (^-), 'a 
fault', Shaitan, 'Satan' (jlkJt), and a few other words, 
mostly Arabic. 

11. The subjoined diagram shews all the 

Simple vowels: a, i, ti: , , -?-. 
Lengthened vowels : a, !, u : 1-^-, 15-7"? J~- 
Diphthongs, simple vowels combined: ai, 

au: c5 -; _? 

vowels and diphthongs recognised in Persian. The 
so-called majhul or 'unknown' sounds of j and ^ (i. e. 
and e respectively) are entirely obsolete, except that 
in most places the vav in the two words jj (two) and 
y (A0w) is pronounced long o. The sound of as in 
g8t, m8t, is heard in certain Persian words, but it has 
no proper sign to represent it and is therefore in 
some instances denoted by fdtheh and in others by 
Itisreh, as will be explained under those signs. 

. 12. The vowel fdtheh occurs far more frequently 
in Persian than does any other vowel, it is therefore 
of especial importance that the student should pro- 
nounce it aright. It has been found expedient to 
represent fdtheh in transcription by a, because when 
the sound is lengthened it becomes a, but the fdtheh 
has never exactly the sound of the English short a in 
hat. It approaches this sound, however, in the following, 
cases: - - (1) When followed by ^, , or , as in the 
first syllable of Jua-L Ahmad, jUs-l, a e mal, or the last 
syllable of /jL' bdndah. (In Isfahan the last fdtheh in 
words ending in is thus pronounced, but in ShlrSz 
the fatheh in such cases is pronounced e, hence in this 
book we shall write such words bdndeh, etc.). (2) When 
the syllable containing the fatheh is open (i. e. does not 
end in a consonant), as <SCi-, md-li-Mi, 'a queen'. (3) In 
a few words when followed by two consonants, as in 
CUAJ, j^, Rasht, Yazd, especially when the latter of 
the two is r; as "Jf gabr (an impolite word denoting 
'a Zoroastrian'), ^3 qabr, 'a grave', "Co sabr, 'patience'. 

8 Pronunciation of vowels. 


* _t i 

But as a general rule fatfreh lias ilie sound of the Eng- 
lish u in but, cut, or the dull sound of the vowel of ike 
final syllable in such words as heaven, region, wlien 
pronounced heav'n, regy'n. If this be not borne in 
mind, the student's pronunciation will sound very 
strange to a Persian, and will be extremely unpleasant 
and incorrect. (The^ usual English may of writing 
cummerbund for J&J& Mmarband shews how fatheh 
sounds to English ears.) 

13. In the Arabic words IJU 'this', visOi 'that', ^j 
'merciful', and in the proper name ^ir*l 'Isaac', as well as in 
-j*jj, 'Abraham', J-w-"*, 'Ishmael', ^4^ *^* (Divine), etc. 
when thus written in Arabic style, one of the fdthehs is pro- 
nounced a, being written in the old Arabic fashion for alif. 
This is often shewn by printing the fatheh erect, as in the 
above examples, and calling it alif i Ichanjari, 'dagger-like alif. 

14. Kasreh has generally the sound of short ? in 
hit. But (1) when immediately followed by ^, , or p. 
it assumes the sound of e; as S\j^\^ i e tiraf (pronoun- 
ced Etiraf), ?\j-\ ihtiram (pr. ghtirani): (2) when coming 

between two words, as in ,USU r >l' Jcitab i padshah (pr. 


kitab-e padshah), it is also pronounced e. In this book, 
however, it will always be transcribed by i, except 
when in certain instances it stands at the end of a 
word ending in \+- and is pronounced yi or I, when 
it will be so transcribed (v. 34). 

15. Zdmmeh is usually and properly a short u pro- 
nounced as in Italian or as in the words put, pull. But 
before ^, , p and it has the sound of a short o, as 
in ^J, muhr, 'a seal' (pronounced mohr\ j^J/ mu'min, 
'& believer', 'believing', (pronounced mo'miri). It has 
the same sound at the end of all Arabic words where 

it is pronounced by the Persians at all, as 4jjJu^H al- 

hdmdo liUah, 'praise to God', Allaho akbar, J/'UUi, 'Grod 
is most great'. 

16. As in our system of transcription long 
marks are placed over the long vowels (as ij, bud), 

Other Orthographical signs. 9 

it is unnecessary to place any distinctive mark over 
the short ones. A vowel not marked long is always 
to be pronounced short, whether accented or not. 

Note that each short vowel (with the exceptions men- 
tioned above and in 12) always preserves its pro- 
per sound, even before r ; therefore J>^ j, and Jl bar, 
Mr and bur, whether occurring as separate words or 
as syllables in a word, are not to be pronounced alike. 
17. All the different vowel and diphthongal 
sounds that occur in Persian are heard in pronoun- 
cing the words fJ^Tolajl^^j-j-^-^JU^I, Ai Jalinus 

/ / 

i mu'min, muntazir i auqat i aydndeli I : '0 believing 
Galen, thou art expectant of future times'. 

Other Orthographical Signs. 

18. Madd (" ) is a sign of prolongation (it is 
really an alif written crosswise above the line) which 
occurs only above alif, and the alif so marked is al- 
most always at the beginning of a word. (The excep- 
tions are only a few Arabic words, as jTy 'the Qur'in', 
^\ ilahi, 'divine', and the explanation of this method 
of writing will be found in any good Arabic Grammar.) 

19. Hamzeh (__) is a small written above 
the line. Its proper sound is the same as that of alif, 
for which it is a substitute, i. c. it represents a hiatus, 
and it will be represented in this book by the same 
sign ( ) as alif, when required : as jCi or better &~i 
[mds'aleh, 'a matter under discussion', 'a moot point']. 
At the end of words ending in I " , the hdm0eh some- 
times seems to have the sound of y, as ^^*4i\i, Khaneh 
yi naiikar, 'the servant's house', but it is now con- 
sidered rather better not to write the hamzeh in such a 
case. At one time the hamzeh had to be written, but 
it had then its proper sound, for the words were 
pronounced Jchaneh i nduJcar. But as the pronunciation 
has now changed and the unwritten y crept in, Per- 
sians rarely write the hamzeh between such words. It 
is, however, inserted in this Grammar for the con- 
venience of the student. 

10 Orthographical signs. 

20. Jazm y 'amputation', or Sukiin, 'silence' (_2_ 
is a sign which shews the absence of a vowel after 
the consonant above which it stands. At the end of 
a word it is called jazm, elsewhere sukun. E. g. c.^!- 
sdltanat, where the sukun and ja&m shew that the J and 
o are not followed by a vowel. This sign is, however, 
never used except when absolutely necessary ; in this 
respect it is treated like the signs for the short 
vowels. The word above given is therefore generally 
written oJai-, the reader being supposed to know the 
vowels and where they occur. 

21. Tashdid, 'strengthening' ( ), is a sign 
which denotes that the consonant above which it is 
placed is to be pronounced double, as Jfcj&, taldffuz, 

'pronunciation', ~J& taslidkkur, 'thankfulness', l*f, dmma, 
'but'. English students should be careful always to 
give the double pronunciation to a consonant which 
is tashdided, and not, e. g., to say dmd for dmma. 

22. Vdsleh ("). 'union', is a mark sometimes placed 
above the alif of the Arabic article Jl (al) to shew that it 
loses its vowel and has the last vowel of the preceding word 
carried over to take its place and thus unite the two words 
into one, as \_r-j.jT Ut Amfru' IMu'minfn, 'Commander of 
the Faithful'. It must not be confounded with Madd (). 

23. Tanvin, 'Nunation', or Nunu'ttanvin, 'the Nun of 
Nunation 1 , is the name given to the doubled short vowel signs 
(-?-, , -L) which sometimes occur at the end of Arabic words : 
the signs are then read -an, -in, -un respectively. They are not 
used with purely Persian words. 

24. The eight letters , ^, ^>^ J#. J, , and 
3 are never found in purely Persian words, except 
that ^0 is used in ju, sad, 'a hundred', o-^ shast 
'sixty', and a few Arabicised proper names, as 
'Isfahan'. So also \> is sometims used, e. g., in 
or J.X.J (taptdan) to palpitate. When they occur other- 
wise they shew the word to be either Arabic or Turk- 
ish. But i, j&, ]? and 9 are distinctively Arabic, 
whereas v_, ^, j and S never occur in Arabic words, 
having been added to the alphabet by the Persians. 



25. The reason why so many s and s sounds 
occur in Persian is that Arabic words introduced into 
the language have to be written as in Arabic. In the 
latter tongue the sounds of <>, ^, ^ and again those 
of j, j, (_> and & are quite distinct from one another, 
as are those of ^ and , of 1 and . But these distinc- 
tions are not observed in Persian. There is also a 
great difference between the Arabic and the Persian 
sound of _ (ghairi). 

26. The Arabic letters were originally 22 in number, 
and were arranged in the same order as in Hebrew, Syriac and 
Aramaean, i. e. in the order shewn in the followin.!; ollection 
of unmeaning words, and from this order their numerical value 
is taken. This arrangement is called Abjad, from the first 
word of the series. It will be seen that the Arabic letters 
added later are arranged at the end. The numerical value is 
attached to each letter. 

27. The Arabic numerals now used in Persian are: 

\ Y r ^OPVA^ \* \** 

123456789 10 100 1899 1900 

The apparent strangeness ot the fact that these numbers 
seem to be written and read not from right to left but from 
left to right is due to the circumstance that in Arabic, from 
which the Persians have borrowed this system of notation, the 
smaller number is read as well as written first: thus an Arab 
would read 1899, 'nine and ninety and eight hundred and one 
thousand'. This, however, a Persian does not do. The Siytiq 
notation is given in Appendix C to this Grammar. 

No signs to represent punctuation are used in Persian, 
except that sometimes a lakht ( ) is employed to denote a 
pause, and the sign (^H.) above the first word of a new sen- 
tence. But these are often omitted. 


28. The Accent in Persian presents no diffi- 
culty, though the following rules may be found use- 
ful. As already mentioned, the accent does not lengthen 
a short voivel if it falls thereon. 

12 Accent. 

1. The accent never falls on any syllable farther 
than the third from the end (antepenultimate), except 
in such instances as those in which Rule 4 necessi- 
tates this: as, mdlikeh (<tfJu.) { a queen', sdltanat (oii-) 
: a kingdom'; but mi-namdyand (jcA*^) 'they shew'. 

2. When a word contains a vowel before two 
consonants or before a tashdided ( 21) letter which 
is the same thing, - that vowel has the accent, ex- 
cept when a long vowel (other than in such instances 
as are mentioned in Rule 3) occurs in the same word 
nearer to the end, in which case the said long vowel 
takes the accent: E. g. bdndeh (cJu.), 'a slave', tavantst 
(o-Jly), 'he could', dfarmd'udeh (eJL^^T), 'Creator', mu- 
zdffar (y&). 'victorious', muntazir (J&^) 'expectant', 
Khudavdnd (xjlj^) 'Lord'; but, farmud (j_^y), 'he 

commanded', 'attar (j\Lf-\, a perfumer'. 

3. The appended termination-* (as ~bddi, 'wick- 
edness (t-^,) from (ju) ~bad, 'wicked', c Arabi (^^), 
'Arabic', from (v^) 'Arab, 'an Arab') and the pronom- 
inal affixes of nouns and verbs (vide 46, 83), the 
izafeh ( 40) and -rd ( 41) and the parts of the verb 
ast ( 40, Words), do not take the accent whether 
they contain long vowels or not: E. g. niki (j)i 
'goodness', stidhri (^^i), 'a city, citizen, belonging to 
a city', dadand (jiob) 'they gave', dadid (joj\j) 'you 
gave', Iritabashan (jl^f) 'their book', urd (ijjl), 'him', 
shirinast (o-^,^), 'it is sweet'. But when -i followed 
by Mli is added with the meaning 'the . . . who', 'the 
. . . which', 41, the -4 often has the accent, especially 
when the definite article in English is emphatic; as 
Mtabl Mi daram (fjbJS^.l^') 'the book which I have'. 

4. The particles ml, fo', ra, ma, prefixed to tenses 
of the Verb formed from the root (Lesson XI.) take 
the accent: when prefixed to tenses formed from the 
Infinitive (Lesson X.) none of them except na takes 
the accent, but na always does: E. g. ml-dvarand 
(jujjT^), 'they bring', mi-diham (^JL^), 'I give', In-diliid 

Accent. 13 

'give ye', U-rau (_?_-.), 'go thou', md-kuriid, (ju^C) 
'do not', nd-kun (j) 'do not thou': mi-farmud, (j_y.^) 


'he was commanding', mi-guftand (osrfl*) 'they were 
saying', bi-rdft (cJ_r), 'he went': but nd-mlfarmud, 'he 
was not commanding', nd-mi-raftand, (JL^^J) 'they 
were not going'. 

5. In cases not covered by the preceding rules, 
if a word contains only one long vowel or diphthong, 
the accent falls on it; if two or more, the accent 
falls on the one which is nearest to the end: E. g., 
dgahdnid (jLjUtTT) 'he informed', pddshah (, 'a king', 
padshahan ( 'kings', kitabha (1^1x5^), 'books', ba- 
dihti ((&_->) 'wickednesses', nik'ar (_^), 'better', mktann 
(j^Cj) 'best'. This rule does not hold in reference to 
particles, adverbs, etc., as ayd, dmma, anjd, ktija, hold, 
ball, yd'nii hdrchand, and a few others, including most 
compounds of har, 'every' : so also in riiku, 'good', 
and words ending in U generally: as yabu, nirU. 

6. In compound words the accent of the latter of 
the two prevails : E. g. ashpaz-khaneh (^U-j-iT). 'cook- 
house', sdhib-zadeh (^I^^L?) 'gentle-born', sdhib-mdnsab 
(^.^AU-^-L?) 'office-holder', mir-ghdzab (^Ja's.^) 'execu- 
tioner', Pari-ru (j^jr) 'fairy-faced', chahar-pay (cS^Wj-) 

7. In words of more than two syllables a secon- 
dary accent is often heard as ivell as the one above 
mentioned, as sdltandt, mdlikch, muntazir, but this does 
not require any explanation. In questions and also 
in emphatic assertions the place of the accent is also 
often changed, as in all languages. 

Reading' Exercise. 


ail r l JT 
Transcription (with Accents). 

Dar shahri anb^r i panbeh-i bi-diizd! raft. Panbeh- 
farushan nazd i padshih shikayat avardand. Padshah, 
harchand kih tajassus farmud, diizd-ra na-yaft. Ami'ri 
c arz kard kih, Agar farmaii i Sultan bashad, duzdan- 
ra mi-giram. Padshah vaira amr farmud kih, Chini'ii 
bi-kun. An ami'r bih khaneh-y-i khyiid rafteh khyurd 
va buzurg i shahr-ra bih bahaneh-y-i ziyafat talabi'd. 
Chun hameh-y-i mardumin jam' shudand, ami'r bi-in 
majlis dar imadeh bar ru-y-i har-yak az ishan na_zar 
afkand va giift, Chih bisyar bi-hayS va ahmaq-and 
ashkhasi-kih panbeh duzdi'deh badi'nja amadand va 
rizehhi-y-i panbeh dar rish-ha-y-ishan jay girifteh 
ast. Chand nafar az haziri'n, i'n-ra shini'deh, fi'lfaur 
rishh^,-y-i khyi'sh-ra bi-dastha-y-i-shan pik kardand, 
va ma'lum shud kih duzdan kudam and. 

(For translation see the Key). 

First Part. 

Elements of Persian Grammar. 

First Lesson. 

Nouns and Adjectives. 

29. The Persian, like aU other Aryan languages, 
at one time recognised the distinction of gender. The 
modern Persian language, however, has entirely lost 
all consideration of gender, as far as the grammatical 
relations of words are concerned, if we except a few 
constructions borrowed from the Arabic, which affect 

Nouns and adjectives. 15 

Arabic nouns and adjectives only. These will be dealt 
with in Part II. Persian nouns which from their 
meaning denote females are from a grammatical point 
of view treated exactly like all other nouns. In most 
instances the words denoting the two sexes are distinct 
from one another, as: 

Masc. Fern. 

P'idar, father. Madar, mother. 

Pfsar, son. duklitar, daughter. 

Shisliak, wether. mish, ewe. 

Masc. Fern. 

asb, horse. mcidiyan^ mare. 

Jchurus, cock. makiyan (murgh), hen. 

aqa, master. Jchanum, mistress. 

"When this is not the case the distinction is 
denoted by adding the word nar, 'male', or madeli, 
'female', as gav i ndr, 'an ox', gav i madeh, 'a cow'. In 
both nouns and Personal Pronouns (as will be ex- 
plained in due course) a distinction is often made 
between words which denote animate and those which 
denote inanimate objects, but this is not a distinction 
of gender. 

30. All case-terminations have also disappeared 
in Modern Persian, both in Nouns and Pronouns. The 
noun has therefore only one form in the singular and 
one in the plural. It is convenient, however, when 
the Noun is the Subject in a sentence to say it is 
in the Nominative, when it is the Object of a Verb 
or follows a preposition, to speak of it as in the 
Objective case. In this we follow the analogy of the 
French language, to which in this and many other 
respects the Persian language from a grammatical 
point of view most nearly approaches. 

When a noun is the Nominative of Address, it may 
have the Interjection Ai, '0', prefixed, or a long a 
affixed to it ; as Ai ward, or Mard-a, 1 man'. But the 
noun may also stand alone. 

When a noun is the Object of a Verb, it may in 
certain cases have the Postposition -ra ( 41) affixed 

16 Lesson 1. 

to it. But these are not case terminations, as -ra is 
never used when the noun is governed by a preposi- 
tion, and cannot therefore be said to form the Ob- 
jective case. 

31. The Plural of all Nouns in the modern 
spoken language may be formed by adding the ter- 
mination -ha to the singular : as, mard, 'a man', mard- 
ha, 'men': zan, 'a woman, zanha, 'women': kitab, 'a 
book', kitabJia, 'books'. This applies to Arabic words 
introduced into the language as well as to purely 
Persian words, although Arabic nouns frequently 
retain their own peculiar plurals (vide Part II., Lessons 
XVII XIX). In writing also the termination -ha may 
be, and frequently is, attached without distinction to 
all nouns to form the plural. But elegant writers still 
consider the old rule of Classical Persian Grammar 
worthy of some degree of attention. This is, that 
nouns denoting creatures with life form their plural 
by adding -an, those without life by adding -ha to 
the singular. In conversation, however, the use of -&n 
as a mark of the Plural is very limited. 

32. Adjectives undergo no change for gender 
or case, nor for number when they are used in con- 
nexion with nouns or as the predicate in a sentence. 
"When used as substantives they form their plural 
in the same way as do nouns. The -an termination 
then marks persons, and the -ha may denote things: 
as ink, 'good', mkan, 'good people', nik-kti, 'good 
things' : buznrg, 'big, great', buzurgan, 'great people', 
buzurg-ha, 'big things'. 

As a general rule (for exceptions vide Lesson II. , 
38) the adjective follows its noun and is united 
with it by the izafeh ' or particle -i ; as, mardan i nik, 
'good men', kitabha-y-i buzurg, 'big books'. 

33. The Verb generally comes last in a sen- 
tence. Nouns denoting inanimate objects generally 
require the verb to be in the singular, even when the 
noun is in the plural. Conversely, nouns of multitude 

i For a fuller explanation of the iznfeh, vide Lessons II. 
and XXV ( 40 and 208). 

Nouns and adjetives. If 

require the verb to be in the plural even when the 
noun is in the singular. 

There is no definite Article in Persian, the need 
for it being supplied in another way (vide 41). 


Pidar, father. ast, is. 

madar, mother. nist ( na-ast), is not. 

bartfdar, brother. and, they are. 

Hirrthar, sister. lidstand, they are. 

i bdchcheh, child. ntstand, they are not. 

Pisar, son, boy. bud, he, she, it was. 

diikhtar, daughter, girl. budand,, they were. 

Jdtffb, book. injtt, here. 

mard, man. Unja, there. 

zan, woman, wife. in, this. 

P'ir, old, aged. ffn, that. 

javan, young, a youth. ja, jay, place. 

* Jehd&t, very, much, many. nig, also. 

buz't'trg, large, big, great, elder, dmma, but. 

kfichik, small, little, young. hula, now. [~ ne }- 

f.'hntb I nya (asks a question, like Lat. 

itik, > good. va, o, and. 

mku, \ ytt, or. 

Ind, bad. ball, yes. 

sliaklis, a person. Ichair, ) 

nali, na. not, no. wa Jchair, \ 

ioiuU. ^r^ 

Exercise 1. 

JL i 

Pi'dar pir ast. Madar javan ast. Baradar buzurg 
ast. Khyahar kuchik ast. Mard va zan nik and. Diikh- 
tar pisar nist. An pisar khaili khyub ast. Bachcheh 
kuja'st? Inja ast. Aya pidar va madar Snja and? 
Khair, inja ni'stand. Pidar va madar va pisar va 
diikhtar inja hastand. Pidaran nik and va madaran 
javan and. Mard i nik inja ast. Pi'sar i buzurg javin 
nist. Kitabha kuchik ast. Mard i pir i'nja bud. Java- 
nan niz anja budand, amma kitabha anja nah bud. 

' In the plural this word has not the tashdid. 

Khaili, used in the sense of many, is followed by a noun 
in the singular, as is chand, 'some', 'several': e. g. khaili o/ar, 
cJiand nafar, 'many persons', 'some persons' (compare use of 
singular with cardinal numbers, 53). Chandftn is often used 
as meaning 'many', chandnn gunjishk, 'many sparrows'. 

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 2 

18 Lesson 2. 

Translation 2. 

The girl is big. The father is not good. The 
child is very- small. The man and the woman are 
here. Where is the woman? The good father and the 
good mother are there. The boy is not good. That 
book is small. Where is the little child? The mother 
is old and the boy is young (kftchilt). The brother and 
the sister are here. The boy or the girl. Where was 
the sister? The good brother was there, but the old 
mother was here. 


Question. Answer. 

Dukhtar kuja'st? Dukhtar Snja ntst, fnja'st. 

(Aya) pidar niz anja ast? Pidar inja nist. 

(Aya) pidar mard i niku ast ya Bali, pidar rnard i nlkii'st, 

nali? amma pisar khaili bad ast. 

Pisarha buzurg and? Khair, buzurg nistand, kliailf 

_,_ kuchik and. 

(Aya) pidar va madar pir and ? Ball, pir and, amma khaili pir 


Khyahar fnja'st ya Snja'st? KhyShar inja nist, amma mS- 

_,. dar ya dukhtar Inja hastand. 

Zanlia va bachehhs va mardha Inja budand, amma hala 
yi khvub kuja hastand? and. 

Second Lesson. 

Nouns and Adjectives (continued). Izdfeh. 

34. When a noun or adjective ends in a vowel 
sound and is immediately followed by a word or affix 
beginning with any vowel except I ', a y is as a gener- 
al rule inserted after the final vowel of the previous 
word for the sake of euphony. E. g. dana, 'wise', 
danayan, 'the wise' (sapientes); dana-y-and, 'they are 
wise': kittibha yi buzurg, 'big books': bddi yi sharit', 
'shameful wickedness' : niardtin i dana yi nikti, 'wise 
and good men'. (Note that in Persian in such phrases 

Of course the following word, to require the inserted y, 
must be closely united in the sentence with the preceding, 
e. g. as an adjective with the noun it qualifies. If the i begins 
the second word, the y is inserted, but not if the begins an 
affix or enclitic: e. g. riza-y-i izadi. 'the Divine approval'; but 
sJiumd-id, 'you are'. 

Nouns and adjectives. 19 

the 'and' is omitted and the izafeli comes between the 
two adjectives). After a and u (\- and j-) this inser- 
ted y is written &, ' but after & - ,- or , (which is 
practically a vowel-ending, as the is not pronoun- 
ced) the y is sometimes represented by a hdmzeh and 
sometimes not written at all, though always pronoun- 
ced, as j-iijo) or r^^^jo, bddi yi shanl' : v_jj>-^U. or 
4_>y-4jU-, khaneh yi khvub. (Vide 19). The euphonic y 
is never inserted before ast, 'is', but the vowel of that 
word is often omitted, as Mja'st (c U^) for kuja ast 

(o-IW) In conversation too the y is not generally 
inserted before and, 'they are', though it is very* 
frequently and correctly written, as JCiUT, 'where are 
they?' the alif of the and (jJI) then falling out. In the 
perfect of verbs the y is not inserted, as amadeh-am, 
rdfteh - and. 

35. The four nouns dardkht, 'a tree, plant', 
gunah, 'a sin', chdshm, 'an eye', sukhan, 'a word', in 
writing generally have their plurals in -an, though 
not in ordinary conversation. In writing, the words 

1 In Arabic words which end in (.!) Alif Hdmzeh, if the 
hdmzeh is written in Persian (which is not always the case), 
the ^ is not inserted but only the kdsreh: as *2iUiJ(*tlbprft 
Isltim), or piUl^Ljifr (ulama -y-i Islam), "the religious authorities 
(learned men) of IslSm". The former method of writing is the 
older, but the latter method is now permissible. When a noun 
or adjective (Arabic) ends in [c, (-5') and is followed by the 
izfifeh, the {$ is changed into I (-a) and the ^ then inserted; 
as (5jo (da'vtf), but jl*jj ^l^f-ji (da'va-y-i ishtiri) "their claim". 
If the noun ending in {$ be a Proper name, this is not allow- 
able, but the iztifeh is represented by a hdmzeh: as A~~fr (*Islf) 
"Jesus", ^~j* ('.MMS^'), "Moses": but ^^y* (Musfi-y-i nabi), 
"The Prophet Moses". Note that in this form the alif i JcMn- 
jari (or upright hdmzeh) over the g is omitted, as in fact it 
often is in such words even when they are not followed by 
(Vide % 16B,^n). 


abru, 1 'eyebrow', giyuh, 'grass', dkhtar 'a constellation', 
may also take -an, - - probably because regarded as 
animate, but with these words the -an is really 
obsolete at the present time in speech. 

36. In the written style ('and the same rule 
applies to set speech, as in a sermon or oration), nouns 
ending in and denoting animate beings change 
the c to S (h to g) before adding the plural termination 
-an; as, bachag&n, bandag&n (from e ju bdndeh 'a slave, 
servant'). The reason of this is that such words once 
ended in k in the singular (bdndolc), which was softened 
to g before the vowel a of the plural termination. It 
is not therefore correct to write JL^.JLJ, for the word 
should be jl/Lx^, though when -ha is the plural term- 
ination both hs should be written (e. g. UoU). 

37. Adjectives form the Comparative by ad- 
ding-tar, and the Superlative by adding- tarin to the 
Positive: as, Jchvub, khyubtar, Jchvubtarin, 'good, better, 
best' : buztirg, buzurgtar, buzurgtarm, 'big, bigger, biggest'. 
The Superlative is hardly used in ordinary conversa- 
tion, the Comparative with az Jiameh (^uAj,l). 'from all', 
'than all', being employed instead. The Comparative 
has a plural formed according to the general rule, 
but the Superlative has none. If two or more 
superlatives qualify one and the same noun, the -in 
of all the superlatives except the last is elegantly 
omitted: as, Shahr i Kirman dar ayyam i sabiq ydki 02 
mu'tabdrtar va pur-jam 'iyyattarm sJiarhd yi Iran bud, 'The 
city of Kirman in former days was one of the most 
important and most populous cities of Persia'. 

38. As a general rule all Cardinal numbers and 
all Demonstrative and Interrogative Adjectives (in- 
cluding all those given in the list of words prefixed 
to Exercise II.) must precede the nouns they qualify, 

i So also other parts of the body, as: muzagtin (pi. of 
muzeK), 'eyelashes' (though now muzgdn is used as the singular 
and its plural is muzgsrihff) : angushtan (fingers), ruKh&n (cheeks), 
laban (lips), ffisuvGn (curls), zulfan (curls), etc. But these are 

Nouns and adjectives. 21 

as an mar d, 'that man': kudam slidklis? 'which person'?'. 
Superlatives, ordinals, and the adjectives bisyar, 'many', 
digar. 'other', khytth, 'good', l ajdb, 'wonderful, fine', 
chand 'some, several', and a few others may precede 
their noun or follow it. (But when c^and means 'how 
many?', it must precede its noun, as it is then an 
interrogative). "When the adjective precedes the noun 
it does not take izafeh, when it follows the noun the 
izafeh is required. Hdmeh, 'all', if regarded as a noun, 
requires izafeh after it. as hdmeh yi marduman, 'all (of) 
men': but if regarded as an adjective it does not take 
izafeh, as hdmeh marduman, 'all men'. 

39. When an adjective is the Predicate in a 
sentence it does not take izafeh before it ; as an zarian 
lihyushgil and, 'those women are fair'. 

40. The Izafeh is merely the shortened form of 
the Avestic yo, 'who, which' ( 208, 209). When it 
comes between two nouns it is translated by 'of, as 
kitab i madar, 'the book of the mother' = 'the mother's 
book'. Such a sentence as 'This book is that man's', 
'this house is that woman's' is rendered by in Mtab 

ffz an i an mard ast, in Jchaneh a& ~an i an 0an ast, in 
the older literary style, but by in kitab trial i an mard 
ast, in Jcaneh trial i an zan ast, in the modern language. 
(Mai means 'property' : in the spoken language it often 
denotes a horse or other animal for riding.) 

In answering a question courtesy demands that a 
portion of the words of the question should be used 
again and not that a mere affirmative or negative 
reply should be given'. E. g. dsb i mdra didi? 'Didst 
thou (did you) see my horse?': Khair, Sahib, anra nd 
didam, 'No, Sir, I did not see him'. 


Anddk, a little (time). zamtn, land, country. 

In, this. mulk, country. 

(in, that. shahr, city. 

liamnn, that very, the same. qdryeh, town. 

ham'in. this very, the same. deh, village. 

chlh taw, | -am, I am. 

cli'ih qism, > what sort of? -* (or s ), thou art. 

chih jur (vulgar), ] ast, he, she, it is. 


Lesson 2. 

kudffm, which? 

chih, which? what? 

chili nau', what kind of? 

chiguneh, what sort of: how? 

dngTmeh, that sort of. 

fnguneh, this sort of. 

dnqadr, that much. 

inqadr, this much. 

chih qadr, how much? 

har, every, each. 

hdmeh, all. 

hich, no none: am-. 

nim, half. 

dmad, he came (she, it). 

dmadand, ' they came. 

raft, he (she, it) went. 

raftand, they went. 

M, he, she. 

tin qism, 1 

an nau', > that kind of. 

an jur (vulgar), ] 

fulan, a certain, such and such a. 

in qism, 

this kind of. 

savdr i, mounted on. 

sdhib, owner, master: Mr. (oi 

bngh, a garden. 
rah, a road. 
kucheh, a lane. 
maiddn, square of city. 
bazar, market, street with shops. 
asb, horse. 



sag, dog. 

gurbeh, cat. 

gav, ox, cow, bull. 

gusfdnd, a sheep. 

qdtir, a mule. 

dar, in, into: a door. 

bi (bih), to, for. 

az, from, out of: than 

bci, along with. 
bar, bar ruyi, on, on top of. 
birun az, out of, out from. 
bi-deh, give thou. 
bt-dihid, give ye. 
-im, we are. 
id, you are. 
-and, they are. 
hdstam, I am. 
hdsti, thou art. 
hast, he, she, it is. i 
Jidstim, we are. 
hastid, you are. 
hdstand, they are. 

denotes he (she, it), is, i. e. "exists ; as khudd hast, 
'There is a God', 'God exists': but ast means is merely, as 
nik ast, 'He is good'. This distinction, however, does not apply 
to the rest of the persons of these two defective verbs, which 
it is convenient to call the verb Hast and the verb Ast respect- 
ively. Hast is sometimes used merely as an emphatic ast; as, 
Shirazi ham hast, 'he is moreover a Shirazi'. The verb Ast may 
be joined on to the preceding word, and then loses- its initial 
alif in all the persons and becomes a mere enclitic affix. 

The words nah, 'not', mah, 'don't', bih, 'to', may be written 
as part of the following word and then lose the final e , as 
<*jli-i bi-klianeh, 'to the house', instead of 4jU.*j bihkhdneh; os J 
na-raft, 'he did not go', instead of c^j^ nah raft. Az is some- 
times treated similarly and then becomes zi (j), as zianru or 
zanru instead of az an ru, 'from that aspect', 'because' ( j Jlj 

hamchinfn, such as this, such a. 

hamchindn, such as that. 

Khdneh, house. 

naulcar, servant. 

IdWi, child's manservant. 

ddyeh, nurse. 

khidmatkdr, maidservant. 

chiz, thing. 

daryd, sea. 

Nouns and adjectives. 23 

Exercise 3. 

In qism khsneh khyub ast. An mard javan nist. 
Bachehhd savar i qatirha-y-i naukarha-y-and. An 
dukhtar dar shahr nist, dar deh ast. In chih chiz 
ast? Pidar i an bachcheh -y-i nlku kiija'st? Dar mai- 
daii i shahr ast. Zamin hast va daryiJ hast. Sag-ha 
-y-i shahr dar kuchehhs -y-and, amma dar bagh. 
ni'stand. Asbha -y-i khyiib dar rah budand. Dukhtar 
i kuchik fnja'st? Khair, i'nja nist, dar shahr ast. G-us- 
fandhs va gavhs dar an zamin bisyar hastand. Dar 
khanehha -y-i shahr khail! giirbeh va sag bud. Kiija 
id? Dar bagh i khaneh im. Chih nau' bagh ast? Bagh 
khyub ast ? amma kuchik ast. 

Translation 4. 

In this land are (is} many horses, cows, sheep, 
mules and asses (horse and, etc.). That dog came out 
of this house. The cities of that land were many. The 
brother came along with the sister. Give a book to 
the brother of the maidservant. The children's man- 
servant came from the city. What sort of a horse is 
that ? This kind of garden is very good. The sea is 
larger than the land. The boy is smaller than the 
girl. The village is large, the town is larger, but the 
city is largest of all (from all). All the men and 
women of that large village came to the square of the 
city. Where are those houses? They are in such and 
such a village. 


Question. Answer. 

Dfiyeh-y-i bachehhil kuja bud? Dar kucheh bad va bi-maidSn 

_,_ iimad. 

An chih chiz ast? Sag ast, amma khaili buzurg 

j. nist. 

(Aya) dukhtar i fultu zan bi- Bali, bi-shahr Smad, amma hala 

shahr Smad? dar deh ast. 

for jjjjl). Persian words must not be divided in printing or 
writing in Persian character in such a way as to put one part 
of the word on one line and the rest of it on another, unless 
in the case of compounds: but even then it is better for the 
whole word to be on the one line. 

24 Lesson 3. 

(Aya) har gurbeh kuchiktar ast Khair, liar giirbeh az har sag 
az har sag? kuchiktar nlst: hanieh-y-i 

sag-ha buzurg nistand. 

Zan i ])tdar i an bachcheh az Na-y-amad, amma khidmatkar 
maidan aiuad ya na-y-amad ? va dayeh va dfgar naukarha 

yi barSdar i an diikhtar i 

, kSchik amadand. 

Asb i fulan shakhs dar kucheh Bali, asb i sin mard dar kucheh 
ast? ast, va qatir i baradar i s.lhib 

,_ i an bagh dar maidtn bud. 

(Aya) an zan dukhtar i sahib i Bali, sahib i in ulagh-ha pidar 
in ulagh-ha nist? i an zan ast. 

Third Lesson. 

Use of -ra (lj) and I (<^-). 

41. Article. There is no definite Article in Per- 
sian, but its place is in some measure supplied in cer- 
tain instances by the use of the affixes (lj) -ra and 

W * 

Ra is a postposition, the only one in ordinary use 
in modern Persian. In Pahlavi it meant 'for the sake 
of, and in this sense it still exists in the strengthened 
form ba-ra-yi, 'for, for the sake of, which is a prepos- 
ition. Ra has its original meaning not only in old 
Persian writings but also in the word chira, 'why'? 
(= for what?) which is in common use. Ra also means 
'to', and may be still used in this sense in writing, 
thus taking the place of bi: as ura guftani, 'I said to 
him' ; ura kitab dadam, 'I gave him a book'. But this 
use of -ra to denote the Latin Dative can hardly be 
said to exist in ordinary conversation at the present 
time. In the modern spoken language tlie proper use of -ra 
is to denote the direct object of a verb, especially when 
the direct object is definite. Hence -ra is attached to 
the direct object of the verb when the direct object, 
(1) is a noun which in English has the definite Ar- 
ticle; as, dsb-ra zin Jcun, 'saddle the horse' : (2) is the 
proper name of a person or place ; as, lahran-ra didam, 
'I saw Tehran': (3) is a noun qualified by an, in or 
some similar demonstrative adjective ( 38); as, an, 
Idtab-ra giriftam, 'I took that book' ; (4) is an adjective 
used as a noun and preceded by the definite article 
in English; as, Khuda nikan-ra nigah mi-darad, 'God 

Use of -ra (\j\ and i (<-) 25 

preserves the good' : (5) is a noun followed by -I and 
l;ih (see 42) ; as, mdrdi-ra kih guriklit ginftlm, 'we 
seized the man who fled': (6) is a Personal Pronoun 
or its equivalent; as, in-ra bi-shinau, 'hear this', kt-ra 
didi. 'whom didst thou see ?' In all such instances the 
object is defined, and in all of them the -ra is there- 
fore required in the modern language. (In the 
Classical language it is sometimes omitted when the 
direct object is inanimate though definite, but this is 
not now correct.) 

Even when the direct object of the verb has no- 
thing to make it definite but requires something to 
distinguish it from the subject, -ra may be appended 
to the object, especially if (1) the object be a person, 
or (2) consist of a considerable number of words : as, 

(1) Padshah gadai-ra did, 'The king saw a beggar'; 

(2) Dar shdhr chat va qdhveh va shdJcar va qand va min-rci 
knaridim, 'In the city we bought tea and coffee and 
sugar and loaf-sugar and bread'. 

Note that the -ra comes at the very end of the 
whole collection of words that go to make up the 
logical object in such a sentence as that last given. 
The same rule holds if the logical object consists of 
a noun followed by a number of adjectives or by 
another noun in apposition : as, an mdrd i plr i buldnd- 
qddd i lagliir-ra didam, 'I saw that tall, thin old man' : 
Shariran Suqrat i failasuf-ra kushtand, 'Wicked men 
slew Socrates the philosopher'. 

When the direct object includes the word chih, 
Svhat', and denotes something inanimate, the -ra is rarely 
used ; as, cMh Ititab guftid, 'which book did you say?' 

JRd must never be used (a) when the noun is 
governed by a preposition (as it would be used were 
it the termination of the objective case, which it is 
w ot, vide 30) : or (6) with any word that is not the 
direct object (or part of the direct object) of a verb: 
unless the ra is used in the sense of to, or, especially 
in letters, with the meaning of at, on; as an rtiz -ra, 
'on that day'. 

42. The affix-! in Persian is used, especially in 
writing, to express the sense of the English indefinite 

26 Lesson 0. 

article a or an, as kitabi. 'a book', 'a certain book'. 

The noun, however, may express the indefiniteness 
without the addition of any such affix, for the word 
kitdb by itself -may mean either 'a book' or 'the book', 
or simply 'book'. The use of -i in this sense is rare 
in conversation, yak ('one') prefixed to the noun gene- 
rally taking its place, as yak kitab, 'a book, one 
book'. If both are used the meaning is strengthened, 
as yali qadri, 'a small quantity, a very little.' 

When followed by kih ('which, who, that'), the -i 
may often be translated by 'the'; as, mardani kih mt- 
amadand, 'the men who were coming'; ganani-ra kih 
anja budand didand, 'they saw the women who were there'. 

When the word to which the *- is to be attached 
ends in < or g, the affixed -i is written (-} or 
merely a hdmzeli is appended, but the long sound of 
the -I is retained, as &U, khaneh-i, a house: ^9^-9, 
Sufi-i, 'a Sufi'. When such words are immediately 
followed by ast, the lidmzeli is dropped and < is in- 
serted after the alif of ast, as c *i^U. Khaneh 1st, 'it 
is a house': c*~,\ ( jj t *\af\ anja Sufi ist, 'a Sufi is there'. 

The affix-! may come either (a) between the noun 
and its qualifying adjective, in which case the izufeJt 
( 32) is omitted; as, mdrdi khvub, 'a good man'; or 
(6) after the adjective, in which instance the izafeh 
is retained between the noun and the adjective: as, 
mdrd i khyubi, 'a good man'. The latter form is now 
far more usual in speaking, though it might give rise 
to a mistake; for mard i khyubi might mean 'the or a 
man of goodness', through this idiom is hardly Persian. 

The student should bear in mind that not every -I at 
the end of a word is the affix which is explained in this para- 
graph. For the final 4 may (a) be an adjectival termination 
(&s Isfahani, 'belonging to Isfahan, a native of Isfahan') ; or (b) 
it may be the termination of an abstract noun, like -ness in 
English, (as ntM, 'goodness'); or (c) it may be a verbal termin- 
ation, (as dmadandi, 'they would come' ; gu-fti, 'thou didst say': 
to mard i ntki, 'thou art a good man'). These will be explained 
each in its proper place. 

43. A question is generally in conversation 
denoted merely by the tone of voice. In writing it 

Use of -ra f\j} and i 


is often marked by tlie word ay a ( Lat. -ne~), 
which is placed at the beginning of the sentence : but 
this word is rarely used in ordinary conversation. 
Mdgar is sometimes used instead of aya, it may 
occasionally be rendered by 'perhaps', and often intro- 
duces an objection, sometimes even implying that the 
answer 'no' is expected (Lat. nuni), as Mdgar an kar 
Jchnib ast, 'Is that a good action?' 

44. After such words as qddri and other parti- 
tives the singular is used when the English idiom 
would require the plural; as, qddri Imllu, 'a quantity 
of peaches'. (Vide also 55.) 


Ddr-am, I have. 
dnr-i, thou hast. 
dar-ad, he (she, it) has. 
dtir-im, We have. 
dar-id, you have. 
ddr-and, they have. 

Did-am, I saw. 
dfd-i, thou sawest. 
did, he (she, it) saw. 
did-im, we saw. 
did-id, you saw. 
did-and, they saw. 

dasht, he had. 

safid, white. 
siydh, black. 

zard, yellow. 
sabz, green. 
snrJdi, red. 
nnrus, unripe 
Khudj,i f 



Dad-am, I gave. 
difd-l, thou gavest. 
dad, he (she, it) gave. 
ddd-im, We gave. 
dtid-id, you gave. 
ddd-and, they gave. 

Bud-am, I was. 
bud-i, thou wast. 
bud, he (she, it) was. 
bud-im, we were. 
btid-id, you were. 
bud-and, they were. 

girifteli, having taken. 

ratig, colour. 

pul, bridge. 

pul, money. 

prd i siyffh, black monej-, copper; 

small change. 
'amrtmeh, a turban. 
ism-at, thy name. 
qadr, quantity', value. 
miveh, fruit. 
sib, an apple. 

zamini, earth (adj), earthly. 
sib i samfnJ, potato. 
gTiltlb'i, pear. 
hulltf, peach. 
sar, head, top, end. 
gTish, ear. 
gusltt, meat, flesh. 

28 Lesson 3. 

k'irci, whom ? (last, hand. 

chtra, why? dyhlab, chiefly. 

IcnllsTceh, carriage. din ) -,. . 

kar, work, deed. mdshab ) 

rudkhaneh, river. imtin, faith. 
mdmlikat, country, province. Iran, Persia. 
gadn, a beggar. 

Notes. In Persian two words are often written together, 

? ' 

as usOls for Uj>ls (fultin ;'), 'a certain place'. 

Exercise 5. 

^-* jl j6 - Aal 

Translation 6. 

The king saw the good man who was in the 
servant's house. The river was in that country. I. 
gave the book to the queen's maidservant. The daugh- 
ters of the queen gave the red apples and the yellow 
pears to the little children. I saw a carriage with 
black horses on the bridge, and I gave the money to 
the servants. Didst thou see the cat in the house or in 
the garden? It was not in the garden but in the 
lane, j The asses in this country are chiefly white. Give 
the mule to the owner of the house. The ^JMren's 
nurse saw the dogs in the great square of the town. 
A certain man saw a turban on the head of every 
horse in the lanes of that city. 

Personal Pronouns. 29 


Ansicer. Question. 

JJ4JU-JJJJI C~vls? *jU-Jjj jl 

/ / . 

(j~^~ ""^ (*" 

^^y jt*- 

Fourth Lesson. 

Personal Pronouns. 

45. The Personal Pronouns in Persian are of 
two kinds : - - (a) Separable and (b) Inseparable. The 
Separable are: 


1 st Person, j* maw, I, me 
2 ud Person, y fc, thou, thee 
3 rd Person, <j-j\ vai, u, he, she; an. it. 

him, her. 


I/ wa, we, us 

l*^t shuma, you [things). 

jLo_l Is/tan, they (persons) : l$iT aw/wi, they (persons and 

them. them. 

As it is sometimes necessary to use the words 
'we' and 'you' with a very extensive meaning, these 
words, though plural, may take a plural termination ; 
as, mayan gunahkaran, 'we sinners' ; shumaha in i l tigad-ra 
darid, 'you (i. e. all of you, you and your co-religionists) 
hold that tenet'. If a noun in apposition follow the 
1 st Pers. Sing, maw, the izqfeli is inserted; as, man i 

Lesson 4. 

gunakkar, 'I a sinner' ; but with mayan the izafeli is not 
used. To is in some places pronounced tu. U and vai 
have precisely the same meaning the one as the other, 
but M is more' commonly used. 

The simple and compound prepositions (Lesson VIII.), 
the izafeh, and the postposition -m, are used with 
these Personal pronouns just as with nouns. Note, 
however, that man-ra and to-ra are contracted into 
mdra and tura (\J-\j*\ E. g. U bi-man dad, 'he gave 
to me': shuma ura dtdtd 'you saw him': kitab i man, 
'my book' : to kitab i mdra bi-tshan dadl, 'thou gavest 
my book to them'. 

The Possessive Pronouns are (as in the above 
examples) formed by prefixing the izafeli to the Per- 
sonal pronouns : as, dsb i shuma, 'your horse' (lit., 'horse 
of you') ; kitab i u, 'his book' (lit., 'book of him'). When 
a noun with a possessive pronoun attached is the ob- 
ject of a Verb, -ra is added in accordance with rule : 
as, man asb i ura didam, 'I saw his (or her) horse'. 

When a personal or possessive Pronoun of either 
number and of any one of the three persons is the 
direct object (or part of the direct object) of a Verb 
and refers to the same person as the subject of the 
sentence, instead of the simple pronoun the word 
khvud ('self) or one of its equivalents must be em- 
ployed (vide Lesson VEL): as, man kitdb i khyudra 
dadam, 'I gave m/y book', (lit., 'book of self: to ktianeh-y-i 
khvud-ra farukhtt, 'thou didst sell thine (own) house'. 

The separate Pronouns are in Persian much less 
frequently used than are their equivalents in English, 
because the different terminations of the persons of 
the Verb suffice to express the meaning sufficiently 
clearly. As a general rule, therefore, the Personal 
Pronouns are not used as the subject of a sentence 
except when especial emphasis has to be expressed: 
as, man mi-ravam, dmma shuma inja mi-manid, '/ am- 
going, but you are remaining here'. (Cf. the usage of 
the Classical languages.) 

46. Inseparable Pronouns. Besides the Separ- 
able Pronouns given above, there are in Persian a 

Personal Pronouns. 31 

number of Inseparable Pronouns or Pronominal Affixes, 
which may be used in their stead whenever the pro- 
noun is not the subject of a sentence. These are: 


1 st Person, ^- -am, me, my, 

2 nd Person, o ' -at, thee, thy, 

3 rd Person, <j,-'- -ash, him, his, it, 

her, its. 

jU / -amdn (iman), us, our, 

JIT ~ -atan (itan), you, your, 

jb-/- -ashan (ishan), them, their. 
It will be noticed that the plural forms are made 
by adding to the singular in each case the plural ter- 
mination -an. The pronunciation, however, has now 
changed into -iman, -itan, -ishan instead of -aman, -atan, 

When any one of these terminations is affixed to 
a noun or adjective ending in .-- (-eh), an alif is 
inserted and the termination is written as in the fol- 
lowing examples: ,.U;U. (khaneh am), 'my house': <jM.c^; 
(navishteh ash), 'his document': c>|.dl&.L-^ (mdrtabeh-y-i 
'aliyyeh-at), 'thy exalted rank': jlrl^l (laleh aten, or laleh 
itan) 'your attendant' (of children). 

In popular usage and especially in conversation 
these pronominal affixes are far more commonly used 
than are the separable pronouns. They may in correct 
style be affixed to nouns, adjectives, verbs, and com- 
pound prepositions ending in izafeh (Lesson VIII., 70), 
and mean my, to me, me; thee, to thee, thee, etc. as 
required : ^ as, hitabam, buzurg ast, 'my book is large' : 
dsbat-ra diaam, 'I saw thy horse': zddamash, 'I struck 
him': guftandashan, 'they said to them'. At one time 
these affixes could not be used except in reference to 
animate beings, but this rule is now almost obsolete. 
In vulgar style these affixes are appended to the simple 
prepositions also, as Hash 'to him', (pronounced be-esh), 
but are rarely so written ( 77). 

32 Lesson 4. 

47. In most parts of Persia u or vai is used of 
persons only, an taking its place in reference to 
animals and especially to inanimate things : as, u qdvfst, 
'he or she is- strong' ; an qdvi'st, 'it is strong'. (In 
Shlraz, however, /? is often used of animals and even 
of things ; but this custom, though found in old 
books, should not be followed.) So also ishan is used 
of persons only, anha of animals and of things prin- 
cipally, but also of persons. The plurals anan and 
man are hardly ever used now even in writing except 
when followed by kih; as, anan kih or ananikih, 'those 
who'. In conversation anhatkih is used instead with 
the same meaning. 

Ma is sometimes vulgarly used instead of man, 
with the verb in the plural, if this pronoun be the 
subject of the sentence. Shuma is used, as 'you' in 
English, when addressing a single person courteously. 
To is used by villagers: it may be used to children 
or inferiors. It is also used (like 'Thou' in English) in 
addressing the Deity. Probably for this reason the 
affix -at ('thy') is often used in certain expressions of 
politeness when addressed to superiors; as fidayat 
bashain, 'may I be thy ransom', in letters: qurban i 
khak i pa-y-i javahir-asa-y-i dqdasat shdvim, 'may we be 
the offering of the dust of thy most sacred, jewel- 
like foot' (in petitions to the Shah of Persia). 

48. ttonorifics, etc. Certain words, titles etc., are 
sometimes out of courtesy substituted for pronouns. 
In speaking, e. g., to a sovereign, gibleh-y-i 'alam (or 
some other expression which practically denotes 'Your 
Majesty') is used, followed by the 3 rd person plural of 
the verb: as, Qibleh-y-i 'alam agah nastand kih, 'Your 
Majesty is aware that', etc. So also, Huzur i mubarik 
farmudeh budand, 'Your Royal Highness had command- 
ed'. To any gentleman may be used the title sarkar 
('lordship'), with or without other words; as sarkar i 
shuma didid, 'you saw': sarkar i 'alt nawshtid, 'you 
wrote'. In this case the 2 nd plural of the verb is used. 
On the other hand politeness requires the speaker to 
avoid the frequent use of man, T, and to substitute 
for it such a word as bdndeh ('your humble servant'), 

Personal Pronouns. 


or even aqall ('the least'), haqir ('the contemptible 
one'), etc. In writing in a dignified style the writer 
speaks of himself as dws&feV, wwMfo's ('your sincere 
friend') etc.: in humbler style other words are used, 
such as, du'agu, hagir, aqall, etc. E. g. Amruz, chun 
bdndeh inja amadam, Iwliskeh-y-i sarJcar ra dtdam, '"When 
I came here to-day, I saw your carriage'. 


, a tale. 
ruz, a day. 
kas, a person. 
guft, he (she) said. 
kih, who, which; that. 
hdrchih, 1 whatever 
harcinchih, $ 

ham . . . ham, both . . . and. 
afartdeh ast, he has created. 
bartiyi, for the sake of. 
instin, man, mankind. 
pas, therefore, then. 
ndzdr, a glance. 
bisydr, very, much, many. 
ahammiyyat, importance. 
muhimm, important. 
daqtqeh, a minute. 
pdsheh, gnat, musquito. 
bini, nose. 

nishcisteh, seated. 
bdyad, ought. 

btishl,, thou mayest (shouldst) be. 
laf-bi-zani, thou mayest boast. 
ztrn, because. 
*gar, if, since. 

darVU/h, a religious mendicant. 
az an qdbti, of that sort. 
cMh taur, how? 
chih, what? 

chth <Mz, what thing, what? 
purstd,, he asked. 
-chfyuneh, how? 

hdjat dtirad U-, he has need of. 
Mch . . . na, none, no. 
daulatmdnd, rich. 
ziytideh, more. 
lihtiza (\J^\ therefore. 
bdrtar, higher, more important. 

Exercise 7. 


Translation 8. 

One day a king saw a beggar who (which beggar 
&i/i w gada) was a religious mendicant. (He) said to 
the king, 'I am richer than all the kings of the earth'. 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 

34 Lesson 5. 

The king said, 'How?' He said, 'Because I am a man 
of God'. The king asked (from) him, 'How art thou 
richer than a king?' He said to him, 'Because a king 
is a person who has need of many things, but a religious 
mendicant is a man who has need of nothing. I am a 
mendicant of that sort, therefore I am richer than all 
of you'. 


Answer. Question. 

<2*x :~r 


Fifth Lesson. 


49. The Persian numerical system is very simple. 
The cardinals from 11 to 19 inclusive are formed by 
prefixing to <o (dah), 'ten', a slightly varied form of 
those from 1 to 9. Instead of the Persian ordinal for 
'first', the equivalent Arabic ordinal Jjl (d-wal) is used; 
but for 21 st , 31 st etc. the regular Persian form '^ 
(ydkum) is alone in use. The ordinals are formed from 
the cardinals by affixing -ww, as will be seen in the 
table. Notice, however, the slight irregularity in the 



way of writing the ordinals for 'second', 'third', thir- 
tieth; also the spelling of the words for 60, 100, 200, 
300, 500. 

In ordinary conversation instead of jl$>. (chahar) 
char in said ; j^ (liijdah) is pronounced Mjdah, or even 
hizdah; chciharddh is pronounced cliarddh; hifddh is pron: 
Mvdah: and the vulgar but very usual pronunciation 
of panzdah and shanzdeh is pnnzdah and shunzdah (vide 
8, Jin). So also punsad is said not unfrequently for 
pansad: also sinzdah for sizdah, 'thirteen'. 
































A j \ n "^ 2 * 






N N- 
N N S 


Lesson 5. 































N e- 


-"-X^aj L 


. . 


f _ X 
















Higher numbers are: 






? * 




? ?. 





j!y J 




*> J 3 Jjl \& 








) ) *y^ Atf 




^-0^ 6^J| *^o^ 

N ...V 


p& 3j\ J 3 J(JU^_J J Jjl jJ^ -3*0 



'Ten thousand' is sometimes called viCJ (ZoA;), five 
hundred thousand j]^S" (kurur), and the word miliyun 
borrowed from European languages to express 


1,000,000. (Note that the Persians, in borrowing lak 
and Tturur from India have considerably changed the 
meaning of the words, as in Urdu lak'h means 100,000 
and karor denotes ten millions.) 

The words sad, '& hundred', hazar, '& thousand', 
may take the plural terminations -ha and -an when 
required: as, sadhd ndfar kushteh shudand, 'hundreds of 
persons were slain' ; hazaran liazar 'alam liast, 'thousands 
of thousands of worlds exist'. (The last sentence in 
more modern style would be written thus, -- diandin 
Iwzarlid 'alam hast 

Numerals. 37 

50. The Arabic Cardinals and Ordinals, espe- 
cially the units, are occasionally used in Persian ; but 
it is unnecessary to give the Cardinals, as they are 
used only with Arabic words, as -u^l t ^y-\^\ (Andjtl i 
drba'eh), 'the four Gospels', - in Persian J^\ j[^. 
(chahar Injil}. The Ordinals are more commonly used, 
being often employed with the names of kings instead 
of the Persian Ordinals: as ^lo^o^y (Yazdijird i sani) 
'Yazdijird the Second'. In numbering the heads of a 
discourse etc. they are also used in an adverbial form 
with the Arabic case-termination I (pronounced -an) 
appended, as ljb I? (saniyyari) 'secondly'. These ordinals are. 

sabi' sadis kliamis rabi 1 -- salis sam dvval 

yth _ gth _ 5th _ 4th _ 3rd _ 2 nd _ 1 st 

j&\e, q. IT j*L* 

l ashir tasfr samin 
10th _ 0th _ 8 th 

51. 'Once', 'twice', 'thrice', 'four times', etc., are 
translated by yak bar, yak dap eh, yak mdrtabeh; do bar, 
do ddf'eh, do mdrtabeh, etc. Bar i duvvum, bar i siwum etc., 
mean 'a second time', 'a third time', or 'the second 
time', 'the third time', etc. Do bareh means 'once more', 
'again' :( digar bdreh^ or bar i digar, 'another time'. Such 
a phrase as 'five times six makes thirty' is expressed 
by L'^L'^^jt^i (^o/nj sMsh ta si ta\ the word jji-^ (mi- 
shavad), 'becomes', being understood. 

52. fractions. Some of the words denoting frac- 
tions are Persian, but most of them are Arabic. They 
are used in the following manner: 

Eng. Pers. Arabic. 

One half. ^J nim. nisf. 

One third. <iLu. sih yak. suls. *Ll 

One fourth. dljW*- chahar yak. rub', / 

One fifth. dl^ v panj yak. khums. 

One sixth. (iljLA shish yak. suds. 

38 Lesson 5. 

jO^je seventh. dlr^ haft yak. sub'. ? 

One eighth dlc~iA hasht yak. sumn. 

One ninth. *ili& nuh yak. tus'. 

One tenth. dlj dah yak. 'ushr. 

The word nim is not used in counting, nisf having 
now taken its place. Although we may say and write 
sih yak (both Persian words) for 'One third', yet to 
express 'two thirds' it is not permitted to say 'do sih 
yak' ; one must say dd suls. The same applies to the 
other fractions: e. g. 'five eighths', panj sumn; 'three 
fourths', sih nib'; 'seven tenths', haft 'ushr. 

53. Rule. After all purely Persian Cardinals the 
noun is put in the singular (never in the plural as in 
English): e. g., 'two horses', do asb] 'a thousand men', 
hazar mard. 

If these words are the subject in a sentence, the 
verb is sometimes in the singular, sometimes in the 
plural: as, mardi ra db pisar bud, 'to a certain man 
there were (was) two sons' ('a certain man had two 
sons') : an sad gusfdnd gurtkhtand, those hundred sheep 
ran away'. As a general rule the plural verb in such 
instances is used with words denoting persons: it is 
often used with words denoting animals, but it is not 
correctly used regarding inanimate things, (though 
this usage is gradually finding its way into the modern 

54. In conversation the word ndfar ('person') is 
usually inserted between the numeral and a word 
denoting persons : as, shish nafar savar, 'six horsemen'. 
Daneh or ta is similarly used with all other words ; as 
panj ta sib, 'five apples'; chahar ta asb, 'four horses'; 
dah danehfinjan, 'ten cups'. In writing, ta is rarely used 
in such constructions, but the other words are. In 
more precise written style other expressions are used, 
somewhat like our English 'five head of cattle': as: 

Panj sinjir fU, 'five elephants': (sinjtr == c chain'). 

do drradeh ('arrabeh) tub, 'two guns' : (drradeh, drra- 
beh = 'a waggon'). 

sih ra's asb, 'three horses': (ra's = 'head'). 

dah d'dad sdndali, c ten chairs': (d'dad = 'number'). 



J do dast- libds, 'two suits of clothes': (dast = 'hand'). 
yak saub aba (qaba), 'a single coat: (saub = 'gar- 

yak /arvdnd kdshti, 'a ship' : (farvdnd = 'bar'). 
^ chdhar jild kitab, 'four books' : (jild 'volume'). 

shish qdbzeh tufdng (shamshir), 'six rifles (swords): 
(qdbzeh = 'hilt'). 

haft hdlqeh angushtar, 'seven rings' : (hdlqeh = 'link'). 

In reference to houses in legal documents the word 
bob ('gate') is used ; as, do bab klianeh, 'two houses'. But 
in ordinary speceh or writing dast ('hand') takes the 
place of &a&, and do dast khaneh is said. 

55. In such phrases as 'a glass of water', 'a 
piece of bread', the Persian follows the German idiom \ 
by omitting the 'of : as, yak shisheh ab, yak pareh nan 
(cf. ein Glas Wasser; ein Stuck Brot.) j k 


Tuti, a parrot. 

qadr, a quantity. 

qddri, a little. 

Ftfrsi, Persian. 

fimukhteh bud, had learnt. 

javtib, answer. 

su'al, question. 

chirn, why ? why not ? certainly. ' 

jdngal, forest. 

purstdeh, having asked. 

pardndeh, bird. >* 4er 

baziir, market. 

burd, he carried off. 

biirdeh, having carried off. 

qatmat. t 

tjtmat, \ P rice ' valne " 

tumnn. a toman (10 Krans). 

biynbfin, desert. 

bf, without, devoid of. 

bi-fdhm, without understanding, 


mt-arzJ, art thou worth? 
khvushnftd, pleased. 
shud, he became. 

mi-danad, he knows. 

va bds, only, and no more, 


pasMmdn, regretful. 
jihat, cause, reason. 
khandld, he laughed. 

fiztid kdrd, he set free. 


Hdzrat i Adam, 'His Excellency 

Havvti, Eve. 

Ba'd az an, after that. 

qismat, a portion. 

bar&darnneh, brotherly, of a bro- 
ther, a brother's. 

mi-guft, he used to say. 

pul i siytih, a black coin, a cop- 

mi-tavttnand, they can. 

At, 0! 

W-y-nmuzand, they may learn. 

bi-astini, with ease, easily. 

mi-dih'i, thou givest. 

hdrgiz, never (ne . . .jamais). 

dar b<treh-y-i, about, concerning. 

i This is the meaning of the word when used alone in 
answer to a question. 

40 Lesson 5. 

sliuddi, having become. ghulfim, servant, slave. 1 

angah, then, thereupon. mfil, property. 

gamdn burd, he fancied. daiilat, wealth: a state. 

Kharfdam, I hought. nufni, meaning. 

Jcharfd, he bought. khftmush, silent. 

chun, since, when. bfish, be thou. 

harf mi-zanad, he speaks. dgar bi-fahmand, if they under- 

juz, except. stand, (if they get to know 

bi-Jchpubt, well. about.) 

lafz, a word. mt-rasad, it arrives. 

(dfflz (A.T. plur.), words. 

Exercise 9. 

Translation 10. A Tale. 

A beggar saw a king and said to him (that), '0 
king, thou are very wealthy and hast houses and 
horses, (and) lands, (and) servants, and very much 
money ; but I (bdndeh) who am thy brother (for Adam 
ts our father and Eve is our mother) have nothing. 
Give me a brother's portion of thy wealth and pro- 
perty'. The king said to one of his servants, 'Give 
him a copper'. The beggar said, '0 king, what does 
this mean? Why dost thou not give me a brother's 
portion?' The king laughed and said to him (that), 
'Be silent; for (Mi) if the other brothers understand, 
thou wilt not get even this (even this does not arrive 
to thee)'. 

1 Now often applied to a telegraph messenger ! 

Relative and interrogative pronouns. 41 


Answer. Question. 

o vi jl o^O 1 jl>jJ -> l>^ <jj c l->- <> jl> jJ o !>. c/.l 

JU!| -^-'IjV J L-T 

"J J j 1 . 

j r 

..3 j_,. ^if V J*jl4). jTjI-U, 

Sixth Lesson. 

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 

56. The simple Relatives are Mi, 'who', for per- 
sons (no plural), and chih, 'which', for things. The very 
same words are also used as Interrogatives, 'who?' 
'what?' But when they are Relatives they cannot be governed 
~by the prepositions, ly izafeh, or by the postposition -ra, 
though when they are Interrogatives they may. (In 
the latter case the plural of kih is kiyan, 'who?') Hence 


Lesson 6. 

it is often necessary to supplement the feeble relative 
kih by the personal pronouns with the prepositions to 
express the English Relative when preceded by pre- 
positions or when it is the object of a verb. The 
method in which this is done will be best understood 
from the following examples: 

(a) 'The man who came hither (a) Mardi kih Inja Smad daulat- 
was rich'. mand bud. 

(b) 'The woman tvhom you saw' (6) Zani kih ura dfdid (or, kih 
(lit. 'who you saw her''). 

(c) 'The child to whom you gave (c) Bachcheh-i kih kit5b-ra bi- 

f-lick Vn-n-iV flv+ tfVia-f- -f./\ Trim'N vwi /^o"r^Trl 





(d) 'The person whose child they (d) Shakhsi kih bachcheh-osft-ra 

took' (lit 'that his child'). 


(e) 'The people whom I saw were (e) Ashkhasi kih Ishffn-ra dfdani 

blind' (lit. 'that I saw them'). kur budand. 

(/) 'The men to whom you gave (/) Mardhai kih pulashan (or kih 

the money were beggars' 
(lit. 'that to them'). 

pul-ra bi-ishtiri) dadid gada 

(g) 'The robbers, from whose (g) Bahzanani faTishainshirhara 

hands (lit. 'that from their 
hand') he took the swords, 

az dast i tshan girift gurikh- 

57. Chili as a Relative is strengthened by the 
addition before it of the demonstrative an. 'that 1 , when 
it is governed by a preposition: as, 

'From what (that which) he Az tinchih u guft, fahmtdam. 
said I understood'. 

Anchih may be the object of a verb without beii 
followed by -ra, but if -ra, is inserted the word 
.ought to come after the -ra: as, 

(a) Anchih shinidid rdst ast: (a) 'What (that which) yoi 
j_ or heard is true' . 

Anchili-ra kih shinidid, etc. 

(This latter sentence is hardly right: it would he 
more correct to say, chizi kih (dn-ra) shinldid rdst ast.) 

(b) Anchih(-ra kih) guftid, shinid. (b) 'He heard what (that whicl 

that) you said'. 

In a similar way kih as a Relative may be strength- 
ened by the insertion of an or in before it, and 

1 Even good native scholars now use sentences like the 
following; Mardi-ra kih amruz dfdid tajir bud, 'The mar 
whom you saw to-day was a merchant', but this cannot be 

Relative and interrogative pronouns. 43 

be used of things as well as of persons ; as , in answer 
to the question, Chih ~kitab guftid, 'What book did you 

say?', it may be replied, AnJcih dar dost i naukar budi 
'That which was in the servant's hand'. 

58. 'Whoever', 'whosoever', 'everyone who', and 
their oblique cases, are similarly expressed by the use 
of such words as hdrkih, hdranJcih, hdrkaskih, harkdsi JciJi, 
hdrkas, har shaMisi Jcih, har Jcudam Jcih: as, 

Hdrkih bi-vai Jcitabi dadi mamnun i to gasht (or in 
ordinary language, Hdrkih be'sh yak Jcitab daM mamnunat 
thud) Everyone to whom thou gavest a book became 
(was) grateful to (of) thee'. 

Asb i hdrJcas-ra Jcih didand az u giriftand, 'whose 
soever horse they saw, they took it from him'. 

'Whichever' is expressed by liar an kih, har Jcudam 
Jcih; as, *Take whichever you please'; Har Jcudam Jcih 
bl-khyahid bi-gwid. 

Similarly hdrchih, haranchih, haranchih Jcih, har chizi 
Jcih, are used to express, 'whatever', 'whatsoever', 
'everything that', etc. 

59. Interrogatives. The simple Interrogative pro- 
nouns are Jcih (formerly, and still in vulgar speceh, M, 
whence the plural Jciyari), 'who?', and chih, 'what?' 
When -ra is added to these words the final h is 
dropped; as Mm, chira (l^-ljC) 1 - But as the latter 

word clura means 'why?' ('why not'?), the compound 
chih chiz, (lit. 'what thing?' vulgarly chih chi) is used 
instead (often without -ra) as the interrogative. 


(a) 'Whose book is that?' (a) An kittibi kist (= kih ast), 

or nn kitab mril i kist? 

(b) 'Whom did you see?' (6) Kim didld? 

(c) 'To whom did you give it ?' (c) Bih kih dtidid(ash) 2 

(d) 'Who are they?' (d) Ishrin kiytin and? 

60. The Persian method of expressing the inter- 
rogative adjectives 'which?' 'any?' 'how much?', 'how 

1 But when kih or chih are relatives and in composition 
with nn, in etc., ihe ft is retained before -rft. With hdrkih the 
final h falls out when -m follows. 


Lesson 6. 

many?' and the interrogative adverbs, 'when?' 'where?', 
'why?', 'how?' will be understood from the examples 
following : 

(a) 'Which house did you see?' (a) Kuddm khaneh-ra didid? 

(6) 'Has any one of them done (6) Ay a hich kudtim i ishdn (or 
that?' hich kudfimashari) Snra kar- 

(c) 'How much did you give for 
that? (lit. for how much did 
you buy that?') 

(d) 'How many people were pre- 

(e) 'When do you go?' 
(/) 'Where did you go?' 

(g) 'Where is that hammer?' 
(h) 'Why are you weeping?' 

(i) 'How do you do that? 

deh ast? 

(c) Anra bi- chand kharfdid? 
(here the bi is generally 
omitted in conversation). 

(d) Ghana nafar hazir budand? 

() Shuma kai ml-ravid? 
(/) Kuja raftid? 

(g) An chakush ku? 

(k) Chira giryeh mf-kunid? 

Anra (bi-) 

chih taur mi- 

Note that chand, besides its interrogative meaning, 
has also the signification of some] as tdni chand, 'some 
persons', - - in more modern style ashkkasi chand or 
chand ndfar. 


day before yesterday. 

dtruz, j^esterday. 

dmruz, to-day. 

fdrda, to-morrow. 

pas-fdrda, the day after to- 

subh, morning. 

kaldgh, a crow. 

bi-bini, thou mayest see. 

Tchdbar, news, information. 

khdbar dih, inform thou. 

Tchdbar ktmad he might (may, 
should) inform. 

ta, in order that. 

M-binam, I may see. 

fnl, omen. 

bi-yabam, I may get. 

yfiftU, you got. 

tamfim, the whole. 

vfikanjum, lucky. 

khytihad shud, shall become. 

dihad, he may give. 

parvtfs Tcdrdeh, having flown. 

jiristtid, he sent. 

dideh, having seen. 

mabtida, lest. 

rasid, it arrived, befell. 

jantib i 'titt, (the lofty doorstep, 

=) your Honour. 
bi-rasad, it may (might, should) 

arrive, befall. 
filfaur, at once, instantly. 
baqqtil, fruiterer, greengrocer. 
dukknn, shop. 
dukkandar, shopkeeper. 
zahmat, trouble. 

bi-kharad, he may (might) buy. 
zud, soon, quickly. 
(bar) rah anddkht, he (cast him 

on the road, =) let him go 

his way. 
atdb kard, he reproached, found 

fault with. 
fuhsh, abuse. 
siynsat, government , punish- 

Relative and interrogative pronouns. 


parideh bud, he had flown. 
rdfteh bud, had gone away. 

t i, \ (his times became 
auqatash ( bitter) ;. e .) he wa s 

sakht, hard, severe. 

david, he ran. 

iimadeh, having come. 

bar (imadeh bud, had come up. 

dar an bain, mean-while. 

tanbih, warning, punishment. 
shudeh bud, it had become. 
gardtdeh, having become. 
dust, friend. 
ta'druf, present, gift. 

khudti nd-kunad, (May God not jib, pocket. 

avdrd, he brought. 

avdrdand, they brought. 

hin, time. 

kdrdeh i, thou hast done, 

zad, he struck. 

kafsh, a shoe. 

zddi, thou struckest. 

shikdyat, complaint. 

namud, he shewed, made. 

pish i, before. 

qdzi, judge. 

talabideh, having summoned. 

javdb dad, he replied. 

kar, deed, work, action. 

bad, evil, bad: badly. 

faqir, poor, a poor man. 

qirdn, a kran (Persian coin). 

birau, go, away with thee! 

do it =) God forbid. 
mt-kunid, you do, make. 
nazd i, near to. 

insaf, justice. 
bidu, to him. 
bar dtirid, take up, keep. 

Exercise 11. 

Translation 12. A Tale. 

A religious-mendicant went into a fruiterer's shop, 
and because (azanj'ihat kih) the fruiterer did not quickly 
attend to him (iira rah na-y-andakht), he found fault 

46 Lesson 6. 

with him. The fruiterer too abused the mendicant, 
and the latter (U) became angry (having become angry) 
and struck the fruiterer on the head with his shoe 
(struck a shoe on the fruiterer's head). The fruiterer 
lodged (namud) a complaint against (ae) him before 
the judge. The judge summoned the mendicant and 
(having summoned . . .) asked (from) him (that), 'Why 
didst thou strike this shopkeeper?' He replied, 'Because 
he gave me abuse!' The judge said to him, 'Thou hast 
done a very evil deed; but since thou art a poor man 
I shall (do) not punish thee severely: give half a (a 
half) kran to this shopkeeper and go away'. Thereupon 
the mendicant took (brought) a kran out of his pocket 
and, having given it to the judge, struck him also on 
the head with his shoe and said, 'If such is justice, 
do thou keep (take up) half the kran and give half 
the kran to him'. 


J^Xi i^9 Uai I 

jjvi ul 3j\~^\ jjl L j^ 4^r I^L.JJJ i^^'' '^ 

r t>^. tA-'-'- 3 

Jf. '- 

The reflexive pronoun. 47 

Seventh Lesson. 

The Reflexive Pronoun. 

61. The Reflexive Pronoun khyud or khyish. 'self 
(which is of the same origin as the Latin se, suus*) is 
used very much as the similar pronoun in Latin. The 
great difference is that, while se and suus belong to 
the third person singular and plural and to no other, 
the Persian Reflexive Pronoun is used of all three per- 
sons and of both numbers. Khyud may be (a) the subject of 
the verb, - - in which case its use is easily under- 
stood : it may be either (b) the direct or (c) the indirect 
object of the verb; or again it may (d) be governed 
by the prepositions (including izafeh) and the post- 
position -ra: it may also (e) be used as a noun and 
have the separate pronouns with izafeh or the prono- 
minal affixes of either number and of any of the three 
persons attached to it. The use of this pronoun is 
rigorously observed in Persian, but it presents no dif- 
ficulty if the following rules be observed. (We deal 
first with khyud alone and then with khyish separately.) 

62. When khyud is the subject of the sentence, it 
is used almost like the English self, and like that 
word is generally united with a personal or possessive 
pronoun: as, 

1. Khyud (or man khyud, now more usually man 
khyudam, ktiyud i man or khyudam.) bi-shdhr mi-ravam, 'I 
myself am going to the city'. 

2. Khyud (to khyud, now to khyudat, khyud i to, or 
khyudat) ura dtdt, 'Thou thyself didst see him'. 

3. Khyud (u khyud, now u khyudash. khyud i -n, 
khyudash] anra guft, 'He himself said that'. 

Similarly are used : - - khyud (ma khyud, now ma 
khyiidaman, khyud i ma, or khyildaman): khyud (shuma 

* Khvud is from khvu (found as late as the Masnati of 
MaulSna-yi Rumi) -(- ta (cf Skt. tas termination = from): 
khyish from the same root + ash, affix of 3 rd sing. = his. 
[Pahlavi Jchut and khvesh], Khvu is Avestic hvft (Akhaemenian 
twtfi), Skt. sva, Lat. se, suus: Gk. aye, e: Russ. swy, etc. In Russian 
and in the Greek of the Hellenic period (cf. eavrovs, Luke XVII., 
14 for vfi&s aviovs) the reflexive pronoun, as in Persian, refers 
to both numbers and to all three persons. 

48 Lesson 7. 

Tchyud, now shumti khyildatan, khyud i shuma, or kJiyuda 
-tan): khyud (islian khyttd, now JchyudasMn, ishan khyud- 
ashan, or JcJwud i ishari). Only in vulgar speech, does 
the kJiyud take the plural termination -ha (the h in 
this termination is frequently omitted by the un- 
educated), and khyudhaman(khyuddmun), khyudhatan (khyud- 
atun), khyudhdshan (Ithyudashun) are then used. 

63. "When khyud is (a) the direct or (b) the 
indirect object of a verb, or (c) is governed by a pre- 
position (including izafeh] or -ra', it refers to the 
same person or thing that is the subject of the sen- 
tence (as is evident from its meaning self): e. g., 

(a) Man Tchyudrtt sdrzanish Mr- (a) 'I reproached myself. 
To kitdb i khyudra bi-vai dddt. 'Thou gavest thy (own) 

book to him'. 

Ma bi-khfineh-y-i khyud mi- 'We are going to our (own) 

ratiim. house'. 

(Aya) shumti dsb i khyud-ra 'Did you take your (own) 

giriftU? horse?' 

Ishun dar dil i Jchvud gaman 'They did not imagine 

nd-bwrdand. (fancy) in their hearts 

(6) Shumd khyudra (or bi-khpud) (b) 'You have given yourself a 

khaili zahmat dsdeh id. great deal of trouble', 

(c) tT dar bareh-y-i khyud guft. (c) 'He (she) spoke about him- 
self (herself)'. 

64. Foreigners often make mistakes in the use 
of Ichyud through failing to remember that, whenever 
in English one can use the word self or own along 
with a Personal pronoun without materially altering 
the meaning of the sentence, then khyud (alone or 
followed by a possessive pronoun separable or inse- 
parable) must be used in Persian instead of the simple 
personal pronoun (generally in such cases a possessive). 
E. g., in the sentence, 'I left my book on the table', 
the meaning is not materially altered by saying 'I 
left my own book on the table' : therefore in Persian, 
instead of saying Man Jcitab i mdra (bar) ru-y-i miz 
va ffuzardam, which is utterly wrong, one should say 
man kitab i Jfhvud-ra (bar)ru-y-i ntiz va guzardam. 

') When governed by -rn it must be the direct or indirect 
object of a verb, as will be readily seen. 

The reflexive pronoun. 49 

In the modern spoken language instead of Idiyud 
alone the compound forms khyudam, khyudat, khyudash, 
Jehyudaman, khyudatan, kltyudashan, or khyud i man, etc. 
are generally used. This is not approved of in writing 
except when necessary to avoid ambiguity (cf. 45). 

In the modern language in both speaking and 
writing the pronominal affixes may often be used instead 
of khyud in a possessive sense, though the separable 
pronouns may not. Thus the sentence given above, 
Man kitab i Jchmtdra (bar) ru-y-i miz va guzardam, might 
equally well be put thus, Man kitabawnra, etc. So 
again, Shuma khaneh-y-i khyudra faruklitid, 'you sold 
your house', might be Shuma klianeli-atanra farukhttd. 
In the third person singular and plural this use of 
the pronominal affixes -ash and ashan is open to the 
same ambiguity that is found in English : as, kita- 
bashra gum kard, 'he lost his book'. Here it is not clear 
whether it was his own or some other person's book 
that he lost. 

65. Khyish may be used instead of khyud when- 
ever the latter is not the subject of a sentence: but 
khyish cannot take the pronominal affixes or the per- 
sonal pronouns preceded by izafeh when it is used in 
this sense. 1 ) When khyud is governed by -ra or any 
preposition except the ifafeh, the strengthened form 
khyishtan may be substituted for it, but it takes no 
appended pronoun and is rarely used except with -ra. 
In fact the main use of khytshtan and kJiyish is to avoid 
the repetition of khyud. Examples: 

Man khytshtanra sdrzanish kdrdam : To kitab i khyfshra 
bi-vat dddi: Ma bi-khaneh-y-i khvish mi-ravlm: (Ay a) 
shuma dsb i khytshra girlftld? Ishan dar dil i khyish 
gamdn_ nd-burdand : Shuma khyishtanra khatli zahmat dadeh 
id: U dar bareh-y-i khytsh guft. (For translation vide 63.) 

66. The use of lihytidash, khyudashan, is very 
noteworthy and very convenient in such a sentence 
as, Shuma Hdsan-rd savar i asb i khyudashra, dldid, 'You 
saw Hasan mounted on his own horse'. If the affix -ask 

i) When Khmsh is followed by a possessive pronoun it 
the meaning of 'a relative'; as man khvishashrfl didam, 'I 


his relative'. 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 


Lesson 7. 

were not used, the meaning would probably be 
'mounted on your horse' ( 63). But the phrase is 
really a contraction for, Shimia Hdscm-ra didid kih savar 
i dsb i khviid-bud. 


Bakliil, a miser. 

mf-badiam, I am. 

mi-bashad, he, it is. 

bayad bffshad, it must be. 

iltiftit farmudeh, (having com- 
manded attention, notice, =) 
kindly, please. 

shab, night. 

dmshab, to-night. 

'?*** ( as a loan. 
* any atom \ 

bi-ravam, I may go. 
bi-rdft, he went. 
rdfteh bud, he had gone away. 
naqd, cash, ready money. 
mi-danam, I know. 
kih . . . anja, where. 
panhtin, hidden. 
bi-kimam, I may make. 
M-khvushi, with pleasure. 
makhfi, hidden, secretly. 
uftadeli ast. has fallen (out) 
danddn, a tooth. 
bayan, explanation. 
aulad, children (Ar. pi.) 
khvahand murd, they shall die. 
pish i ru, before the face. 
agah (az), aware (of). 
ashkhtts (Ar. pi. of shakhs*) per- 

farzdnd, child. 
raftq, comrade. 
sipurd. be handed over. 
bi-siparid, hand over. 
az aqab i, behind. 
shittffteh, having hastened. 
gusashteh bud, he had placed. 
mf-guzard, he was placing. 
nihad, he put. 
bi-did, he saw. 
duzdfd, he stole. 
duzdrdeh, having stolen. 
baz, back, again. 
bi-burd, he carried off. 

andish/d, he thought out. 
bi-ndzar uvdrdeh, having (brought 

to sight. =) devised. 
rastdeh ast, has arrived, 
dost, hand. 
mi-khrfiham, I wish. 
ddfn kunam, I may bury. 
mamnfin i, grateful to. 
zindtin, prison. 
afkdnd, he cast. 
'umr, life. 

khvaiiad bud, shall be. 
ddraz, long. 
khvffhtd ztst, you shall live. 
farm fid, he commanded. 
mulazim, attendant. 
btshtar, more. 

aqraba (Ar. pi. ofqartb) relatives. 
khtiyin, treacherous. 
khiydnat, treachery. 
hamchinffn, thus. 
qabl az, before. 
umid, hope. 
taJisfl, attainment. 
ma bdqi, the remainder. 
tnazkur, mentioned. 
bar gardanfd, he returned (trans). 
tadbi'r, plan. 
Wwuslidil, delighted. 
gardrd, he became. 
btfd az, after. 
bar hdzar, on (hisj guard. 

mu'dbbir, interpreter ot dreams. 

ta'btr, interpretation of a dream. 

tdlab kdrdeh, having summoned. 

Khvab, sleep, dream. 

dfinishmdnd, wise, sage. 

in'am, a gift. 

durust, right, correct. 

tafdvut, difference. 

ta, so that. 

rtkhdeh bfid, had (been)poured out. 

The reflexive pronoun. 51 

yaft, he found. rdhti namfid, he let go. 

multafit, attentive, comprehend- ghazabnak, angry. 

ing. bad-shuTcun, ill-ouiened. 

hileh, a trick. hikayat, a story, narative. 

Exercise 13. 

l^Jwli jl ,& JLi oili C-U' ^j^ >- Jv Oj l^-' 

X "' X " f * * 

Translation 14. 

A certain king saw in a dream that all his teeth 
had (has) fallen (out). Having summoned an interpreter 
of dreams he asked (from) him what the explanation 
of the dream might be (is). He said, '0 king, this 
dream is very ill-omened, because its explanation is 
this, that all (thy) children and thy relatives shall die 
before thine eyes (face)'. The king became angry and 
(having become angry) threw that man into prison. 
Having then called another interpreter of dreams he 


52 Lesson 7. 

enquired of (from) him the explanation of that dream. 
He said, '0 king, this is a very good omen, for its 
meaning is (this) that your life shall be very long, 
and that you- shall live longer (more) than all (your) 
children and relatives'. The king laughed and com- 
manded (to) his attendants to give (that, 'You give') 
a gift to this wise-man: and having rebuked that other 
he let (him) go. 


r ij>. JT> 

& <O 3J>, 

^* c 

if T 

4*. j 1 . 


-A.i A>- t_M _}\ -W 

*y. \ J'i jT'(LT) 
ii* .1 ~ j~* Cu' ) 

1 jb 

J ** ^ 

Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 53 

Eighth Lesson. 

Prepositions, simple and compound: 
Conjunctions, Interjections. 

67. The simple Prepositions now in use in Per- 
sian are very few, the only ones of Persian origin 
now used being: 

o#, from, out of: than (with comparatives). 

bi, hi (when united with the following word: when 
separate, bih, bah), to, for, at; in, with (means). 

ba, with, along with (now used of manner and in- 

bar, on, upon. 

bi, devoid of, without (sine). 

dar, in. into, at; on (of time). 

-i, of (the izafeh, which in many instances is now 
a simple preposition). 

/a, up to, as far as. 

Of Arabic origin and less commonly used are: 

ila, up to, to (e. g. of verses: az ayeh-y-i sMslium 
'ila' ayeh-y-i htfdahum, 'from the sixth to the seventeenth 

hdtia\ as far as (often used with in kilt, as hdtta' 
in kih U gliazabnak shud, 'to such an extent that he 
grew angry'.) 

/!, = per as used in English (as, shdkar, hijdeh man 
fi hashtqardn: 'sugar, eighteen maunds at eight krans 
per maund'.) 

bilii, without (as, bild shahk, 'without doubt'). 

68. The older form of bi is ba, which is still 
used in Shims and in some other places. When followed 
by u, an, in, ishan, a still older form of the words may 
be used, bad- or bid-, after which the initial alif of 
the above four words is omitted : as bidU ( J-A>), bidan 
( jl-fcj, bidm (ji-^), bidishan (jLi^). This form of the 
preposition is rather more used in writing than in 

69. In modern conversation dar is seldom heard, 
ta (more properly tu-y-i) being often used instead, as 
in sandiiq, 'in the box' (vide 77). Uar is rarely used 
alone, (bar) ru-y-i generally taking its place: even in 

54 Lesson 8. 

writing it has a tendency to be used almost inter- 
changeable with bi, except after verbs of giving. Ta bi 
is now more frequently used than ta alone, and bi juz 
is sometimes said for juz. 

The Compound Prepositions in conversation and 
even in writing are now supplanting the simple ones. 
The simple Prepositions are, however, often omitted 
in conversation and sometimes even in writing when 

the sense is clear enough without them; as, U rdfteh 
ast (bl-) slidhr, 'he has gone to the city': Si-dih man 
for bi-dih bi-mdn, 'give to me'. Sliamsnir (dar) ddst i 
savar bud, 'the sword was in the horseman's hand'. 
When in composition with other words and thus form- 
ing part of a compound Preposition, the simple pre- 
positions are also frequently omitted both in speaking 
and in writing : as, Narduban (bar) sdr i divar bud, 'the 
ladder was on the top of the wall' ; bdchcheh (dar) bdghal 
i pidarashjasf, 'the child is in its father's arms (em- 
brace)'; UMya'st? (Dar) klwneh-y-i baitar ast. -"Where is 
he? He is at the veterinary surgeon's (house); An 
shdklis (bar) daman i huh uftad, 'that person fell at the 
foot of the mountain'; An sanduq (dar) pa-y-i dardkJit 
ast, 'that box is at the foot of the tree'; A'sb i man 
(dar) pain i divar yaft shud, 'my horse was found under 
the wall' ; An shdhr (bar) lab i darya vagi c ast, 'that city 
is situated on the shore (lip) of the sea'. In these 
examples and in those given below the words in 
brackets may be omitted without changing the 

70. The Compound Prepositions are generally 
composed of a noun preceded by a simple preposition 
expressed or understood. For this reason they all 
require an izajeh after them, except in the few instances 
in which az or bi- takes its place. Most of the com- 
pound prepositions in actual use are given in the 
subjoined list. They are shewn in actual connexion 
with other words in order to make their meaning and 
use clearer and more easily understood. 

Sirun az shahr, out of the city. 

Sirun i slialir, outside the city. 


Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 55 

(dar) andarun i Jchaneh, ) ,-, -, ,-, v 
v ,_/,/. T . 77 _, 7 } within, inside the house. 

dakhu i Khaneh, j 

(dar) bain i rah, on (amid) the way. 

dar asna-y-i an fair, during that work. 
- (bar) sdr i rah, on the road, by the roadside. 

(bar) bala-y-i sar i vai, above his head. 

bidun i dustam, without my friend. 

bi-istisna-y-i ishan, with the exception of them. 

(az) dqab i vai uftadand, they followed (fell) after him. 

az rah i Abushdhr, via Bushire. 

-? > javanmdrdi, from, by way of, generosity. 

dunbai i u, behind him (vulgar). 

nazdik i, nazdik bi-} 7 7 ,, N ,-> , 

A -'LI- shahr, near (to) the city. 
qartb ^, qanb bi- \ 

az qarar i anchih mdktub ast, according to what is 
written. . ,, _ < -^ i - 

bi- hddd i iniktin, as far as possible. 

(dar) pa'i-y-i fj/) vai, after (in search for) him. 

(bi)- ghair i u, except him. 

gliatr az an, besides that, other than that. 

pain i kuh nishdst, he sat at the foot of the 

(bi-,) (dar) zir i dardkht, beneath the tree. 

pas az an 
ba'd az an 
ba"d i an 
az an bi-bd*d 
pas i pdrdeh 

after that, afterwards. 

behind the curtain. 

(dar) dqab i pdrdeh 

(dar) pusht i divar, behind the wall. 

(bar) pusht i bam, on the roof. 

pusht i sdr i naiikar amad, he came up behind the 

qdbl az an vdqt, before that time. 

pish i hakim amad, he came to the doctor. 

pish i qazi istad, he stood before the judge. 

pish i ru-y-i vai, in front of him (before his face). 

pajilu-y-i baradaram nishdst, he sat beside my brother. 

rn bi ru-y-i padshah, face to face with, in front of, 
the king. 


Lesson 8. 

(dar) muqdbil i mdsjid, in front of the mosque. 

dar muqabileh-y-i Qur'an, in comparison with the 

(bar) ru-y-i miz, on the table. 

ndzd i vat, near him: in his opinion. 

(6*)- ndzd i va'i raft, he went to him. 

az ndzd i hakim, from the governor. 

az janib i Khuda, from God. 

az huzur i padshah, from the king's presence. 

mrd la-y-i an kitab M-guzar, put this inside that 
book (spoken style). 

(bi-~) zidd i I 

(bi-) khilaf i > an hiikm, contrary to that command. 

(bar) khttdf i \ 

muvafiq i 

bar vifq i 

nmtabiq i 

(bar) ndsb i 

dar bab i iman, in reference to belief, in the matter 
of faith. 

dar bdreh-y-i an mdtlab, in reference to, concerning 
that matter. 

(bar) sar i u rikhtand, they fell upon (attacked) him. 

(bar) sdr i siifreh, on the table (cloth). 

bdld-y-i sdr i u tstadand, they stood close beside him. 

(dar) miyan i taifeli, among the people. 

miyaneli-y-i an do ndfar siilh slmd, peace was made 
between those two persons. 

bi-ja-y-i n, 

(bi)-avaz i u 

(bi)-sdmt i 

(bi)tdraf i Sddkubah, towards Baku. 

an qaul, according to that statement. 

in place of, instead of him. 

tdraf i sliam, towards evening. 

(bar) an ddst i rudkhaneh, on that side of the river. 

(bi-)an su-y-i (tdrafi-) rudkhaneh, across the river. 

hamrah i ishan, , .,-, ,-, 

-, j_ _' 7 ^ 1 i-t along with them. 

(n-hamram-y-i ishan, 

jilau i man bi-rau, go in front of me. 
daur i fira girtftand, they surrounded him. 

Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 57 

dailr i slidhr, } , ,-, ., 

j- < T - 7 '7 around the city. 
girdagird i shahr, | 

(dar) atraf i d'ih, in the outskirts of, all around, 
the village. 

bi-khdtir i Khuda, for God's sake. 
(az\ barayi man, for me. 

bi-nhat i ) . n -, 

7- ,77 } w, by reason ol him. 
m-sabab i ) 

bi-vaslleh-y-i \ Injil, by means of, through the 

bi-vasiteh-y-i \ Gospel. 

mahz i shujd'at i mubdriz, simply through the cham- 
pion's courage. 

siva-y-i u, except him, besides him. 

az bdhr i vai, because of, for the sake of him. 

dar rah i ma ktishteh shud, he was slain for us, 
instead of us. 

(bi)-kMdmat i vazir, to the minister. 

bi-kMdmat i shumd ml-rasam, I (shall) come to you. 

bardbar i an khdneh, facing, opposite to, that house. 

band bar an hujjat, according to (based upon) that 

mulk-ra bi-tdht i tasdrruf i khvud avdrd, he brought 
the country under his own sway. 

ba vujud i haddsat i smn, in spite of tenderness 
of age. 

az bdrakat i 'Urn, by benefit of (taking advantage 
of) learning. 

71. Conjunctions. The Conjunctions in Persian 
require but little explanation. The most important are : 

va, o, and. chun, since, when. 

ya, or. vdgar (va agar), and if. 

ya . . . ya, either ... or. vdgarnah (va dgarndh), other- 

va yd, or even. wise, and if not. 

chih . . . chih ) , , mdgar. but, perhaps. 

khpdh. . . va khvah \ whether or - az bds kilt, since. 

j nay but, nay rather, etrn (kih}, ) f because 

bdlkih J nay on the contrary ztinru ki>* \ * 

' (Germ. sondern, Gr. ct/Ua) na. na, neither . . . nor. 

(va) dmma \ ba : tnkih \ although, 

(va) Vtkm \ but, yet, (Germ, bcl vujud i fin kih ( notwith- 

(va)ldkin j after), however. (ma' i'tnkih | standing 

vdli dgarchih that. 


Lesson 8. 

ham . . . ham, both . . . and. ham, even, also. 

niz } also. hdrchand kih, however much. 

dgar \ pas, then, accordingly. 

hargnh > if, since. hrdtinkih, whereas, since. 
liargdh kih I 

72. Interjections. The principal are : - - Inak, lo ! 
ai, Oh; vay, woe! ah, ah; afsus, alas! Aa/, alas! (hatf 
ast kih, 'it is a pity that' . . .); lah baJi! 'bravo, well done!' 


gurikht, he fled. 

gurikhti, thou fleddest. 

gur'tkhtihi, thou hast fled. 

dtiman, hem of a garment. 

zddeh, having struck. 

bdlkih, but, on the contrary. 

liffla, now. 

yrfftam, I found. 

saztf. punishment. 

mf-diham, I (shall) give. 

(ikhiru'ldmr, finally. 

htikim, governor. 

har du, both. 

khrnstand, they asked-for. 

darlcheh, window. 

vet ddshteh, having stationed. 

amr farmud, he commanded. 

birtin kunand, they should put 


lialat, state, condition. 
liukm kdrdeh, having ordered. 
shamshir, sword. 
gdrdan, neck. 
bt-zan, strike thou. 
sukhan, a word. 
tar std, he feared. 
fi'lfaur, at once. 
dsla, at all (wiffi neg). 
Idrakat, movement. 
fahmid, he understood. 
taziydneli, scourge, bastinado. 
ta, in Border that. 
nii'imkin, possible. 
sffzad, he may make. 
mi-bud, it would he, was. 
naqsh, a picture. 
iqrar kdrd, he confessed. 
fdqat, only, merely. 
rihdi escape, deliverance. 
gul khvurd (he ate deceit), he 

was deceived. 

a painter. 

yak dfgar, one another. 
(juftand, they said. 
-tascfr, a picture. 
bt-kashim, let us draw. 
bi-kashad, he may (might) draw. 
mt-kashad, he draws. 
kash'id, he drew. 
kasliidtHi, having drawn. 
kashfdam, I drew. 
kasJii'di, thou drewest. 
ht-ltnim, let us see. 
bi-blnand, they may (might) see. 
khmheh, cluster, hunch. 
angfir, grape. 
cfar, a door, gate. 
darb, large gate, gateway. 
avfkht, he hung. 
minqar, beak. 

mi-zddand, they were striking. 
gamdn miburdand, they were 

ml cell, fruit. 
mardumnn, people. 
pasandidand, thej- approved of. 
purs'idand, they asked. 
pdrdeh, a curtain, 
jp^'s/t, forward, 
pas. back, backward. 
timadeh, having come. 
daraz, long. 

rfar<?3 Adrrf, he stretched out. 
ma'lum, known. 
dar pdy-i, in search for. 
dtdeh, having seen. 
'azfz t respected, dear. 
ktimil, perfect. 

farffteh shud, he was deceived. 
farifteh shiidand, they were de- 
chandi, a little (time). 

Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 59 

Exercise 15. 

Translation 16. A Tale. 

A slave fled from his master. After a short time 
his master, having gone to another city and having 
found (seen) that slave there, seized him and said, 
'Thou art my slave, why didst thou run away from 
me?' The slave, having laid hold of (having struck 
hand upon) his garment (hem of his garment), said in 
answer to him (in answer of him). 'No!; on the con- 
trary, thou art my slave, and having stolen much 
money from me thou hast run away : now that I (have) 
found thee, I (shall) give punishment'. Finally they 
both went to the governor and (having gone they) 
asked for justice. The governor of the city, having 
stationed both (of them) near a window, ordered that 
both should put their heads (head) out at one time. 
When they were in that position (state), the governor 
said to one of his attendants, 'Draw thy sword and 
(having drawn) behead (strike the neck of) that slave'. 
When the slave heard this speech (word), he at once 
drew his head back, but his master did not make any 

60 Lesson 9. 

movement at all. The governor understood which was 
the slave and which the master (that which is . . .) : 
therefore he bastinadoed the former (vaira) and de- 
livered him to his master. 



\*ji jl j\ 


Ninth Lesson. 

Language of the Common People. 

73. In all languages there is a considerable 
difference between the written and the spoken style, 
though the written style, as it may be called, is in 
reality used also in set speeches, sermons, orations, 
and even in careful arguments and discussions. There 
is also a considerable difference between the ordinary 
conversational language of the educated and that of 
the uneducated classes. The same rule holds also in 
Persian, but with this difference that even educated 
Persians are careful to avoid using to the lower classes 
the language they would use in speaking to their 
equals. Hence one may hear from the lips of a well 
educated man, if he is speaking to a shopkeeper or 
villager, the kind of language which may be properly 

Language of the common people. 61 

designated as vulgar. Examples of this we purpose to 
give in this lesson, as an English resident in Persia 
ought to be able to imderstand, though he may not 
care to speak it. 

The style of the modern Persian newspaper is at 
once elegant and at the same time more colloquial 
than that used in any but the most modern Persian 
books, e. g. the late Shah's diaries. But there are 
certain words and expressions which are habitually 
used by even the best speakers, but which are not 
yet to any extent admitted into the written language. 
These, however, ought to be known by anyone who 
wishes to be thoroughly conversant with the language 
now spoken in Persia. We proceed to mention some 
of these more fully, though a few have been already 
introduced into the Exercises, and still more into the 
Conversations. Some of the forms are not new, being 
found in Pahlavi (themselves or their analogues). 

74. Almost every Persian, even those who are 
well educated, habitually in ordinary conversation pro- 
nounces a before m or n in Persian (and in some very 
common Arabic) words as u (vide 8). 

There are a number of words which are some- 
what differently pronounced in different parts of the 
country: e. g. pudishuh is said in Shiraz and padshuh 
in most other places. The most important of these 
differences is the substitution of i in some places and 
of a in others for u in a large number of word: e. g. 

Old Pers: numudan, shunudan, nibftdan, guman, 
gulii, cliunan. 

Sltiraz: nimudan, shinidan, ribiidan, giman, gilfi, 

Isfahan: namudan, sltanfdan, rabudan, gamun, gain, 
clianun (?). 

Somewhat similar are the cases of such words as : 

Shiran: -- imruz, imsal, imshrib; z'indch, zindagi, Mi'rjil, 
irreli, Tthislnn. 

Isfahan : - - amruz, amsal, amslu'ib : zdndah, zdndagi, 
kh'ljil, arreh, Miashm. 

75. Nouns. The plural termination -an is rarely 
heard: the vulgar pronunciation of the plural -/* is 

62 Lesson 9. 

simply-a: e. g. the popular plural of Mchcheh is 
Arabic plurals are very commonly used with the 
numerous and increasing number of Arabic nouns in 
use in Persian, which have caused many classical 
words (as saman, etc.), to be completely forgotten. 
Moreover the Persian words dih, 'village' and farmayish, 
'a command', always take the plural in the Arabic form 
diliat, farvnayishdt (vide Part. IE., 152). 

Shahzadeli, 'prince', is in conversation shortened 
into Shahzdeh. When prefixed to a proper noun with 
the meaning of 'Mr.', the word kT is often pronounced 
a, as Aqa Muhammad Alt, often called Amd Alt. The a 
heard at the end of a short sentence, e. g., bi-shumu 
mi-guyam-a is shortened from ha, another form of han, 
'behold', %!' 

Nouns are sometimes popularly used in an in- 
correct sense: e. g. mdhkameh, properly 'place of judg- 
ment', 'tribunal' (court of a hakim or governor), popu- 
larly means 'a dispensary', 'a doctor's consulting room' 
(from haktm, properly 'a sage', popularly 'a physician'.) 
So also the word naql pqpularly means 'cleverness', 
or even 'cuteness'; as, An shdkhs khaili ndql ddrad, 
'that's a very clever fellow'. So du'a, 'a prayer', often 
means 'a charm': tasbfh, 'ascription of praise', means 
'a rosary': ta'mtr is not the 'building' but only the 
'repairing' of a house; etc. 1 

Among nouns on the borders of acceptance into 
the written tongue are: gilleh, complaint; gJil, 

'deceit'; gaud (gaudal}, 'a pit'; kharsu, 'mother-in-law'; 
ashtl, 'a making up after a quarrel' (a good old literary 
word but not now considered such), etc. 

76. Adjectives. Some adjectives used in writing 
are not much used in speaking; as nik or mku. 'good' 
(though it is used in compounds, as niknam, nikanjcim). 
Others are constantly said but not written: e. g. gliula 
and naghula: as, In cliiz Jchvub ghula ittifaq uftad, 'this 

Instead of chub in the sense of 'firewood', the common 
people always say chukh or chiigh: and the word liazar (a thou- 
sand) is very frequently used to denote a kran: as do Juusdr, 
'two krans', because a bran contains a thousand dinars (an 
imaginary coin). 

Language of the common people. 63 

thing happened easy\ i. e. 'came cheap' : an shakhs khatli 
naghuld ast, 'that fellow is very deceitful': in rah nagltula 
ast, 'this road is rough'. Others change their meaning: 
as, jahil, 'ignorant', is often used (especially by women) 
as meaning 'young': na khvush now means 'ill, sick, 
unwell', even in writing. Kliaill as an adjective or 
adverb is hardly ever written, while the book word 
bisyar, its equivalent, is rarely used in conversation: 
qashdng, 'pretty', is now allowed in books because the 
late Shah used it in his diaries. The popular form ot 
sirak, 'clever', is zardng, but this often means, 'sharp', 
'quickwitted', - - not always in a good sense. Popu- 
larly maqbul, 'accepted', means 'pretty'. Kudiuli is a 
popular word meaning 'tiny, little', in a somewhat 
contemptuous sense. 

The Superlative is rarely used in conversation, 
the comparative with az hameh doing duty instead. 

For yafc, 'one', the softer forms yek and yey are 
constantly heard. This word has, in the language of 
the people, almost supplanted the affix -i; as, yet/ 
kitabish b'ideh for Ttittibl bi vai bi-dih, 'give him a book'. 
Occasionally both are used together, as yey pulisli M-deh, 
'give him a single copper'. 

77. Pronouns, Prepositions, etc. The popular form, 
of the pronominal affixes is: -im, -id, -ish; -imun, -itun, 
-ishun. These are attached to the simple prepositions 
as well as to other words: thus we get, e. g., be'm, 
b^t, b&'sh, be'mun, M' 3 tun, be'^sliun, for bidu or bi U or bi 
vai, etc. Instead of dar, the word tTi is almost univer- 
sally used for 'in' of place and work (not of time, 
where it is simply omitted) ; as, tu sandUq, 'in the box' ; 
tush (= dar dn)^ 'in it'. So ru takes the place of bar, 
'upon': as, Jeitab rU mte ast. 'the book is on the table'; 
rush, 'on him, on it'. Pish i is used instead of naed ?', 
'near', 'to', 'at' : and instead of the obsolete mam kitabi 
'stj (mini est liber), is said, kitab pfsh i man ast. Thus 
a servant, if asked, kaltd kuja'st? 'Where is the key?', 
will probably reply, Pish i man ast, = 'I have it'. 

In place of -ra the old Pahlavt definite termin- 
ation -0 is often heard from the lips of the common 
people, though it is never written : e. g. dsbo (or dsbo) 

o4 Lesson 9. 

sin l&un for asl-ra sin liun, 'saddle the horse'. In Shiriz 
-alt takes its place : asb-ali zin lum. 

78. Verbs. In place of ast the old Pahlavi ai in 
the form -ah is frequently heard; as in cliiz khaili 
Ithyub-ah 'this thing is very good'. The Perfect Par- 
ticiple in -all, as rasfdeh, 'having arrived' ( 85, c.) 
is rarely used by the common people, except in com- 
pound tenses. 

Shustari, 'to wash', has popularly sliur instead of 
the correct form sliuy for its root : as, inra b'i-sliuyam ?, 
'am I to wash this?, which becomes inra bi-shuram? 
The ordinary verb for 'to get, to obtain, to purchase' 
is issundan (for sitandan) and it is used in place of 
giriftan (vide 115). 

The longer form of the infinitive of Causative 
Verbs ( 121, 122) is not popularly used: so we have 
rasundan for rasantdan or rasandan, 'to cause to arrive, 
to bring'. Mired for vm-ravad, mi-slied (mi-shavad), mi- 
ded (mi-diliad) are common contractions. 

79. Adverbs. Some popular adverbs are very 
expressive, as jakht, 'just now, just': parsal, 'last 
year', etc. 

80. The following exercise and conversation are 
given in English letters because they contain many 
words never ivritten in Persian. They represent also 
(in the exercise) the vulgar, and (in the conversation) 
the papular pronunciation, which the student ought to 
know. (For translation see the Key). 


Asbtib, (Ar. pi. of scibab) goods, boro (bi-rau), go, off with you ! 

pir i zan, old woman. bi-ssun (M-sitan), take thou, get. 

baliam, together. Iti-ssuni, mayest thou get, take. 

umidim (amadim], we came. mi-tuni (mf-tavani), thou canst. 

umid (timad], he came. pdi knrish raft (pdyi TcUrash], he 

amvtil (Ar. pi. of mnT), goods, went about his business. 

property. ahvtil (pi. of hat), state. 

un (an), that. shartf, noble. 

unu (rmlid), those, they. alhamdo liltih, thanks to God. 

Jchuneh (lihtineli), house. . iltifut, attention, kindness. 

iino (tinra], it, him. jantib i 'all, your honour. 

o (va), and. mt-ravid, you go. 

mdno (mdra], me. mdnzil, dwelling, resthouse. 

sltarik partner. nan, bread, a loaf. 

Language of the common people. 


duzd, thief, robber. 

(bar) sdr rtkhtand, they fell upon. 

lukht, naked, plundered. 

ktishtand, they killed. 

Inln'tdd, compelled. 

Tilivasl, he demanded. 

Tilirfistim, we demanded. 

iz (az), from. 

ndslinid (nd-shintd), he did not 

hear (would not listen to). 
dfid o bidffd Tcard, ('made justice 

and injustice', =) complained 

aloud of injustice. 
fikr, thought. 
taqsir, fault. 
bi-yar, bring thou. 
tdriha, alone. 
chih jur, how ? 
IcM.jil, ashamed. 
fyih (dgar\ if. 
igilmtt (dgar ndh\ if not. 
iz miyun rafte i, (az miyttn rafteh 

f) thou hast gone out of the 

middle, = thou hast died. 
mi-ded (mi-dihad), she gives (will 


raftq-id (rafiqat), thy comrade. 
avurdam, I brought (=1 am 

just bringing). 
qalyttn, hubble-bubble. 
mail mi-farm&id, do you wish? 
qatyankdsh, smoker of the qatyan. 
bi-bdkhsMd, pardon (me). 
farmudid, you said. 
mt-kasham, I draw. [at home. 
tushrtf dtirand, they are (he is) 
tashrif btirdand, they have (he 

has) gone out. 
al'tin, now, just now. 
zdhmat, trouble. 
murdkhkhas bi-farmttid, permit 

me to take leave. 
Jdivush fimadid, you are welcome. 
hdzir, present, ready. 
mt-kunam, I make. 
gundili, swelling. 
pusht, back. 

in shtt'dllrih, please God! 
mi-rasam, I (shall) arrive. 
mt-shavad, it becomes (= it is 

chunkih, since, for. 

Exercise 17: Qisseh. 

(Principally Isfahan dialect.) 
Do (nafar) nifir asbab i khyudishun-ra pl'sh i pir 
i zani guzashtand o be"sh guftand, I'gih ma har d6 
baham umidim o malimiino khyastim, bideh.; igihna 
na-deh. Bad iz chaiid ruz yey mfir iz una (bi-)khuneh-i 
iin zan umid o guft : Sharfkim murd, chunkih tu rail 
duzda sarimun rikhtand uno kushtand o mano lukht 
karcland : hala malimuno bideh. Un pir i zan labiidd 
shud o b6''sh dad. Bad iz chand riiz iin yak! di'gih 
umid o malisho khyast. Zan be''sh guft kih, Raflqid 
umid o guft kih to iz miyun rafte i; harchih be''sh 
guftam nash'nid: malo giri'ft o burd: hila di'gih pi'sh 
i man chi'zi nist. Un kas pish i hakim raft, iz dast i 
un zan dad o bldad kard kih, Malimo nami-dM. Ha- 
kim ^fikr kard o guft, Un zan taqsi'ri na-darad; to bd''sh 
gufte i, I'gih har d6mfin baham umidim, bi'-deh : igih 
na. na-deh. Boro, rafiqido bi-yar o malo bl-ssun: tanha 
chih jiir mi'-tiin! bl'-ssiint? Un mard khijil shud o pai 
karish raft. 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 6 

66 Lesson 10. 

Translation 18. 

[Turn the above Story into the literary style, 
writing out the words properly in the Persian char- 
acter, and being careful to spell all the words correctly. 
- (See Key).] 

Su'dl. Javdb. 

Ahval i sharff (chih taur ast)? Alhamdo lillah az iltifat i janSb 

i 'alt. 
Kuja mirid (= mi-ravid)? Manzil mfram (= bi-khaneh-y-i 

_ khyud mf-ravam). 
Ai Yusuf, nun (nan) bi-yar. Avurdam (avardam), Sahib. 

(vide note to 138). 
Qalyun (qalyan) mail mf-far- Khair, agha (aqa"), qalyun-ka& 

maid ? nlstam. 

Bibakhshid, chih farm n did ? Bandeh a'rz kardam . . . [ham 

. v Farmndid . . . (vide 232). . . . kih hargiz qalyun nami kas- 

S^hib tashrff dgrand? Bali, sShib, tashrff darand. 

Chih gufti? BirRn raftaud? Bali aghS,aFa~n tashrff biirdand. 

Khaill zahmat dsdam, bibakh- Khaili khyiish (Emadid) nma- 

shid: hala murakhkhas bi- did: insha' AllSh zud barSyi 

farmaid (at end of visit). bajzdid bi-khidmat i sluima 

mf-rasam (Said by host). 

Amruz mi-khyaham savar shu- Bali, sahib; asb-ra hazir mf 
deh (bi-)shahr bl-ravam: mi- kuiiam: (or) Khair, sahib; 
shed (nii-shavad) ? nami-shed; asb nakhvush 

ast : gaundili (varam) ru 
pushtash darad. 

Tenth Lesson. 

The Verb in general: Active Voice: Tenses from the 


81. There is in Persian only one Conjugation 
of the Verb. "When therefore the root and the infinitive 
of any verb, regular or irregular, are known, the 
various tenses, moods and persons are formed in the 
most regular manner without the slightest departure 
from the rules which are now to be given. If the 
Student has carefully observed the formation of the 
various parts of verbs already * introduced into the 
Exercises, he already knows something of the Per- 
sian verb. 

All Moods and Tenses are formed from (1) the 
Infinitive Stem, or from (2) the Imperative, 2 nd Sing., 
which is also the Root of the verb. These are there- 




The Verb in general : Active Voice : Tenses from the Infin. 67 

fore called the 'Principal Parts' of the Persian verb. 
The Moods are the Indicative, the Subjunctive, the 
Imperative, the Conditional, the Optative, the Infini- 
tive. The Participle, the Agential and the Gerundive are 
the remaining forms of the verb. Causal (Causative) 
Verbs are often formed from other Verbs ( 121, 122). 

82. The various Persons, singular and plural, 
of each tense are formed by adding to the stem cer- 
tain Personal Endings. These, as will be seen, bear a 
considerable resemblance to the Personal Endings 
similarly used in Sanskrit, Greek and Latin Verbs, 
and are fragments of pronouns meaning 7, thou, he, etc. 
Hence the Separable Pronouns as subject of the Verb 
are not so much needed in Persian as in English 
(vide Lesson IV.. 45, Jin.), since in Persian the Per- 
sonal Endings are better preserved than in English. 

83. The Personal Endings in Persian, except in 
the 3 rd Pers. Sing., coincide in form with the enclitics 
which mean lam, fliou art, etc. (Vide 'words' prefixed 
to Exercise II.) They are: 

Personal Endings. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st Person: -am. 1 st Person: -im. 

2 nd Person: -I. 2 nd Person: -id. 

3 rd Person: -ad. 3 rd Person: -and. 

These Personal Endings are attached to the stem 
of each tense to form the Persons. They undergo no 
variation. But note that, (1) the ending of the 2 nd 
Sing, is not used in the 2 nd Sing. Imperative, and (2) 
the ending of the 3 rd Sing, is not employed at all in 
the Preterite and the tenses formed therefrom. 

Should the root of the verb, end in y (t$), this 
letter is dropped before the Personal Endings that 
begin with i, but is retained before the others: e. g. 
mi-farma-id, 'you command' (root farmay-}, but mi- 
farmayand, 'they command'. 

I. Parts formed from the Infinitive Stem. 

84. The Infinitive of all Verbs ends in -tan, 
which, when preceded by a vowel or either of the 
liquids n or r, changes into -dan. All newly made 


68 Lesson 10. 

verbs have -dan, generally preceded by -i to connect 
the termination with the root. The Soot of the verb 
is formed (in regular verbs) by cutting off the -tan, 
-dan or -Man of the Infinitive. The Infinitive Stem 
is obtained by merely cutting oif the final -an of the 
Infinitive: this is called the "Shortened Infinitive". 

The 3 rd Sing, of the Preterite Indicative coincides 
in form with the Shortened Infinitive, i. e. with the 
Infinitive Stem. The other persons of the Preterite 
require the addition to this of the Personal Endings ( 83). 

The Imperfect Indicative is formed by prefixing 
the particle mi to each person of the Preterite. The 
Past Participle adds -eJi to the stem of the Infinitive, 
i. e. to the 3 rd sing, of the Preterite. The Perfect Indi- 
cative adds the present of the Verb ast (vide list of 
Words prefixed to Exercise II.) to the Past Participle. 
The Pluperfect Indicative is formed by adding to the 
Past Participle the Preterite of the Verb Sudan 'to 
be' (vide "Words prefixed to Exercise II., and also 95.) 

85. As an example we take the Intransitive 
Verb Davldan JA-JJ) 'to run': but Transitive Verbs 

are conjugated in a precisely similar manner. 
Infinitive: -davidan: Infinitive stem: -davld. 

(a) Preterite Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st Pers.: david-am (^jj) david-im (^A,JJ) we ran. 

I ran. 
2 nd Pers.: david-i (t^j-O david-id (A,A,^J) you ran. 

thou rannest. 

3 rd Pers.: david (^.j^) he, david-and (A,'JL,JJ) they ran. 
she, it, ran. 

(6) Imperfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: ml-damdam (,.A,JJL.*) nn-davidim (^Jbja-*) ^ 





I was running. we 

2 nd P.: nn-davidi (^A^JU,) mi-davldid 
thou wast running. you 

3 rd P.: mi-david jjju. he 

was running. they 

The Verb in general : Active Voice : Tenses from the Infin. 69 

This tense also means 'I used to run', and often 
signifies 'I began to run': it is also used for the Con- 
ditional Mood in the modern language, both spoken 
and written, in place of the obsolete Conditional (103, e.), 
meaning, 'Were I to run', etc. 

(c) Past Participle. 

Singular. Plural. 

davideh (^.jj) having run, davtdagan ( 36) (jl^Xjj) 
(or, 'on running'). davidehha (UoJOj^) 

The Past Participle of a Transitive Verb has 
generally an active sense, but it may sometimes be 
used with a passive meaning, as it always is in the 
Passive Voice ( 110). It is sometimes in the old style 
used as a noun : as, gufteh, 'a saying, speech' ; farmndeh, 
'a command'. Only when used as a noun has it a 
Plural: as, guftehha, 'sayings'; kushtagan, 'the slain'. 

(d) Perfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: davideh am (*LA,JJ) davideh im (-vUj^j) 
I have run. we 

2 nd P. : davideh-i (OA,JJ) davideh id (jJa-xjj) 

thou hast run. you 

3 r<1 P.: davldehast(c~*\o^)i) davideh and (A, 

he has run. they 

The literal meaning of the Perfect is 'I am having 
run', etc., which signifies 'I have run'. So the Pluper- 
fect literally means 'I was having run', i. c. 'I had run'. 

(e) Pluperfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

I had run. we 

2 nd P.:dfawfeA&wdl(^jj4,jj) davideh &i*d 

thou hadst run. you 

3 rd P.: davideli lud (jj^.jtj 

he had run. they 


Lesson 10. 

With Transitive verbs the Perfect and Pluper- 
fect are formed in precisely the same way: e. g. from 
Jctlshtan, 'to slay', Itusliteh am, 'I have slain', (lit. 'I am 
having slain') ^ Mshtch budam, 'I had slain' (lit. 'I was 
having slain'). Care must be taken not to translate 
these as 'I am slain', 'I was slain', which in Persian 
would be ktishteh shudeh am, kushteh shudeh budam (111, A.). ' 

Thus the Persian language saves the beginner the difficulty 
which he finds in French, for example, in discovering whether 
to use etre or avoir as an auxiliary. In Persian the verb dnslitan, 
'to have', is never used as an auxiliary, though it is employed 
as a part of some Compound Verbs ( 124), a very different thing. 

"When the perfect is immediately followed by 
another perfect or by ml-bashad, hast, etc., the ast etc. 
of the first of the perfects is elegantly omitted ; as, 
an vagt ta aknun taifeh-i budeh va hdstand Jcih, etc., where 
budeh stands for budeh and. 


sipurdan, to entrust (siptfr). 

rdftan, to go (ray). 

talabidan, to demand, summon. 

tdlab ddshtan, to demand. 

dttshtan, to have, hold (dtir). 

inktir kdrdan, to deny. 

kdrdan, to do (kuri). 

giiftan, to say (guy). 

dtidan, to give (diK). 

namudan, to shew, do (namely). 

arz namudan, to represent. 

pursfdan, to ask, enquire. 

bfidan, to be (bash}. 

btirdan, to carry off (bar). 

klivtistan, to wish, demand (khyaK). 

nihndan, to put (nih). 

lihyurdan, to eat. 


guztslitan to P lace 

varzidan, to act, do. 

zddan, to strike (ean). 

tarsidan, to fear. 

khiycinat, deceit. 

dwrugh, a lie; false, 

bak, fear, scruple. 

shani', shameful. 

mi-tar sam, I fear. 

bi-tarsad, he should fear. 

vaqt, time. 

amtinat ) t entrust deposit , 

nihndan \ 

biytibtin, desert. 

ddram, I have. 

faiiran, at once. 

bi-y-ayad, it may come. 

mabdda, lest. 

amr, a command. 

muhr, a seal. 

nislitin, a sign. 

nishtin bi-dih, shew. 

tabdssum, a smile. 

khftmush, silent. 

ravtineh sliud, he departed. 

dhmaq, a fool. 

1 But with certain verbs the Perfect participle has also 
a passive meaning; e. g. navishteh ast may mean not only 'he 
has written' but 'it is written' : avtkhteh ast means 'he has hung' 
and also 'it was hung, it hung'. The context always clearly 

shews the sense. 

The Verb in general : Active Voice : Tenses from the Infin. 71 

rddd kdrdan, to give back. 
radd mi-kuni, thou givest back. 
i) nislidstan, to sit down (nishtri) 
dmadan to come (dy). 
farmudan, to command (farmdy). 
mdndan, to remain. 
rasidan, to arrive. 
yiriftan, to take, get (gir). 
farijtan, to deceive (farib). 
kharidan, to buy. 
anddkhtan, to throw away (an- 


mi-andnzam, I throw away. 
fdhmtdan, to understand. 
ydftan, to find (ydb). 
darydft kunam, I may discover, 


qdsam, an oath. 
qdsam dddan, to put on oath. 
qdsam khviirdan, to take an oath. 
sdfur, a journey. 
mdblayh, a sum of money. 
javan, a youth, 
ftfte, back. 

chigfmagl, the state of affairs. 
mi-dflii, thou givest. 
In-dihad, he may give. 
Mzt'r, present. 
shifhid, a witness. 
shahddat, evidence. 
khriyin, deceitful. 

hanuz, as yet. 

faideh, advantage. 

albdtteh, certainly. 

qaul, saying, word. 

zdhir, evident. 

barhdqq, true. 

ziinru, he- cause. 

faribdndeh, deceiver. 

khdjil, ashamed. 

khijtilat, shame. 

niguli dashtan, to keep. 

dvaz , an exchange, return. 

qarz, debt. 

mndarzdn I .>> 

kharsu \ mother - m - law " 

tufiiltyyat, childhood. 

adfi kdrdan, to pay. 

add, payment, performance of 


ptri, old age. 

bt-zanad, he may (might) strike. 
tdfreh rdvad (zdnad), he may get 

off (with a false excuse). 
qabdleh, title-deed. 
tulii ddst, empty-handed. 
qarz m'i-diham, I lend. 
vitzi-h, clear, evident. 
baydn namd, explain. 
rahn, guzardan, to pledge, give 

in pledge. 
taindm i, the whole of. 

Exercise 19. 

1 Hence nishdsteh bildt, 'thou hadst sat down' = 'thou wast 
seated', '#HW srast sitting'. So also istddan, 'to stand up', istddeJi 
am, 'I have stood up' = ' J aw standing', (Cf. Latin not 1 /, 'I have 
ascertained' 'I know'.) The same thing applies to 
'to lie down'. 

Lesson 10. 

ji A> 1^1 ji M -O J* ' y 

A \ " 

l /Cl oJ-^ Is! 

Translation 20. A Tale. 

A certain person used every day to buy six 
loaves. One day one of his friends asked him, saying 
(from him having asked, said), '-'What dost thou do 
with (dost thou make) the six loaves every day?" 
That person in reply to (of) him said. "I keep a loaf 

The Verb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Eoot (Imperative). 73 

for myself, and I throw away a loaf, and I give back 
two loaves, and the other two loaves I lend". His 
friend said, "I don't understand at all (I did not under- 
stand anything) what thou hast said (saidst); explain 
more clearly". That person said, "That loaf which I 
keep for myself I eat, and that one which I throw 
away I give to my mother-in-law, and those two loaves 
which I give back I give to my father and mother 
in exchange (return) for those which they gave (have 
given) to me in my childhood; and those two loaves 
which I lend, I give to my sons, in order that they 
may give me a return in my old age". 


<_>) *>- (Ji ' 

o j^.ybiu ^yij j.^' jLs i. <o ij <s. j i & 


A, L'jl 

Eleventh Lesson. 

The Verb, Active Voice (continued) : Tenses from the 

Root (Imperative). 

86. As ^ stated above ( 81), all those parts of 
the Verb which are not formed from the Infinitive 
Stem are formed from the Eoot, which coincides with 
the 2 nd Sing, of the Imperative. 

II. Tenses from the Imperative (Root). 

87. The Root of the Regular Verb is formed 
by cutting off the Infinitive ending -tan or -dan, 
together with the uniting vowel -i, if employed: as, 

74 Lesson il. 

Infinitive. Root. 

Davidan, to run : dav. 

mandan, to remain: man. 

faishtan, to kill: hush. 

The E/oot of the Irregular Verbs has to be learnt 
separately; but when it is known, the Tenses and 
Moods are formed from it quite regularly in both the 
Active and the Passive Voice. 

88. The Subjunctive Present (the same tense 
expresses also the Subjunctive Imperfect) is formed 
by appending to the Root the Personal Endings 
( 83). For the Present Indicative the particle mi is 
prefixed to each person of the Present Subjunctive. 
The Present Participle adds -an to the E/oot : the 
Agential adds -andeli to the Root. Example : 

89. Davidan, to run: Root Dav (j$). 

(a) Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

2 nd P. dav (jj), 'run thou' 1 ddv-id (jbjjj, 'run ye'. 

(6) Subjunctive Present. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. ddv-am (cj$), I may, ddv-im (f.^j) we may, etc. 
might, shd., wd., 
2 nd P. ddtM^jJjthoumay- ddv-id (-Jojj) you may, etc 

est, etc., run. 

2 rd P. ddv-ad (sj$) he, she, ddv-and (-*>jj) they may, etc. 
it, may, etc., run. 

This tense also means 'Let me, etc., run', 'may 
I run?'. In older style it sometimes has a future sense, 
but more frequently has the meaning of the Present 
Indicative, 'I run'. However, it is not now used in 
these senses in conversation or even in writing, except 
in imitation of the antique. 

i Pronounced Dau (vide 9). This must be carefully no- 
ticed. So in all such verbs as have a root ending in av; as shinau 
(shinav'), rau (rav), etc. 

The Verb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Eoot (Imperative). 75 

(c) Present Indicative. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. mi-davam (fj-v) I am mi-davim (f_j-A-*) me are 

running. running. 

2 nd P. mi-davi (^aJu*) thou mi-davtd (ji-JL.) you are 

art running. running. 

3 rd P. mi-davad^jj^ he is mi-davand (a>'jJL) they are 

running. running. 

Besides meaning 'I am running', 'I do run 1 , 'do 
I run?', <I run', this tense is very often used in a 
future sense (of. the English, 'I am going to town 
to morrow, in Persian Fdrda bi-sJidhr mi-ravam). 

(d) Present Participle. 
Davan (^j^)> running. 

(e) Agential. 
Singular. Plural. 

Dav-dndeli (jJjj), a runner. Davandagan (Oo-i'/j) run - 


90. When the root of a Verb ends in y (&), this 
letter is optionally dropped in writing, and always in 
the modern spoken language, in the 2 nd Sing. Impera- 
tive : as guy (e_^); root of guftan (j^O? '^ s P ea k' : 
2 nd Sing. Imperat: guy (&/} or gu (_jf) : namudan 
(jjj*;) 'to shew', 2 nd Sing. Imp: namely (tsU;) or nama 
(L;). [The same rule applies to nouns of similar for- 
mation; as ja (jay), rn (ruy) pa (pay)]. 

91. The Imperative and the Present Subjunc- 
tive are more commonly used in their strengthened 
form, which is made by prefixing to each person the 
particle bih or bi- (Avestic vi, l aparf}. 

(a) Strengthened Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

2 nd P. U-dav (b'i-dau- >), bi-david (jwj-^) 7 run ye. 
run thou. 

76 Lesson 11. 

(6) Strengthened Present Subjunctive. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. lt-davam(fjju)lrna,y, U-damm ({_*) we may run. 

let me, run' 

2 nd P. bt-daii (tjjo), thou li-davld(ja^,]-yoi\ may run. 

mayest run. 

3 rd P. bt-davad (>>!), he li-davand (-t : jl-) they may 

may, let him, run. run. 

The meaning is not altered by the insertion of 
this particle, the use of which really depends upon 
the taste of the writer. In speaking the simpler forms 
are of comparatively rare occurrence except sometimes 
with Compound or Prepositional Verbs (vide 109, 
124). When, similarly, the words iiah, 'not', rnali. 
('not', used only with the Imperative) are prefixed 
to these tenses, the prefix bi must not be used. In 
the older style the Strengthened Present Subjunctive 
had a future sense. (When, however, a person says 
inrd li-kunam ?, although it may in English be rendered 
'Shall I do this?' yet to the Persian mind the meaning 
is 'May I do this ?') When the root of the verb begins 
with alifj the t of the older form m of the prefix is 
retained: as bi-y-uftad, 1 (-^), 'he may fall', The y is 
also inserted when na or 'ma are prefixed to such 
verbs; as ndyamuzad (j^U) 'let him not learn'. 1 

92. The original termination of the Infinitive 
was -tan, and this is still preserved in most of the 
older verbs in the language. But as only four of 
the consonants, , ,J, u-, J* - - are permitted by 
euphony immediately to precede -tan without the inter- 
position of a vowel, and as many verbal Roots end 
in other consonants than these four, of the following 
two Rules one must be adopted to form the Infinitive : 

1. Modify the final consonant of the root so that 
it may become one of the above four: - - E. g. 

1 As the initial AHf in such verbs is omitted, unless it 
has the madd over it (t. e. is long s), when the y is inserted, 
the student may find it difficult to understand such forms 
unless he is careful. 

TheVerb, Active Voice: Tenses fromtheRoot (Imperative). 77 

Root, amuz- infin., amukhtan, Ho learn': 

Root, farib-, infin., fan/tan, 'to deceive': or, 

2. Insert the connecting vowel i between the 
Root and the Infinitive ending, softening the latter 
into -dan: as 

Root, tdlab-j infinitive, tdldhidan, 'to summon.' 

Root, ram-, infinitive, ramidan, 'to shy' (of a horse). 

The only consonants that may immediately precede 
-dan are n and r; 1 as R, man, Infin. mandan, 'to 
remain'. But these do not always remain unchanged ; 
as, R. chin, Infin. clridan, 'to pluck' : R. dar, Infin. 
dashtan, 'to have' (where the r is changed, in accor- 
dance with Rule 1.). 

In the case of many verbs the old infinitive, 
formed in accordance with Rule 1, has now given 
place to a new infinitive formed according to Rule 2 : as, 

R. sanj-: Old Infin. sukhtan (sdkhtan): New Infin. 
sanjidan, 'to weigh'. 

R. sunb-: Old Infin. suftan: New Infin. sunbldan, 'to bore'. 

93. Instead of learning rules for the formation 
of the Infinitive from the Root, or, - - since the In- 
finitive is given in the dictionary, - - for finding the 
Root when the Infinitive of an irregular Verb is 
known, the far better plan is for the student (as in 
Latin) to learn the Principal Parts of each irregular 
Verb. Hence, in giving every such word in this 
Grammar, we state both the Infinitive and the Root. 
A list of Irregular Verbs is, moreover, given as an 
Appendix to Lesson XIII., where Rules for the for- 
mation of the Infinitive from the Root are given. It 
will be seen that there are three causes which have 
operated in producing the very slight apparent irre- 
gularity in some Persian verbs; these are: - - (a) a 
desire to render the pronunciation more euphonious 
and easier, (b) contraction, (c) in a very few instances 
the fact that certain verbs are defective and require 
to have their missing portions supplied from other 
verbs. Examples of these three classes of irregularity 
are: (a) amuz, amukhtan, 'to teach, to learn'; 
(b) avar (ar), avdrdan, 'to bring'; (c) bin, didan, 'to see'. 

1 Very rarely also 2. 


Lesson 11. 


Duzdtdan, to steal. 
shanidan (shanav), to hear. 
khvabidan, to lie down, to sleep. 
guftan (guy), to speak, say. 
namudan (namdy), to shew, do. 
guzdshtan (gtlzar), to pass by. 
guqdrdan (guz,dr), to permit. 
guzdshtan (guzar) to leave. 
didan (bin), to see. 
bar ddshtan (bar ddr), to carry. 
shudan (shav), to become. 
bdkhtan (bag), to lose (a game), 
bdyad, ought. 

faramush kardan, to forget. 
arzidan, to be worth (bi-). 
pasandtdan, to approve of. 
danistan (dan), to know. 
afrtishtan (afrdz), to raise aloft. 
barkhdstan (barkhiz), to rise. 
pazlruftan (pazir) to accept. 

az tdraf i } ,-, /? 

~_j -i > on the part of. 
az jamb e f 

blddr, awake. 
mthtar, groom. 
i'timdd, reliance. 
nigtthbfini, watching, act of guard- 

iyn, permission. 
(jazeh, ijazat, leave. 
pas, a watch in the night. 
pasbani, act of keeping watch. 
pdhin kdrdan, to stretch out. 
lazim, necessary. 
zud, quick; early. 
nish, prick, sting. 
a/tab, sunshine. [of dawn. 

nish i aftdb, (at) the first ray 

bam, the roof. 
qasr, a palace. 
divdr, wall. 
murgh, a fowl. 
ishtireh, a sign. 
Jcih gfiya, as if. 
bdzi kardan, to play, to gamble. 
sadd zadan, to call. 
huzur, presence. 
shart, condition, wager, stake. 
khyushnud, pleased. 
ashpazklidneh, kitchen. 
ddhineh, bridle, bit. 
kas, person, fellow. 
zdrar, injury, loss. 
zin, saddle. 
umid, hope. 

afsdr, halter, headrope, headstall 
a'/rt' hazrat ('most lofty presence' 

), your Majesty. 
makkdr, deceiver, deceitful. 
hazar chandan, 1000 times as 


dkhir, last; end. 
vujud, existence, person. 

khatir, the heart. 

khatirjam' darid ('keep the heart 
together' =), be of good cheer. 

2rishkdsh, present (from an in- 

ciqdas, most sacred. 

humayuni \ , 

shahanshdhi \ r y aJ ' 

quwdr bdzi, 



dice-playing, gam 

Exercise 21. 



TheVerb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Root (Imperative). 79 

Translation 22. 

One day a king was seated on the roof of his 
palace. He saw a man who was standing (is having 
stood up) at the foot of the wall and had (has) a fowl 
in (his) hand, and that person was making (is making) 
a sign as if he wished (wishes) to make (him) a present 
of that fowl. The king called him and enquired, 'Why 
dost thou show this fowl to me?' He said, 'I beg to 
state to your most sacred imperial Majesty that I was 
gambling with a certain person, and on the part of 
your Majesty (the imperial person) I laid (made) a 
wager and gained (carried off) this fowl, and I have 
now brought it : I hope (there is hope) that you will 
(may) order them to (that ' they) receive it from me'. 
- 1 

1 That s, the servants. It would be presumptuous to ask 
the king himself to accept it! 

80 Lesson 11. 

The king was much pleased and said that they should 
(until they did) take (bear away) the fowl to (into) 
the kitchen. After two [or] three days the same man, 
having again " presented himself (having arrived to 
the presence of) before the king, brought a sheep 
with him and said, 'This sheep also I have won for 
your Majesty (the most lofty royal Presence) in 
gambling.' The king accepted the sheep also. The 
fellow came a third time, and he had brought another 
with him. When the king saw him empty-handed 
he asked him, '"Why hast thou brought nothing for 
me to-day?' He said (made representation), 'In your 
Majesty's name (name most sacred imperial) I laid a wager 
of one thousand tomans with this man and lost to him : 
he has now come for the money.' The king smiled, 
and, having given him the sum mentioned, said, 
'Never after this gamble in my name.' 


Jl j 

Jl jr" -A. J j^J^J*" Jl 

>, * i^-^J^^. l^-.l Ifl Xlju: Jl jji ^JC^-L _,2T-Ci._ ? 5j p 

The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Bare Occurrence. 81 

Twelfth Lesson. 

The Verb (continued) : Auxiliaries : Tenses of Rare 

94. Before studying the formation of the 
remaining tenses of the Active and the tenses of the 
Passive Voice, it will be convenient for the Student 
to have before him paradigms of the most necessary 
auxiliaries. "We therefore subjoin those of (a) Sudan, 
'to be'; (&) Khyastan, 'to will, wish'; and (c) Shudan, 
'to become'. 

95. Sudan, 'to be': Root bash or buv (y or js.1). 

(a) Preterite Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: budam, I was. budim, we were. 

2 nd P.: budi, thou wast. budid, you were. 
3 rd P.: bud, he, she, it was. budand, they were. 

(6) Present Subjunctive. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : basham, I may be. bashim, they j 
2 nd P. \bashi f thou mayst be. bashid, you [may be. 
3 rd l?.:bashad, he, she, it, bcishand, they } 
may be. 

(c) Imperfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : ml-budam, I was, etc. ml-budim, we were: etc. 
( 85, &.) 

(d) Another form of the Present Subjunctive. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: faivam, I may be. buvim we 
2 nd P.: buvi, thou mayd be. bilvid, you may be. 
3 rd P. : buvad, he, she, it, buvand, they 

may be. 
(Still used, in writing only.) 

(e) Perfect Participle. 
bitdeh, having been. 

(/) Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

2 nd P.: bash, be thou. 2 nd P.: bushid, be ye. 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 6 


Lesson 12. 

mi-bashi, thou art. mi-bashid, you 
ml-bashad, he, she, mi-bashand, they 

(g) Perfect. Indicative. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: bitdeh am, I have budeh im, we have been : etc. 
been : "etc. ( 85, d.) 

(ft) Pluperfect Indicative. (t) Agential. 

Wanting. Wanting. 

(j) Present Participle. (K) Optative. 

Wanting. 3 rd Sing, bad, bada, may it be ! 

(0 Perfect Subjunctive. 
1 st Singular, bude/i baslumi ( 102), I may have been. 

(m) Present Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. mi-basham, I am. mi-bastnm, we 
2 nd P. mt-basM, thou art. mi-basMd, von are. 
3 rd P. 

it, is. 

(n) Future Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P . : Jchyaham bud, I shall khvahim bud, We shall be; etc. 

be; etc. 
(As in the Regular Verb: 100.) 


ludani, abont to be, deserving or requiring to be, 
able to be. 

The prefix bi ( 91) is not now used with any oi 
the Tenses of this verb. 

[In India the Agential bashdndeh there pronoun- 
ced Msh'indeh is often used in the sense of 
bitant': but it is unknown in Persia at the present 

96. Ehyastan, 'to will, wish, ask': Root Rhyah. 

(a) Preterite Indicative. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : khyastam, I wished. Jchyasttm, we wished. 
2 nd P.: khyasti, thou wish- khyastid, you wished. 

3 rd P.: Khydst, he, she, it, Tthyastand, they wished. 


The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 83 

(6) Imperfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : rrii-Wiyastam, I wish- mi-khyastim, we wished, etc. 
ed, was wishing ; 
etc. ( 85, 6.) 

(c) Past Participle. 
khyasteh, having wished. 

(d) Perfect Indicative. 
khydsteh am, I have wished, etc. (85, d.} 

(e) Pluperfect Indicative. 
khyasteh budam, I had wished, etc. ( 85, e.) 

(/) Perfect Subjunctive. 
khyasteh bashaw, I may have wished, etc. ( 102.) 

(#) Gerundive. 
khrustani, to be desired, desirable. 

(h) First Present Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. khyaham, I shall. khyahim, we shall. 

2nd p 
3 rd P. 

khydhi, thou wilt, khydhid, you will. 
Wiyahad, he will. Jchyahand, they will. 

(i) Second Present Indicative. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : mi-khyoiham, I wish. mi-kliyaMm, we 
2 nd P.: ml-MvAI,thouwish- mt-khyciMd, you 



3 rd P. : ml - khyahad, he mi-khyahand, they 

(?) Imperative. 
2 nd Sing, khyah,* wish thou. 2 nd Plur. Myahid, wish ye. 

(k) Present Participle. 
kJiyahiin, wishing (Obsolete}. 

(I) Agential. 
khyahdndeh, wisher. 

(m) Future Indicative. 

khyaJmm khyast, I shall wish, ask, etc. ( 100.) 

1 Often used as a conjunction (cf. Latin vel . . . veT). Ichvrfh . . . 
fa khrfih, 'whether . . . or'. 


84 Lesson 12. 

97. When the verb khyastan is used an auxiliary, 
the First Present Indicative is used to form the 
future of other verbs, being then united with the 
shortened Infinitive of the verb following ( 100). It 
therefore means 'I shall, thou wilt', etc. The regular 
or Second Present Indicative is never used as a simple 
auxiliary and never has this sense: it means 'I wish, 
I desire, I ask', etc. The simple form of the Present 
Subjunctive cannot be used (since, as explained above, 
it is in this Verb used in the sense of 'I shall'): the 
strengthened form is therefore used; as b'i-Jchyaham, 
'I may wish', etc. ( 91,&.) So also the strengthened 
Imperative is always used ( 91, a.), bi-khyah, b'l-khyahid, 
'wish', 'ask'. [For an explanation of the reason why 
in the First Present Indicative the mi is not used in 
this verb, vide 107.] 

98. Notice the meanings of the following con- 
structions : 

a) Mi-khvaham bi-davam, I wish to run (lit. 'I wish 
I may run'). 

b) Khvaham david, I shall run. 

c) Qdlam-ra ddst girifteh budam va mi-klwastam 
Mghaz-ra M-navlsam, kih shuvna amadid, 'I had taken pen 
in hand, and 1 was just about to write, when you came'. 

99. Shudan, 'to become': Root shav. 

(a) Preterite Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : shildam, I became. shudim, we became. 
2 nd P.:s/mdt,thoubecamest. sMdid, you became. 
3 rd P.:s/rarf, he became. sliudand, they became. 

(6) Imperfect Indicative. 
nvi-shtidam, I was becoming, etc. ( 85, &.) 

(c) Past Participle. (d) Present Participle. 

sMdeJi, having become. Wanting. 

(e) Agential. 
shavdndeh, one who becomes (rare}. 

(f) Perfect Indicative. 
shudeh am, I have become, etc. ( 85, d.) 

The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 85 

0) Pluperfect Indicative. 
sh'iideh ludam, I had become, etc. ( 85, e.}) 

(h) Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

2 nd shau ( 9), become thou. 2 nd shdvid, become ye. 

() Present Snbjnnctive. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.:shdvam, I may 
2 nd P .: shdvi, thou mayst 
3 rd 'P.:s'hdvad, he may 

of shdvim, we may 
o sMvid, you may 
g shdvand, they may 

(;) Present Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

\.* i ~P.:mi-shava l m, I become. mi-sJiavim, we 

2 nd P.:wt'-s7tfiii, thoubecom- ml-shavid, you become. 


3 rd P. :mi-shavadjhe becomes, mi-slwvand, they 

(Je) Future Indicative. 
Jckvtiham shud, I shall become, etc. ( 96, li.) 

(I) Perfect Subjunctive. 
shudeh "basliam, I may have become, etc. ( 102.) 

(m) Gerundive. 
shiidani, about to become, that ought to become. 

In this verb the strengthened forms with bi- are 
very frequently used, as M-shavam, 'I may become', etc. 

It will be noticed that, except in the formation 
of the Infinitive, there is no irregularity in the con- 
jugation of either Khvastan or sMdan. 

We are now in a position to continue the explan- 
ation of the formation of the remaining tenses of the 
Regular Verb. 

100. The Future Indicative Active is formed 
by prefixing to the shortened Infinitive ( 84) of any 
verb the First Present Indicative of Ichyastan ( 96, h : 

86 Lesson 12. 

Future Indicative Active of Davidan, 'to run'. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: khyciJiam david khahim david 

2 nd P.: Jchydhi david khyahid david ( 


3 rd P.: JthaJiad david khdhand david 

'I shall run, thou wilt run', etc. 

This tense is now used in speech (except in Ka- 
shan) only when a very decided future or a purpose is 
denoted, in other words in ordinary conversation it 
denotes rather 'I will run' than 'I shall run'. Other- 
wise the Present Indicative ( 89, c) of the principal 
verb is employed in a future sense. More rarely the 
Future has^the sense of must, should, etc., as in the 
sentence, Ajab nist kih javarii Idiiyalat i buznrg Jchviihad 
natn'Ud, 'It is not strange that a youth should con- 
ceive great projects'. 

101. The Gerundive is formed by adding-! to 
the Infinitive, as: 

Davidani (Jo>j.i), about to run, that should run. 
It is now rarely used in writing though not uncom- 
mon in speech. In the case of Transitive Verbs the 
Gerundive has generally a Passive sense ; as, kushtani, 
'about to be killed, that ought to be killed' ; dftdani, 
'that may be seen, that should be seen, that is fit to 
be seen, visible'. Like all other adjectives the Gerun- 
dive requires na (I') and not nah (u) to be prefixed 
to form the negative ; as nadidani, 'that cannot be seen. 
invisible, that is not fit to be seen' ( 206, g). The 
Gerundive may (like other Adjectives) be used as a 
Substantive: as, khmirdam (jo^J^-), 'that which may 
be eaten, food'. 

102. The Perfect Subjunctive is formed by 
adding the Present Subjunctive of Sudan ( 95, b) to 
the Past Participle of the principal Verb. 

The Verb : Auxiliaries : Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 87 

Perfect Subjunctive Active. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: davideh basham , j ji) davideh bashim f_Ji 

2 nd P. : davideh bdshi O-AJJJ) davideh bashid 

3 rd P. : davideh bdshad -A> j->) davideh bdshand 


'I may (might, should, would) have run', etc. 

103. There are also a few other tenses which 
are of rarer occurrence except in literary style. They 
are the following : 

(a) Optative. 

3 rd P. Sing.: davad (jljj), may he run! 

It occurs only in the 3 rd Singular, and is formed 
by inserting an alif before the final letter of the 3 rd 
Sing. Present Subjunctive ( 89, 6). Sad ( 95, ft) is 
contracted from buvad. 

(6) Continuative Perfect Indicative. 
This tense is formed by prefixing mi- to all the 
persons of the Perfect Indicative ( 85, d). 

Ml -davideh am, etc., 'I have been running', etc. 

Example: 1. Az in ayeli cliizha-y-i gharib padid 
mi-dyad kih bi-ndzar nd-mi-amadeli ast, 'From this verse 
some strange things become evident which have not 
been coming to sight' (i. e. have not usually been 
noticed). 2. To ura dideh-i kih dar mdsjid istadeh Qur'an 
tni - kfivandeh va sdr i Khyudra pain mv-avdrdeh 
va buldnd ni/i-kdrdeh ast, 'Thou hast seen him that, 
having stood up in the mosque, he lias been reading 
the Qur'an and has been lowering and raising his head'. 
(The word ast is understood after mi-khvandeh and mi- 
avdrdeh, according to the last sentence of 85). 

(c) Contiuuative Pluperfect Indicative. 

This is formed by prefixing mi- to each person 
of the Pluperfect Indicative ( 85, e) : as, 

Mi-davideh bndam, etc., 'I had been running', etc. 

88 Lesson 12. 

(If in the two sentences given above in (6) we change the 
present and perfect tenses (mi-nyad and dfdefii) into the imper- 
fect and pluperfect (mi-nmad and dideh biidi), we may then change 
the other verbs, now in the Continuative Perfect, into the Con- 
tinuative Pluperfect, thus : mi-dmadeh bud, . . . mi-khvtindeh (bud) 
. . . mi-avdrdeh (bud), . . . mi-kdrdeh bud.) 

(d) ( on t i nuu t i ve Perfect Subjunctive. 
Mi-davideh Msham (of. 102), etc., 'I may have 
been running, I may have kept on running'. 

This tense is of very rare occurrence indeed. 

(e) Conditional. 

This is formed by adding-* to all the persons of 
the Preterite ( 85, a) except to the 2 nd Person Singular. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: davidami (^jujj) davidimi 

2 nd P.: davidi (^j^j^ davtdidi 

3 rd P.: davidi i^jjjj damdancTi 

'(If) I should (were to) run', etc. 

This tense also expressed habitual action and then 
had exactly the meaning of the Imperfect Indicative. 
It is not now used in speech and rarely in writing, 
the Imperfect Indicative being employed instead in 
both senses ( 85, 6). 

104. In older books ml was prefixed to the 
Imperative to denote continuance, thus forming the 
Continuative Imperative: the longer form of the same 
prefix, hami, was also used in the same way. E. g. 
mi-dau, hami-dau, hami-david, 'keep on running'. But 
this is now obsolete in speech and very antiquated 
even in writing. 

105. The prefix U- is often in writing used 
with the preterite Indicative, especially when it is a 
word of one syllable. It thus forms the Strengthened 
Preterite : as in the sentence / n-ra guft va birdft, 'He 
said this and went away'. But the employment of the 
prefix is a matter of taste, and it does not very 
materially modify the meaning. 

106. The original form of mi- was hami (Pahlavi 
hamai), and it meant 'always, ever', as is seen from 

The Verb : Auxiliaries : Tenses of Bare Occurrence. 89 

the word liamislieli which still has that meaning and 
is formed from the prefix hamit by adding to it the 
old (Achaemenian Persian) adverbial termination -sJieh 
(-sha, Pahlavi -shah). 

107. The form now known as the present Stib- 
junctive used in the old language to be the Present 
Indicative, and it is still found in classical works (and 
in their modern imitations) in that sense. It has there- 
fore very often a future meaning, as has the modern 
Present Indicative ( 89, c). But in the modern tongue 
the only Verbs in which the Indicative meaning of 
this form is retained are khyastan (First Present), daslitan, 
and sometimes bay'istan and shay'istan ( 97 and 131). 

108. The Negative of the Imperative in the 
older language was formed by prefixing ma-, 'not' 
(Avestic and Achaemenian ma, Greek /^, Latin ne). 
In speech, however, na is generally used instead of 
ma-, as less forcible and therefore more polite. In 
writing ma- may still be used, as may na- also. 

109. When a verb is compounded with a pre- 
position which precedes it, the particle mi- in the 
Present and Imperfect Indicative etc. is placed between 
the preposition and the verb: as, bar amadan, 'to come 
up'; Present Indicative bar mi-ayad. The same rule 
holds generally with the prefixed particles bi, na, ma- 
etc. and also with regard to the Auxiliary Khyaham; as, 

bar nd-y-dyad, bar nd-mi-ayad, bar Wiyaliad amad, etc. 
But bi- is not prefixed when this particular preposition 
bar is used ; in other instances it may be : as faru b't- 
barad 'may he (let him) swallow'. (Of. the introduction 
of the augment in Greek between the prefixed pre- 
position and the verb, as eeXef"ov from exXs^to.) 

In a few verbs (the prepositional nature of which 
is nearly forgotten, cf. the case of xaftiZot in Greek) 
the auxiliary of the Future is prefixed to the prepo- 
sition, as Jchyahad barlchast, 'he shall arise'. (Bar Jchyahad 
Mast is antiquated.) So JcJiyaJiad dar guzdslit, 'it shall 
pass away' (although ddr Jchyahad guzdsht is also correct) ; 
but faru khyahad burd, 'he shall swallow', in accordance 
with the general rule. So also fara girt/tan, 'to acquire', 


Lesson 12. 

has fard mi-girad, fard Wiydhad girtft, fard bi-glr, fat 
md-gir, etc. 

Such verbs as paziruftan 'to accept' ; avdrdan, 'to brin 
nmadan, 'to come', etc. are really compounded with separabl 
or inseparable prepositions; but as this has been forgotten 
the Persians, these verbs are treated as uncompounded. 


navishtan (navls), to write. 
shitdftan (shitdb), to hasten. 
piishfdan, to conceal. 
rasanidan, to cause to arrive. 
situdan (sitay), to praise. 
panddshtan (panddr}, to consider, 

bar ddshtan (dar}, to take up, 

carry off. 

firisttidan (firist), to send. 
tavnniston (tavdn), to be able. 
nishan dddan (dih}, to shew. 
bdvar kdrdan, to credit. 
muntazir, expectant. 
mulaqat, interview. 
muddat, period of time. 
magrun, near. 
kisalat, ill health. 
fursat, leisure, opportunity. 
dqsar -i auqfit, oftentimes. 
barhti, times, often. 
sliaraf-y&b, honoured. 
I'd/, weakness. 
yal'ash, slowly. 
rtth rdftan, to walk. 
bi-imfin, without faith, infidel. 
danflj wise. 
muttaqt, pious. 
mds'aleh, question, problem, 
sw'ff/, a question. 
su'aldt (Ar. pi.), questions. 
'ulamn (Ar. pi. of 'iilim) learned 

men , religious authorities , 

doctors of the law. 
Islfim, Muhammadanism. 
Tahiti ' ('may He be exalted', =) 

Most High (of God). 
ndzir, viewing, beholding. 
khtiliq, Creator. 
Tchair, good. 
sharr, bad, evil, wickedness. 

gundh, sin. 

murtahib i, engaged in. 

qudrat, power. 

izn, permission. 

mashghul-i(bi), busy with. 

Shaitd-n, Satan. 

dtash, fire. 

Johannam, hell. 

'uqubat, torture, punishment. 

ta'lfm, doctrine, teaching. 

'uqald (Ar. PI. of dqif), sages. 

sirfsht, composition, nature. 

mdmkin, possible. 

dsar, impression, effect. 

qatil, saying, speech. 

khdmush, silent. 

kham, bent. 

kuliikJi, a clod. 

giriydn, weeping, tearful. 

ahdmm (Ar. Superlat.), most im 


'djiz, helpless, unable. 
umnr (Ar. pi. of amr), matters 
haqfr } humble, contemptible. 
chindn, such, so. 
Jianitz, still, as yet. 
ziydd, very much. 
dard, pain. 
tabdssum, smile. 
ghairi wor'*, invisible. 
fewfr, presence. 
sarkdr, lordship: Sir. 
mustdujib i, liable to, deservin 
ntdkhfi, concealed, hidden. 
khdk, clay, soil, earth. 
chinankih, just as. 
duriighgu, liar. 
siikhan, a word. 
hikmat, wisdom. 
tafdrruj, pleasure, aniusemen 

(a walk). 

sddr i a'gam, Premier. 
vatir, a minister of state. 

The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Eare Occurrence. 91 

tajv'iz, permission, sometion. 

Jiishtzfir, a field. 

gdndum, wheat. 

buldnd, tall. high. 

InddncK, height. 

qadd, stature. 

ddam, a man (person). 

sOq, leg, stalk (of corn). 

Qfbleh-y-i ' Alam, ('Cynosure of 
the World' =) Your Majesty. 

sal&mat, safety: safe. 

saldmatij safety. 

mutavcyjih, attentive, careful. 

muta'djjib, surprised. 

vdtan, native land. 

ftl, elephant. 

bd'zij some. 

tnuftd, beneficial. 

aqdi-ib (Ar. pi. of qartb) rela- 

tabib, a doctor, physician. 

ddsteh, handful: handle. 

Icdghaz, paper: a letter. 

ahl, a 'people. 

darkhytist, request. 

mdusam, a season. 

nkhir i kdr, finally. 

isbdt, a proof; substantiation. 

sfibit kdrdan, to prove. 

sihhat, correctness: health. 

ijrfzdi, ijazat, leave. 

takdllum, conversation. 

hamfinff, indeed. 

qa/'/in va Jchyfsh, relatives. 

nshnti, an acquaintance. 

iltiflit, attention, kindness. 

tadirtf, honour. 

guftugu, conversation. 

Jiarf, a letter, a word. 

harf zadan, to speak. 

'deim i, bound for. 

shartf, noble. 

mtini', prohibitive. 

aknun, now. 

tab va Idrz, fever and ague. **J lJ 

sb va Itavfi ('water and air'), 


innh, moon, month. 
tavdqquf, delay, sojourn. 
tdjir, a merchant (Ar. pi. tujjar). 
shadtd, severe. 
dttchdr shtidan, to meet with ; to 

be attacked by (a disease). 
zamtin, time. 

raf, rejection, a shaking off. 
chaq, healed, well. 
umid, hope. 

gtihgaM, from time to time. 
muznliiin, troublesome, troubler. 
yagin, certain (it is certain). 
tijdrat, commerce. 
shughl, business, calling. 

Exercise 23. 

92 Lesson 12. 

'lj jLriiH^J ^!j>- g:* J ^^j-3^ cr^-r. C 


^ftJ^oJ^P jU lj)l^-"U- j| ^A 

Translation 24. A Tale. 

One day a king went out of the city with, his 
Prime Minister for a walk (amusement, recreation), 
and he came to a field and there saw some stalks of 
wheat 1 with ears-of-corn which were taller than the 

1 In Modern Persian there is no ordinary word in use for 
'plant' of wheat: hence the circumlocution. 

The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Eare Occurrence. 93 

height of a man. The king was surprised and said, 
'Until now I never saw (I had not seen) wheat so 
high as this (with this height)'. The Prime Minister 
said, 'May it please your Majesty (May the cynosure 
of the World be safe!), in my native land wheat 
grows (becomes) to the height of an elephant'. On 
hearing this the king smiled and said nothing. The 
minister said to (with) himself, 'The king, having 
considered my statement false, on that account (from 
that reason) smiled'. When they came back from (their) 
walk, the minister wrote to some of the people of his 
native land (that they should send) to send a handful 
of (from) stalks of wheat along with the ear(s)-of-corn 
(ktwsheli] that are (may be) on the top of them. /But 
when his letter reached that place the season for (of) 
wheat had passed, until one other year when (that) 
they sent (some). The minister took (bore) them to 
(nazd i) the king. The king asked him why he had 
brought them (having asked from him said, 'Why 
hast thou brought these?'). He said, "Last year, when 
I said (had represented) that in my country stalks of 
wheat grow (becomes) to the height of an elephant, 
your Majesty smiled. I said to myself, 'His Majesty 
(the most lofty imperial presence) has (pi.) deemed my 
statement false', therefore I have brought these to 
substantiate (for the sake of substantiation of) my 
words (qaul)." The king in answer to (of) him said, 
"I now believe (have credited) what thou hast said: 
but for the future (after this) be careful not to say 
(thou mayest not strike a letter) what thou canst 
not (mayst not be able to) prove except after one 



Ul fjJL. ^\j>j2. (Jb jo_ 

U ,sAb 

94 Lesson 13. 


<->' ->'-> 

JO-Li jjj ^4) U U.J.5 

__^ / ^^, " * 

I & V jU^.lL" *JLi 



jj, 43 

* j 

Thirteenth Lesson. 

1 Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a 
Sentence: Oratia ttecta and Oratio Obliqua. 

110. The Passive Voice of all Transitive Verbs 
is formed by appending to the Past Participle ( 85, c), 
singular,* the various parts of the auxiliary shiidan, 
'to become' ( 99). As the verb davidan can have no 
Passive, being an intransitive Verb, we take as our 

1 In place of using the Passive Voice, Persians often use 
the 3rd Person Plural of the Active Voice, as in the Examples 
following: "He was killed"; lira kushtand, (lit. 'they killed 
him'): "He was given a present"; in' ami bivat dadand. In the 
latter kind of sentence where in English a Passive Verb has 
a direct object after it, there is no other way of translating 
into Persian. (Cf. the use of the English they, German man, 
French on.} 

2 The older form of the past Participle without the final 
-ah is generally used in the Passive of ynftan (yl>\ 'to find' : 
e - & yajt mi-sliavad, 'it is being found'. 

Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a Sentence. 95 

example the verb kushtan (root kush), 'to kill'. It must 
be remembered that its Past Participle means, 'having 
killed 1 , but also 'having been killed 1 ( 85, c). 

111. Kushtan (<J&~), to kill: Past Participle, 

Passive Voice. 
A. Indicative Mood. 

(a) Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

l fit P. : kushteh mi-shawm kiishteh mi-shavlm c^T* 

2 nd P.: hlshteh mf-shavt kushteh mi-shavid (<i< 

3 rd P.: kitshteh mi-shavad kushteh mr-shavand 

\3j.?...*. <lij J ^Jk *UMl 

'I am being killed, thou art being killed', etc. 
(of. 99, j). 

The literal meaning of this tense is, 'I am be- 
coming having been killed', or 'I become killed', etc. 

(6) Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: kushteh mi-shudam ktishteh mi-shitdim 

2 n(l P.: kushteh mi-shtidi kushteh mi-shudid 
.((^o^ <:'f) .(j^oL.* 

3 rd P.: ktishteh mi-shud kushteh mi-shudand 

'I was being killed', etc. (cf. 99, 6). 

Literally, 'I was becoming having been killed', 
or 'I was becoming killed'. Like the Imperfect Indie. 
Act. ( 85, 6) this tense is also used with the sense 
of the Conditional, '(If) I were to be killed', 'Should 
I be killed', etc. 

96 Lesson 13. 

(c) Preterite Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: MshteJishudam(^c^f kushteh shudim 

2 nd P.: kushteh shudi (4^$" Mshteh slmdld ( 

3 rd P. : hlshteh shud vJ-f hlshteh shudand ( 

'I was killed', etc. (cf. 99, a). 
Literally, 'I became killed', etc. 

(d) Perfect Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: Msliteh shudeh am kushteh shudeli im 

2 nd P.: fat-shteh sJmdeh i kushteli slnideli id 
.(oi c^) .(A,IJL 

3 rd P.: Mshteh shudeh and faishteh skudeh and 

'I have been killed', etc. (cf. 99, /). 
Literally, 'I am having become killed', etc. 

(e) Pluperfect Indicative. 
Singidar. Plural. 

1 st P. : Mshtch shudeh Imdam fatehteh shudeh bitdim 

2 nd P.: faishteh shideh ludi faishteh shudeh budid 
.((^J^u^ c^f) .(A,JJ>*A^ 

3 rd P. : Tiustiteh shudeh bud Mshteh stmdeli budand 

'I had been killed', etc. (cf. 99, g). 
Literally, 'I was having become killed', etc. 

Passive Voice of the Verb: Order of Words in a Sentence. 97 

(/) Fntnre Indicative. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P. : Mshteh khyaham shud Mshteh khyahim shud (cT" 
.(jJi^j^ Ai3 ) .(o^^jbly. 

2 nd P.: Mshteh khyaht shud Mshteh Jchyahid shud (<iT~ 
.(-U^l^i. <ii ) .(a-i-u&l^ 

3 rd P. : Mshteh khahad shud Mshteh khahand shud 

'I shall be killed', etc. (cf. 99, K). 

Literally, 'I shall become killed', etc. What has 
been said in a previous paragraph ( 100) regarding 
the use of the Future Indicative Active applies also 
to this tense. 

-B. Subjunctive Mood. 

(a) Present Subjunctive. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: Mshteh shdvam <cT~ Mshteh shdvlm <~^ <cJf". 

2 nd P.: Mshteh shdvi (o^" Mshteh shdvid (-x. 

3 rd P.: Mshteh slidcad (<zi i r' Mshteh shdvand (jJ 

'I may be killed', etc. (cf. 99, t). 

Literally, 'I may become killed', etc. The strength- 
ened form of the Auxiliarly, bt-shavam may also be 
used ; as, Mshteh M-shavam, etc. This forms the 'Strength- 
ened Present Subjunctive Passive'. 

(6) Perfect Subjunctive. 
Singtdar. Plural. 

1 st P. : Mshteh shiideh lusham Mshteh shudeh bashim 

.(,ilJl AllT') .(.^la-Ll 

2 nd P. : Mshteh shudeJi Mshi Mshteh shudeh bitsh'id 

3 rd P. : Mshteh shudeh brisJtad Mshteh shudeh bashand 

.(o^laAi <l 
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 

98 Lesson 13. 

'I may have been killed', etc. ( 99, I). 
Literally, 'I may be having become killed', etc 

C. Other Moods. 

(a) Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

2 nd P.: Mshteh sJiau (tcT 2 nd P.: kiishteh slidvld 
.(j .(A,^ 

'Be them, ye, killed', (cf. 99, />): literally, 'Be- 
come thou killed', etc. 

(6) Infinitive Present. 
kiishteh shiidan ( j-i <iiT), 'to be killed' (cf. 99). 

(c) Infinitive Perfect. 
hishteh shudeh Imdan (j.jj>-i^ 4^O, 'to have been killed'. 

(d) Past Participle Passive. 

h'tshfeh sJwideh, 'having been killed' (O-L 

112. Order of Words in a Sentence. From the 
Exercises previously given the Student must have 
noticed that the usual order of words in a sentence 
is: (1) Subject, (2) Attribute of the Predicate, (3) 
Direct Object, (4) Indirect Object, (5) Predicate. 

As Adjectives and Nouns in Apposition directly 
(as a general rule) follow the Nouns which they qua- 
lify, of course these terms 'Direct Object' etc. denote 
the wlwle of the logical Direct Object and are not used 
in their narrower Grammatical sense. 

Example: (1) "Padshah i niku (2) ba khyushi 
(3) an khal'at-ra (4) bi sartib i dilir (5) 'ati farmud", 
Hie good king with pleasure presented that robe-of-fionour to 
the brave colonel. Emphasis is expressed by changing 
this order, but no change is required in the order of 
the words to denote a question. 

When a subordinate sentence begining with such 
words as dgarchih, harchdnd kih, ba vujudi hih, etc. occurs, 
it must be inserted before the main portion of the prin- 
cipal sentence and be followed by dmma or some such 
word: as, "The minister presented the robe-of-honour 
to the general, although he was jealous of his fame" ; 

Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a Sentence. 99 

Vaztr, dgarchih bar shiihrat i sardar husad mi-bilrd, 
amrtia khdl'at-ra bi-va'l 'ata farmud. Other subordinate 
sentences are generally treated somewhat in the same 

113. The indirect narration (oratio obliqita) is 
rarely used in Persian : its place is generally taken 
by the direct narration (oratio recta), which is often 
introduced by kih ('that'): as, "The servant said that 
his master was not at home"; Ndu/car guft Jcih 'Sahib 
tashrif nd-darad 1 . This, of course, changes the tense of 
the verb in the latter clause. 


Avardeh and, (they have brought but, an idol. n C^A 

) they relate. butparasti, idolatry. 

Irtin, Persia. 'ahd, covenant: fixed time, 

f-o -yr N 

(Proper Names). 









Ibrahim i 


Firddusi (Anthor of Shahntimeh}. 
Pishdadiydn (name of a line of 

mythical Persian kings). 
pardstish, worship. 
parasttdan, to worship. 
Musalmdn, a Musalman. 
jahiilat, ignorance. 
bahimtyyeh, bestial. 
rihfit, deliverance, 
taz', act of placing. 
ifa'-ideli, a rule. 
qilnun, a law. 
sar-silsileh, beginning 

qabfleh, tribe. 
itfrat, obedience. 
gdrdan, neck. 
nilindan. (nih), to place. 
bar khdstan (khiz], to rise. 
muhtirabat, war. 
<injdm, end. 

anjam/dan, to end (intr.). 
Jang, battle, war. 

of line 

bimdrl, sickness. 

milhlik, destructive. 

shuyu', prevalence. 

khalq, people. 

kastr, numerous. 

vdrteh, whirlpool. 

fand, destruction, death. 

Injdram, unavoidably. 

'azfz, dear, honoured. 

dar guqdshtan, to pass away. 

tasdlli, consolation. 

sffkhtan (saz), to make. 

rdfteh rafteh, gradually. 

shi'r, verse. 

maktub, written. 

'ibdrat, style. 

isltih, correction. 

isti'mdl, use. 

muhtioareh, idiom. 

msbat bi-, in reference to. 

'aib nd-darad, it matters not 

Farawgt, European. 

Farartgistdn, Europe. 

yaqtnan, surely. 

saff, line, rank. 

knrvttnsard, caravansarai. 

muldzim, attendant, f j^ 

nfifjdh, suddenly. 

dalq, beggar's robe. 

kashkiil, beggar's bowl. 

'asa, staff. 

drikhil shiidan, to enter. 

Jadd, grandfather. 


Lesson 13. 

kuslitan, to kill. 

band namfidan, to build, to begin. 

mukhdlafat, opposition. 

intiqdm, vengeance. 

kdmar, waist, loins. 

bdstan (band), to bind. 

Idslikar, army. 

fardham, together. 

sMr, a lion. 

paldng, a panther. 

yuz, a leopard. 

shikdst, defeat. 

div, a demon. 

dushman, an enemy. 

uftddan (tiff), to fall. 

mcfrikeh, field of battle. 

id f tan (tab), to turn (tr.). 

pd-y-i tdklit, capital. 

sdltanat, kingdom, reign. 

sulidn, ruler, SultSn. 

murdji'at, return. 

taj, a crown. 

shdlii, royal. 

padshdhi, reign. 

paidd, discovered. 

nur, light. 

ildht, Divine. 

ztihid, a hermit. 

(ftash, fire. 

zamdn, time. 

isti'dnat, aid. 

ddnisli, wisdom. 

vnjtr, abundant. 

zdfar, victory. 

khvdndan, to read. 

navishtan (watfs), to write. 

hobs, captivity. 

fard giriftan, to learn, acquire. 

vasiteh, method. 

qaid, bond. 

astri, captivity. 

bakhsliidan, to bestow. 

whose ? 

az an i kih 

mul i kill 

mukJiatab, person addressed. 

mutakdttim, speaker. 

ddab, courtesy. 

shimi'trdan (shimnr), to reckon, 

ra'y, thought, opinion. 

rffst, true, right, straight. 

durust, correct. 

hingam, time. 

ishtibah, mistake. 

Jcunun, aknun, now. . i. 

Jial > " V^J^LA^> ' 

al'an \ now ' 

mundarij, recorded. 

sliu'arn, (Ar. pi. of shif'ir, a poet.). 

mubaligtieli, exaggeration. 

shdkk, doubt. 

asl, root, origin. 

tarikli, history (Ar. pi. tavarikh . 

qadlm, ancient. 

'tiqil, intelligent: a sage (Ar. pi. 

kuh, mountain. 

nwvdrrikli. historian. 

afstfneJi, fable. 

Sar Jan Mdlkam, Sir John Mal- 

musdmma' bi-, named. 

qubfd dashtan, to accept. 

rdqam ( Ar. pi. arqum), inscription. 

mikhi, cuneiform. 

sdklirdi, rock. 

mshtwr, more. 

ittilfi', information. 

tdifeli, race, people. } \\M 

ta'tfqub, pursuit. 
"itstuklwan, a bone. 

mahi, a fish. 

drreli, a saw. 

Exercise 25. 

Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a Sentence. 101 

Jjjl ji c^>*\ j 

Translation 26. 

One day Sultan Ibrahim i Adham was seated at 
the door of his palace, and his attendants (had drawn 
ranks) were drawn up in line by him. Suddenly a 
mendicant with a beggars-robe and bowl and staff, 
having arrived from a journey (road), wished to enter 
the palace. The Sultan's attendants asked him saying 
(having enquired from him said), "Where art thou 

102 Lesson 13. 

going, old man?" The mendicant said, "I want to go 
into this caravansarai". In reply to him they said, 
"This is the palace of the ruler of Balkh and not a 
caravansarai". The old man said, "No, it is a cara- 
vansarai". The Sultan, on hearing (having heard) this, 
called the mendicant before him and said, "Mendicant, 
this is my house; for (from) what reason dost thou 
say that it is a caravansarai?" The old man replied, 
"Ibrahim, permit me to (command permission in order 
that I may) ask thee (from thee) a few (diand) questions. 
"Whose house was this at first?" The Sultan said, "My 
grandfather's". He said, "When thy grandfather passed 
away, whose did it become?" The Sultan said, "My 
father's." The mendicant said, "When thy father died, 
to whom did it pass (arrive)?" The Sultan in reply 
said, "It passed on to me". The mendicant said, "When 
thou passest away (pres. Subj.\ to whom will it go 
(b'i-rasad)?" He said, "To my son". The mendicant in 
reply to him said, "Ibrahim, a place that one enters 
and another goes out of is a caravansarai and not a 
dwelling (kkanekf. 



i *j* JU.lf <r 

jl JLo-j. jlj-.l JA! x-.U* cjbTjl jJ4^'l 45" ' <j.,J j 

j-> I j (j-J-r. j^^-sr.) 

f i .r 


\\J\ oS 

XI -U. 

Irregular Verbs. 103 

^ * ^ " * 6 1*~ '"" * *' 1 **^' 

I * 

*r u ->*:-* 

Jiji jTU jVlUl J. 



Appendix to thirteenth Lesson. 

Irregular Verbs. 

114. As has been already said, the only irre- 
gularity in the conjugation of the so-called Irregular 
Verbs consists in the formation of the Infinitive from 
the Root modified in a particular manner. When both 
the Infinitive and the Root are known, the formation 
of the various tenses and moods proceeds exactly as 
shewn above in the Regular Verb. Many of the Irregular 
Verbs, with their Roots subjoined, have already been 
given in the Exercises, but for convenience of re- 
ference all the Irregular Verbs are here entered alpha- 
betically (in the order of the Persian Alphabet). A 
few that are quite regular are also entered (with R 
prefixed) where any mistake might otherwise be made 
regarding the root. Those parts of the verbs which 
are enclosed in square brackets are now obsolete, and 
should not be used in speaking or even in writing, 
though they are entered here because they occur in 
the older writers. 

115. List of Irregular Verbs. 

[Aj~idan,ttji'n],ajfdeh, to stitch, [rfkhtan, ffkh], ffkhteh, to draw 
make raised stitches, e. g. out. [adorn. 

for ornament. nrffstan [ffr<7?/|, ffrtttfeft, to 


Lesson 18. 

[azurdan, azar], azurdeh, to 


azmudan, azmdy, to test, try. 
B. [dzdan, az], to stitch (= 

ajidan, q. v.). 

[asudan, asay], asudeh, to re- 
[ashilftan, ashub], ashufteh, to 


agliishtan > aghdr], aghishteh, 
aghartdan \ to steep, (inblood). 
agMshtan ) agMsh], to em- 


[agMsJitdan ^ brace; to cut. 
afartdan, afartn, to create. 
agdndan, dgan, to stuff. 
[aludan, aluy\ aludeli, to defile. 
[amddan, amdy], amddeli, to 


amadan, ay, to come. 
amukhtan, amuz, to learn, (to 

teach, old.}. 

amikhtan, amtz, to mix. 
afrdkhtan, to exalt > afrdz, 
afrdshtan, to hoist \ to raise. 
afzudan, afzdy, to increase 


R. afshandan,afshdn, to sprinkle. 
afshurdan, afshdr, to squeeze. 
uftddan, uft, to fall. 

[andudan, anddy], to smear. 
anbdshtan, anbdr], aribdshteh, 
to heap up. 

anddkhtan, andaz, to throw. 

andukhtan, anduz, to store, 
lay up. 

ingashtan, ingdr, to deem. 

[aglidshtan, aglidsh(?)}, to accu- 

sghushtan ) aghush] to em- 
aghftshtdan \ brace. 

ajrukhtan, afruz, to kindle. 

angtkhtan, angiz, to stir up. 

aijdrdan, ) dear, 

vulg. and old, avurdan \ dr,to 

aifkhtan, aviz, to hang (tr. 
and intr.}. 

tstddan, ist 1 , 

obs.^^an,i S ^ tostandu P' 

Note. Some of these verbs have not been placed in alpha- 
betical order. 

Bakhtan ) baz, to play, to 
Bilztdan ( lose (a game). 
R. bdftan, bdf, to weave. 

bayistan, bdy, ought, to be, 

proper (impersonal), 
biirdan, bar, to carry off. 
bdstan, band, to bind. 
budan, buv, bash, to be. 
bfkhtan, Mz, to sift. 
Paludan, paltiy], to strain. 

'paisfan i -I* i n 

1,1 I jpciy\i ''O fe nrm. 

puklitan, paz, to cook. 

paztniftan, pazir, to accept, 

pazmurdan [pazmir] ,pazmiirdeh, 
to wither (intr.). 

parddklitan, parddz, to busy 
oneself with (bi). 

[parhfkhtan], parhtz, to ab- 
stain from (az). 

panddshtan, panddr, to sup- 

[pfkhtan, piz], to take captive. 

[pirdstan, pirdy], pirdsteh, to 

paimudan, paimdy, to measure. 

patvdstan, paivdnd, to unite 
(tr. and intr.}. 

[Takhtan] ) taz, takhteh, to 

tazidan \ twist, to gallop. 

tdftan, to twist, turn ) tab, to 

tabfdan, to shine \ shine, 

[tukhtan, tuz\ to collect. 

[tanudan, tandv], to twist,spin. 

tavanistan, tavdn, to be able. 

Jaidan, jav, to chew (vulg. 
for khmdan). 

jdstan, Jah, to leap. 

justan, juy, to seek. 

Chidan, chfn, to pluck. 

KHtistan, khiz, to rise. 

khmbfdan ) kliusb j to lie 

kliuftan \ \ down, to 

R. khvaUdan, khvab | be asleep. 

Dddan, dih, to give. 

ddshtan, dar, to have, possess. 

damstan, dan, to know (& 

Irregular Verbs. 



dirudan ) 
diravtdan ( 
dfikhtan, duz, to sew. 

dldan, bin, to see. 

Kabudan, rabdy, to snatch away. 

[rdstan, roll], to escape. 

[rasfem] > ruy, to grow up, spring 

rutdan ) vip. 

rishtan ) .. 

r&hftm f m ' t0 S P in " 

rdftan, rav, to go. 

hjg f nifc], to sweep. 
[ruftan \ 

rfkhtan, riz, to pour out, spill. 
[Zadan] ) zny, to bring forth 
zaldan \ young. 
zddan, zan, to strike, beat. 
[zidfidan, zidliy\ to rub off, to 


[zinudan, zinav\ to neigh, howl. 
[ztstan, ziy], zindeh (Agential), to 

zandeh live. 
Sukhtan, snz, to make. 
suidan (v. sudari). 
sipurdan, sipttr, to entrust. 

sittin, to seize, take. 

(vulg. sTmdan, sun, to get, buy.) 

> sanj, to weigh. 

( sirish], sirishteh, to 
I sZrts/i (vulg.). knead, 

> sardy, to sing. 

suft] stifteh 


.- 7 


[suftan ( 


sunltdan \ to P ierce ' bore " 

sukhtan, suz, to be burnt, to burn 

(iiitr.), (old to burn trans.}. 


Shnyistan, shay, to be fitting 


shitdftan, shittib, to hasten. 
shtidan, shav, to become (old, to go). 
shustan, shTty (vulg. sli~ir\ to 


R. sliikdftan, sliikaf, to cleave, 

split (<raw.). 
shikdstan, shlkan, to break 

(trans: a stick, e. g.). 
shikuftan > sliikuf, to burst 
(shikfiftan?) \ into bloom. 
shanmrdan, sJmmdr (old s/ta- 

wiwr), to count. 
sliinakhtan,sliinris,to recognise, 

to know (connaitre). 
[shunudan] j shinav, to 

shinidan > hear, to 

shanuftan (vulg). ] smell. 
[Ghunudan, gJiiinuv], to slum- 

Firisttidan, firist, to send, 
f/arfawflfaw > farkdnd] , to 
[/ar/cawdHan ^ cause to dig 

a canal. 

farmfidan, farmdy, to com- 

furukhtan, furfish, to sell. 
firiftan, firib, to deceive. 
fuzudan, fazdy, to increase 

(trans. Another form of 

afzudan, q. v.). 
fislmrdan. jisliar, to crush 

(another form of afshurdan, 

q ; V.). 

[Kttstan] ) kah, to grow thin, 
kahfdan \ waste away (intr.) 
kdshtan V Tear, to sow, plant 
[ktshtan] \ (seed). 
[kaftan] i kav, to dig (vulg. to 
kttitdan \ search a person for 

stolen property, etc.). 
kdrdan, kun, to do. 
R. kdndan, kan, to dig. 

[kiiftan] ) kub, to knock, pound, 

kubtdan \ crush. 

Guddkhtan, gudtiz, to melt 


guzdrdan, to place ) guzdr, to 
guzdslitan, to leave \ leave, let, , > **r c 

permit, place. 

guzfahtan, guzar, to pass by. 
gard'idan (see' ffdshtan). 
giriftan, gir, to seize, take. 
gurikhtan > gurfz, to 

(vulg. gurukhtan) \ flee. 
girtstan [gtriy], to weep. 
guzidan, guztn, to choose. 

106 Lesson 13. 

E. gaznlan, gaz, to bite. Nigarlstan, nigar, to look at. 

gusistan i giisil. to break [nisltnstan] ) nishtfn, to set, seat 

tjusikhtan > (trans., e. g. a nishandan \ plant. 

gusiltdan I thread). (Vulg. nishdatan, nishin, to sit down, 

strengthened imperat. 6ts- namudan, namify, to show. 

for bigufril}. navakhtan, navaz, to sound (tr 

gushddan ) gusliuy, to open, and intr.); to receive witl 

gushudan \ loosen. honour; to pet (a child). 

J*.* t ottru. to become. / ij 1+ 1 * } ncivi-s. to write 

gardidan S y (old nabtshtan S 

giiftan, guy, to say, speak. nihudan, nth, to put, lay down 

gumashtan, gumar, to appoint, [nihuftan, nihuft(?)}, nitiufteh, t< 

[gdndan] > , . , hide (trans.-). 

gandUan \ ga1> ffishtan > M, to move (tra, 

R. Mtindan, man, to remain. hilidan \ (old and vulgar). 

[maniston], man, to resemble. Yfiftan, yfib, to get, obtain. 1 
-' J -n, mir, to die. 

116. As noticed above ( 74), in the first syllable 
of some verbs (e. g. namitdan, while a is used in some 
places, i is heard in others, and u may still be found 
elsewhere. We have in the above list adopted in each 
case the most usual pronunciation (the short vowel 
hardly ever being written in Persian). 

117. There is (as will be noticed in the List 
given above) a great tendency to form regular infi- 
nitives in -idem from the roots of irregular verbs. In 
some cases, however, both the regular and the irregular 
forms are now obsolete, as shewn above. New verbs 
are often formed by compounding the present or pas 
participle, or sometimes the shortened infinitive, with 
auxiliaries. Thus for the tenses formed from the ob- 
solete root of giristan, to weep, we find giriyan ml- 
diavad etc. substituted: for (Iranian, drasteh lidrdan: for 
z'tstan, zlst namudan, etc. 

118. To the advanced Student the following 
rules for the formation of the Infinitive from the Root 
of Irregular Verbs may be useful. 

The old termination of the Infinitive in Persian 
(Pahlavi, Dart) was -tan (cf. Sanskrit -turn, Latin Supine 
in -turn) : -dan has arisen from this by softening the 
after a vowel or a liquid letter, and can therefor 

A very few Irregular Verbs the sense of which is some 
what obscene have been omitted from the above list. 

Irregular Verbs. 107 

occur only after such, letters (the vowels long or short 
and the liquids n and r). 

119. Rules. I. A few Boots insert a (lengthened 
from an original final a in the root: cf. i-sta-dan and 
Lat. std- re) : e. g. tst-a-dan, (older isttfdari), firist-a-dan 
(same root with prefixed fra, [Greek ~/>o-, Lat. /;n), 
Skt. pro]). 

II. Many verbs, the roots of which end in -ay, 
change this into u before the ending -dan, e. g. sitay, 

III. Many verbs, the roots of which end in -a/% 
change the a into u before appending the -dan : e. g. 
mamar (old sJmmur), sliamurdan. 

IV. Other roots in ar and ar, if they take the 
older ending -tan, change the r into sli before it : as 
guzar, guzdshtan; guzar, guzashtan; dar, dashtan: but if 
they take -dan they retain the r, sometimes changing 
the preceding vowel of the root: as, guzar, guzardaii : 
bar, burdan. 

V. Roots ending in h, nd (and also those in n 
which take -tan) change this into s before -tan: as, 
rah, rdstan; band, bdstan; slukan, shikdstan. 

VI. Roots ending in z, s, sh, change their final 
consonant into Jch before -tan; as, anddz, andakhtan; 
shinas, shinakhtan; dusk, duklitan. (Some exceptions are 
found, e. g. agush, agushtan.) 

VII. Roots ending in v, b, Tty, change these letters 
into /before -tan: as, rav, rdftan: rub, ruftan (ruftan): 
guy, guftan. 

VIII. Roots ending in in ' often omit the n before 
the termination -dan or -tan: as chin, cliidan: guzln, 

IX. Some Verbs, the roots of which were origi- 
nally nouns, adjectives or participles, add -istan or istan. 
instead of the simple -tan (i. e. insert ?', or t, connecting 

1 The n is no original part of the root in such verbs: 
e. g. kun (root of kdrdan) is contracted from the Avestic kerenar 
(cf. nu class of verbs in Sanskrit, Greek deix-vv-o), Latin pono 
for pds-n-o. So chin fr. J/chi.) In nishfn (ni = Russ. na-, Lat- 
in : shas (sh for s after = sed, [Lat. severe]) the n is for d or nd. 

108 Lesson 14. 

vowel, and s for euphony, before -tan) : as, nigaristan 
(nigar) ; tavantstan (tavan) : danistan (dan). 

X. "When a preposition is prefixed to strengthen 
the verb, the conjugation is unchanged thereby: as 
liliustan, kliiz; barlchastan, barkhiz. Only when the pre- 
positional nature of the prefix is forgotten is a slight 
change allowed ; as, paqiruftan, pazir (from paz I = Avestic 
paiti, Greek -f>6<?, and raftan; cf. vulgar r-ed for rav-ad, 
contracted) ; avdrdan, avar (from a -j- biirdan, bar). 

120. The full explanation of some of the irregularities 
requires a reference to older forms of the language and does not 
lie within the scope of the present work. But the following 
notes may be useful: Dtdan is from the \/dhi, 'to separate, 
distinguish, discern'; Mn is the Avestic vain, to see'. Amadan 
= ft -\- \garn, while fly = a -\- \'i. The original Persian form 
of the root of giriftan is the Avestic girew, which became giriv, 
hence the infinitive giriftan (Rule VII.). The present form of 
the root, gfr, comes from this by contraction, and the vowel is 
lengthened as a compensation for this contraction. 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

The Causative Verb : Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 
121. The Stem of those parts of the Causal or 
Causative Verb that are formed from the Imperative 
is produced by appending the termination -an to the 
root of the simple Verb, thus producing a secondary 
root from which all the other parts may be formed 
quite regularly. In other words, the root of the Caus- 
ative Verb coincides in form with the Present Par- 
ticiple of the simple verb. The Infinitive adds to this 
the termination -dan, to which the uniting vowel I 
may be prefixed. The meaning and use of the Causative 
Verb are seen by comparing the verb raise with the 
verb rise, of which the former is the Causative, in 
English. So also we may call 'to seat' the Causative 
of 'to sit', the former meaning 'to cause to sit'. In 
Persian there are many Causative Verbs, though they 
cannot be formed from every simple Verb, and their 
use is becoming more rare than formerly. In a few 
instances the Causative remains when the simple verb 
has ceased to exist: as agahamdan, 'to inform', from 
'igah, which now exists only as an adjective, 'aware'. 

The Causative Verb : Compound and Preposition al Verbs. 109 
122. Examples of Causative Verbs. 

Simple Verb. Root. Cans. Root. Cans. Inlin. Meaning. 

navisldan, naws navl^an navisan-(i)-dan. To cause to 
'to write'. write, to dic- 


rastdan, ras rasan rasan~(i)-dan. To cause to 
'to arrive'. arrive, to 


tarsldan, tars tarsan tarsdn-(tydan. To cause to 
'to fear'. fear, to frigh- 


rdstan, rah ralian raltan-(i)-dan. To cause to 
'to escape'. escape, to save. 

amitlchtan, amug amuzan umTisan-(i)-dan. To cause to 
'to learn'. learn, to teach. 

123. To the Eule given in 121, the chief 
exceptions are : 

Simple Verb. Root. Causative Root. Caus. Infin. Meaning. 

rdftan, rav ran (cont. randan To drive. 

'to go'. for ravari) 

nishdstan, nishin nishan nishandan To seat. 

'to sit down'. 

guzdsldan, guzar guzar gmaslitan To leave. 

'to pass. 

But this last verb also forms gussarSn-fy-dan, 'to 
offer (a sacrifice)', 'to cause to pass'. 

124. Compound Verbs. 

Owing in large measure to the Arabian conquest 
of Persia and the consequent introduction of Islam, 
many Arabic participles, nouns and adjectives are in 
Persian used with Persian auxiliaries to form new 
verbs. Persian adjectives or participles, and sometimes 
nouns and the shortened infinitives of verbs (as zist 
namudari) are sometimes similarly used to form the 
first element in such compounds. The Persian trans- 
itive verbs used to form the second element all 
assume the meaning of to make, or to become, or something 
similar. The chief of the verbs so used with a few 
examples of the compound verbs 8,re here subjoined. 


Lesson 14. 

Compound Verb, 
mddad kdrdan, to help. 
tdlab namudan, to demand. 
taghyir dddan, to change 


harf zddan, to speak, [ed. 
zdkhmUivurdan, to be wound- 
gamdn burdan, to fancy. 
razi sakhtan, to satisfy. 
muldhizeh farmftdan, to per- 

taddruk dtdan, to make pre- 
zdhmat kashtdan, to take 


dust dastitan, to love. 
mdslahatdamstan, to approve 

narm gardanldan, to soften, 

padid amadan, to become 


marqumshndan, to be written. 
zdhir gdshtan, to become 


tabdil ydftan, to be changed. 
jasdrat varzidan, to presume, 


125. Such of the Compound Verbs as are trans- 
itive in Persian take the postposition -ra after their 
direct object whenever -ra would occur with the direct 
object of a simple Verb ( 41): as ura farmudand, or 
iira Jiukm Jidrdand, 'they commanded him'; an kitdb-ra 
JJtvandld, or an kitdb-ra nmluhiseli-jarmudid, 'you read 
that book'. So also Ishdn-ra mulaqdt-kdrdtm, 'we met 
him': an kdgJiaz-ra tahrir-namud (or navishfy, 'he wrote 
that letter'. In some Compounds more than one auxi- 
liary may be used without materially changing the 
sense: e. g. tdlab-kdrdan is the same as tdldb-namudan. 
But in others no change can be made: e. g. labdil- 
kardan (or -namudan) and taglvjir-dadan are correct, but 


Kdrdan (kuri), 'to do'. 
tiamudan (namdy), 'to shew'. 
dddan (dih), 'to give'. 

zddan (zan), 'to strike'. 
khvtirdan (khyur), 'to eat'. 
burdan (bar), 'to carry off. 
sdklitan (saz), 'to make'. 
farmudan(farmdy),'to order'. 

dldan (bin), 'to see'. 
kJiashidan, 'to draw'. 

ddshtan (dar), 'to have'. 
dantstan (dan), 'to know'. 

gardanldan, 'to render'. 
dmadan (dy), 'to come'. 

shiidan (sliav), 'to become'. 
gdshtan (gard), 'to become'. 

ydftan (ydb), 'to get'. 
varzidan, to act. 

The Causative Verb : Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 1 1 1 

the auxiliaries must not be interchanged. The student 
in his reading should pay especial attention to this 

A very few Persian verbs have been formed from Arabic 
nouns by simply adding the infinitive ending -f-dan: the chief 
of these are talab-t-dan, 'to demand'; fahm-f-dan, 'to understand'; 
raqstdan, 'to dance' ; bal'tdan, 'to swallow'. 

126. Prepositional Verbs (Verbs compounded with 
prepositions) have been dealt with in 109 above. 
Some verbs undergo more or less change of meaning 
when united to prepositions : e. g. : 

Dar avdrdan, to bring out (az) ; to bring in (bi). 

dar Jcasthdan, to draw out (az). 

dar avikhtan, to grapple with. 

nidu dar dadan, to utter (give out) a cry. 

dar mandan to be destitute, weary. 

va guzardan (guzashtan) to leave behind. 

va istddan, to stop, come to a stand : to stand up. 

va dashtan, to hold back : to station. 

va (or baz) Jcdrdan, to open. 

baz dmadan, to come back. 

baz istddan, to desist from (az). 

bar gdshtan (gardidari), to return, turn back. 

dar guzashtan, to pass away (az)] to pass over 
(az, bar). 

dar dmadan, to come in (bi) ; to come out (as). 

chindn va namudan, to point out as such. 

furu bur dan, to swallow up : to force down (as a 
needle into cloth). 

jara gir'iftan, to acquire, learn. 

bar dashtan, to carry off. 

bar khvnrdan, to meet with (-ra, or bi-). ' 

dar uftadan, to occur : to fall in with (bi-). 

dar yaftan, to find out, discover. 

var* shiJcdstan, to become bankrupt. 

pish gir'iftan, to assume, take upon oneself (the 
government, etc.). 

1 Bar khvurdan (az) also means 'to profit by': as, az ta'ttm 
i U bar khrnrdam, 'I profited by his instruction'. But here bar 
is a noun meaning 'fruit'. 

2 Var is another (popular) form of bar: so people often 
say far df'islitan for bar dtfshtan. 


Lesson 14. 

vil kdrdan (vulgar for rahd Jcdrdari), to let loose. 
lar Jidm zddan, to confound. 

tiritn kdrdan (ralM az khyud) to put oif (one's 


Names of places. 


gdrdish, turn, wandering. 
afsifneh, fable. 

asffini (Ar. pi. of ism), names. 
dam, net, trap. 
muhdbbat, love. 
giriftnr, captive. 
zdujeli, spouse. 
Inkin, but. 
gumasliteh, agent. 
dastgfr, captured. 
farmdn, command. 
qatl, execution, murder. 
sahr, poison. 
halnk, destroyed. 
ulnccii bar, over and above. 
sUmin, a surety. 
zantanat, security. 
. tavdqquf, delay. 
murdlchklias shiidan, to take leave. 
li-slifikli, jokingly. 
tdlab, a demand. 
siyflheh, a list. 

shinalchtan (shinss), to recognise. 
ta'djjub, surprise. 
muta'ajjib, surprised. 
taftisli, enquiry, search. 
mdhv kdrdan, to erase. 
*dlt kdrdan, to insert. 
tashrif a car dan, to come. 
tashrff dashtan, to be in, to be at 

home, to remain. 
varid shiidan, to arrive. 
cliapar (vulg. chdppar), postal 


chap&ri, postal service. 
dhmaq, a fool. 
tmimkin, possible. 
rfihuftfidan (uff), to start, set out. 
kiital, steep mountain ascent. 
qufileh, caravan. 

1 This word is now used only in writing. The proper dis- 
tinction between tajir and sauddgar is that the former is a 
merchant resident in one place: the latter goes abroad and 
brings goods back with him to sell. 

Vafat, death, decease. 

JamsMd \ 

Zahhffk I proper names of 

Sliaddad J fabulous people. 

Rustam ) 

Banbai, Bombay. 

Shiraz ) 






Hind, India. 

Cliin, China. 

IstaJihr, Persepolis. 

takJit, throne: bed. 

sharab, wine. 

paidd, discovered. 

mashhur, well-known. 

banif nihddan, to build: to begin. 

bar fin and, they assert. 

Khalq, people. 

fdba^eh, class, grade. 

qismat, share, division. 

katib, scribe, writer. 

fdpdhl, soldier. 

arWo (Ar. pi. of rail, Lord), 

Inraf (Ar. collective form of 

hirfat), occupations. 
ftantfyi' (Ar. pi. ofsanfrat), a trade, 


arbftb-i hfraf va sanaiji', artisans. 
alii, people. 
faWhat, agriculture. 
zirff'at, husbandry. 
Mi f. va z. husbandmen. 
tujjffr ( Ar.Pl. of tajir), merchants. 
sauddgar, a trader. * 
slidmsfi, solar. 

The Causative Verb : Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 113 

avdil, (Ar. pi. of avvaT), first, 


sdltanat, reign, kingdom. 
'tilam, world. 
mctmur, built; populated. 
rd'iyyat, subjects, people. 
abdd, inhabited; well oft". 
bi'l dkhireh, finally. 
iqbal, prosperity. 
bakht, good fortune. 
maghrur, proud. 
da'vt, claim. 

Khuddi, Deity, divinity. 
timsdl, likeness, image. 
surat, form; face. 
mayeh, substance, cause. 
lAznri, disgust. 
nasl, off spring. 
za'm, fancy. 

bartldarzadeh, brother's son. 
Jchvaharzftdeh, sister's son. 
taqat, strength (to suffer), en- 


muqtfvamat, resistance. 
sahrd, desert. 

mastifat, distance. 

tai Mrdan, to traverse. 

sur'at, speed, rapidity. 

davazdeh ruzeh (adv.), in 12 days. 

tanhti, alone. 

aynl, family (pop. wife). 

yakshdnbeh, Sunday. 

long, lame. 

lang namudan, to halt. 

qtttirdtir, muleteer. 

astirA, ease. 

hdrakat kdrdan, to set out. 

mdusam, season. 

bdhtir, spring. 

tabistttn, summer. 

pd$z, autumn. 

zamistdn ) r - , 

zimist&n \ v 

sahih o saldmat, safe and well. 

mdnzil, stage, halting place, 

maqsud, purposed. 
havd, air, weather. 
rahat, ease, comfort. 

Exercise 27. 


C" ^ J** <J^ ~ ^J 

Persian Conv.-Qrammar. 

114 Lesson 14. 

Translation 28. A Tale. 

Some merchants presented themselves (having 
become present) before (bi-huzur i) a king and brought 
some horses which they wished to (that they might) 
sell. The king approved (pasandid) of those horses, and 
gave the merchants two thousand tomans over-and- 
above the price of them, and told them to bring other 
horses also to that value (to the value of that sum) 
from their native-land. But he did not ask their 
country (i. e. what their native-land was) and their 
names, nor did he demand from them a surety. Those 
horse-dealers took their leave. Some days later (after 
some days) the king jokingly said to his prime minister, 
"Write for me a list of the names of all the fools that 
thou knowest". The minister, having done so, brought 
that list to the king's notice, (caused to pass from 
the glance of the king). When the king read it he 
was surprised at this, that he found his own name 
at the head of that list. He enquired of the minister, 
saying, "Why dost thou deem (hast thou deemed) me 
a fool?" In reply to him he said, "Because your 
Majesty, without making enquiry concerning (without 
this that they should enquire) the country and the 
names of those horse-dealers, and without demand- 

The Causative Verb : Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 115 

ing (demand of) any security, entrusted to them as a 
deposit such a large sum that they might buy horses 
(horse)". The king said, "If those merchants bring the 
horses, what then?" He said, "If they do so (did so), 
then I shall erase (having erased) your Majesty's name 
(name most sacred, imperial) from this list and enter 
their names instead of it". 


1 If the -m is inserted it is because the previous words 
are the objective of distance. 


Lesson 15. 

Fifteenth Lesson. 

Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 

127. We have already given in Lesson II. the 
conjugation of the defective verbs ast and hast. Their 
contractions now require notice. 

128. When nah-, na-, 'not', is prefixed, the verb 
ast is contracted as follows. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: ndyam{^)j I am not. nd'im (/.-if)? we are n t- 
2 nd P.: wa'* (!>'), thouartiiot. nd'id (j-if), you are not. 


3 rd P. : mst (c~J ), he is not. ndyand (-ui'), they are not- 

These forms, except the 3 rd P. Singular, are not 
used in the modern spoken language, and are rarely 
now written. 

129. The 2 nd person Singular of ast is not written 
separately but is united with the preceding word ; as 
To sdgi (jC. /), 'thou art a dog'. If the preceding 
word end in (not if it end in J ), this part of 
the verb is written merely hdmzeh, with or without 
kdsrch (s or ?), but this is still pronounced -I; as io 
ableli \ (41 /), 'thou art a fool'. 

When the 3 rd person Singular follows to, 'thou', 
both the j and the I are dropped in both speaking 
and writing: e. g. in Jchaneh-y-i tust (^JiriU.^1), 'this is 
thy house', (where c-lr is written instead of c lj>"). 

The initial alif is often omitted in every part of 
this verb, and the remaining letters added as an enclitic 
affix to the preceding word : as, mdnam (~-+) for man 
am (fl^), 'I am'. So also ust (c jl) for u ast (c l^l) 
Mtabast (c-~ br') for kitab ast (c~- lytr'); dhmaqtd (ju5a.l) 
for dhmaq id (A, I j|*=>-l): In Icitabmal imast (cu-U JU^-> tOr 1 0> e ^ Ct 

Should, however, a word ending in ? ' come 
before ast (c I), ye (<^) is inserted after the alif of ast 
(vi1) and the hdmgeJi of the preceding word is omitted : 

Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 117 

as, in an khaneh {st kih (-S^uoUVjT^I), 'this is tliat 
house which'. 

130. The different persons of Hast (O~A) are 
also contracted in the following manner when preceded 
by nah (na-) or kih. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: nistam (.J). nisttm (,_:_;). 

\ -/ \ - -/ 

2 nd P.: nisti (- nistld -ui_;. 

3 rd P.: nist Ci~J). nistand (oj). 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st P.: Jcistam (JL-O* kfstim 

\l -/ / 

2 nd P.: kisti (j-f). Ttistid ( 

3 rd P.: klst z~. kistand 

E. g. Shuma mku nistid, 'you are not good' : u ktst, 
'who is he (she)?' in Jchaneh mal i last, 'whose is this 
house?' shuma ndukaran i Jcistid, 'whose servants are you?' 

In asking the question 'Who is there?' (e. g. in 
answer to a knock at the door), a Persian says merely 
Kist? (vulgar, M-dh?, cf. 78). The answer often 
given is man hastam (==- I am), 'It is I', (cf. Ego sum, 
ifia zlpi). 

131. The Impersonal Verbs ~baytstan and shaytstan, 
'ought' or 'should', are used only in the 3 rd P. Singular 
of each tense. They are generally followed by the 
present Subjunctive, with or without kih. The logical 
subject of the second verb may for emphasis be prefixed 
to the impersonal with or without -ra appended (accord- 
ing to whether it is considered the object of the im- 
personal or the subject of the second verb): as, 

An pddsnah -(ra) bayad kih dar fikr i rd'iyyat i Hhvud 
bdshad, 'That king ought to (be in thought of) think 
about his subjects'. 

But the -ra is rarely inserted in such a case. 
Notice that the mi- is not necessarily used in the 
present Indicative of bayistan and shaytstan (vide 107 
and 133), but it may be employed for emphasis. 

118 Lesson 13. 

If the necessity or obligation is general and not 
particular, the shortened form of the Infinitive follows 
these verbs -instead of their requiring the Present 
Subjunctive: as, Ahkam i ilahi-ra mi-bdyad bija dvdrd, 
'One must carry out the Divine commandments'. This 
distinction is rigorously observed in the modern language 
in both writing and speech, though in the older language 
the use of the Subjunctive in such constructions (after 
bayad, sliayad etc.) was not recognised. With the two 
modern usages and their difference of meaning compare 
the French, "H faut que j'aille" and "II faut aller". 

132. Shdyistan is rarely used in conversation, 
except sliayad in the sense of 'perhaps' and shayistcli 
as an adjective, 'suitable, befitting, worthy'. 

133. Tavdnistan (tavari), 'to be able', is followed 
by the (1) Present Subjunctive or (2) by the shortened 
Infinitive according to the same rule and with the 
same distinction of meaning. But when it is used im- 
personally the -ad of the 3 rd Person Singular is omitted. 
The mi is used in the present Indicative of this verb 
except in the instance last mentioned, where in the 
older style it may be left out: as, 

Ma ndmi-tavdnim an Icar-rd M-kunim, 'We cannot 
do that work'. An Icar-rd nd(mi-)tavdn hard, 'It is im- 
possible to do that work'. 

134. Where in English an Infinitive follows 
another verb, in Persian the present Subjunctive 
generally takes the place of the Infinitive, and kih (ex- 
pressed or understood) precedes this Subjunctive, except 
where purpose is implied, when its place is taken by 
id (or more rarely by td an ~kili). But to imply purpose the 
Infinitive preceded by bardyi may be used. Examples : 

'He told him to read the book' : urd hulmi hard kil< 
kitab-rd bi-khydnad. 

'He went to look for his rifle', Raft td tufdng i khyud- 
rd bi-juyad, or Bardyi justujii kdrdan i tufdng i khyud raft. 

It will be noticed that the Infinitive is often (as 
in this instance) used as a noun, like the English 
gerund in -ing, _and then takes an izafeJi after it. So 
also, Bi-sdbab i tdbidan i dftab, 'because of the shining 
of the sun'. 

Defective. Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 119 

135. When dashtan (dar) is a simple verb and 
means 'to possess', it always omits the mt- in the Present 
Indicative ( 107): as, kitabi daram, 'I have a book' 
(not mi-darani). In order to express the Subjunctive 
(present or imperfect) meaning, this verb then takes 
the perfect Subjunctive (dashteh basham) in the sense of 
the present or imperfect: as, Haranchih dashteh basliam 
mi-diham, 'I give whatever I (may) possess'. 

But when dashtan is used in composition with 
nouns, adjectives, etc., to form a compound verb, or 
has even a preposition (bar etc.) prefixed, the verb 
follows the regular rule and assumes the mi in the 
Present Indicative : as, an dsb-ra nigah mi-darand, 'they 
are taking care of that horse'; ura dust wii-daram, 'I 
hold him dear'; an pul-ra bar ml-darand, 'they are 
carrying off that money'. In this case the simple and 
regular Present Subjunctive (daram), with or without 
M-, is used as Subjunctive: as, Padshah va'ira dmr far- 
mud Mi hliazaneli-ra mahfuz (M)-darad, 'the king com- 
manded him to protect the treasure'. 

'Words (Notes). 

Htisil i mdtldb, moral (of a tale). darkhmlr i man ast, it suits me. 

jdhd va sd'i, effort 2 . kdndan, to strip off from (az). 

siyliar i sinn (= smallness of shcikhnaffr i sliiktiri, hunting- 
tooth), youthfulness, youth. horn. 

kuhulat va kibar i sinn, middle birun avdrdan, to take off. 

and advanced age (not 'old bi-dsar i rfn rasi'dand, theyfollow- 

age'). ed it (the sound) up. 

Ispttniyti, Spain. girifteh, overcast (of the sky). 

Shurl, Charles. chdnd sffl i qdbl, some years ago. 

khddam va hdsham, retinue. ta'un, the plague. 

1 The Student must now consult a Persian Dictionary for 
the words he does not know. Those given henceforward in these 
lists are merely words used in a special sense, peculiar idioms, 
or words belonging to the spoken and not to the written language. 
Palmer's Smaller Persian Dictionary will supply all the ordinary 
words needed for the remaining Exercises. Any other difficulties 
will be found explained in the translations given in the Key 
to the present work. 

2 The Persians are fond of putting together two words of 
similar meaning to express one idea (cf. Eng. Prayer-Book "We 
pray and beseech", etc.). Of these one is often Arabic and the 
other Persian, and one is sometimes a simple word intended to 
explain the other which is more difficult. 


Lesson 15. 

sargardtin, puzzled, astray. sarSyat Tcunad, it may infect. 

Tcdppar (vulg. chdppar), a hut. juy (vulg. jub\ watercourse. 

hlzumkdn, woodcutter. ram Jcdrdan, to shy. 

hanuz fdrigh nd-shudeh bud, sar i do pu istadan, to rear (intr). 

hardly had he finished. bi havti-y-i (in fimadan, to follow 
Iji-ktfr i man mi-Khvurad, it is his example. 

useful to me. dost (of a horse), front foot. 

bi-qiiwat i hdrchih tamdmtar, chfzi nfst, it's nothing (= ''don't, 

with all his might. mention it pray"). 

shdtieh, shoulder, comb. bar ddr kasMdan, to exectite. 

Exercise 29. 

.1 ' ___ ' ' . 

AJ JU-JJ OA* <_Jjj' jl 

1 This and the following Stories are taken from AqS Mfrza 
Asadu'llsh's revision of the Sad HiMyat, a revision undertaken 
under the Author's supervision and primarily for the use of 
students of this Grammar, the object being to omit all obsolete 
words and idioms, and to replace them by modern expressions 
in use in the best Persian of the present day. 

Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 121 

Translation 30. A Tale. 

One day Charles V., king of Spain, got separated 
from his retinue in the hunting-field. Having wandered 
about (gone astray) in a forest, he at length reached 
a woodcutter's hut and determined to rest there a 
little. But when he entered the (that) hut, he saw 
four persons lying upon straw, and from their appearance 
it was evident that they were (are) robbers. The king 
asked them for some water to drink; but hardly had 
he finished drinking a cup of water when (kill) one 
of the robbers coming forward said to him, "I have 
just seen (I understood now) in a dream that your 
cloak would be (is) useful to me". Saying (having 
said) this, he snatched away the cloak from the king's 
shoulders (shoulder). Immediately afterwards another 
robber came forward and said, "I also saw (didam) in 
a dream that your coat (qdba) suits me". Thus saying, 
he stripped the coat off the king's person (tan). The 
third robber in the same way took his hat, and a 
fourth wanted to take off the (that) hunting-horn that 
hung from (on) the king's neck by a chain of gold. 
Then the king said, "First permit me to (that I) teach 
thee the use of my horn". Saying this, he blew the 
horn with all his might ; and his attendants, on hearing 
the sound of it, followed it up and captured the robbers. 
Then the king said to the robbers, "(My) dear friends, 
I also have had (seen) a dream, and in that dream I 
saw (this) that all of you had been executed". Thereupon 
the royal attendants hanged them all on the trees 
that were in front of the (that) hut. 


(On a Ride). 

jc -xu* 

Ul rl-U 4>-a-C- C _ 9-U^. 

122 Lesson 1C. 

jc^l jj ^Tjj-: o^'^J J- 

Sixteenth Lesson. 

Use of Tenses of the Verb. 

136. The student has doubtless already noticed 
that the use of the various tenses in Persian often 
differs from their use in English. Many instances of 
this have already occurred in the Exercises, Translations 
and Conversations, and the proper use of most tenses 
is readily learnt in practice. A few general rules 
upon the most important differences between the two 
languages in respect of the use of the leading Tenses 
are here added. 

Use of Tenses of the Verb. 123 

137. The Persian Imperfect Indicative is dis- 
tinguished from the Preterite as clearly as in Latin, 
Greek and French. Mi-davidam ( 85, &), for instance, 
not only means 'I was running', but also 'I used to 
run'. The Imperfect and not the Preterite must be 
used when the action denoted by the verb is regarded 
either as continuing for some time or as being fre- 
quently repeated, i. e. when the ordinary English past 
tense may be changed into the Imperfect 'was doing', 
or Habitual, 'used to do'. Example: 'He studied medicine 
in England for ten years'. Here studied evidently means 
'was studying', 'continued to study', or 'used to study', 
and must therefore be rendered by the Imperfect in 
Persian; as, f llm i t'lbb-ra muddat i ddh sal dar Inglis- 
tan mi-khyand. (For other meanings of the Imperfect 
vide 85, 6, and 103). 

138. Besides the ordinary use of the Preterite 
Indicative as in English, Persian recognises two other 
uses of the tense, (a) In speaking of an action which 
has just been performed (especially when such words 
as hala, ilhal, al'dn occur in the sentence), if its con- 
sequences are not regarded as continuing, the Preterite 
must be used in Persian, though the Present Perfect 
is employed in English. E. g., 'What you have just 
said is true' : Ancliih al'dn farmudid rast ast. ' (?>) The 
Preterite is also used to denote an uncertain future, 
where in Latin the Perfect Subjunctive might be used. 
E.g. Dar Mr shdhri kih rdftvd va shumd-ra pa~truftand, 
'Into whatsoever city ye go and they receive you'. 

139. The Perfect is used of an event which, 
however long ago it occurred, is regarded as having 
results tvhich still continue. It often therefore occurs 
where in English the Preterite would be used. E. g. 
Hdzrat i Muhammad Qur'an-ra az janib i Kliuda bi-md 
rasanideh ast: 'Muhammad brought (lit. has brought) 
us the Qur'an from God' : Ardasliir an slidhr-ra dar hdlat 

1 A remarkable use of the Preterite of Avurdan is often 
heard when a servant is ordered, e. g., to bring in coffee for a 
guest, and the order is repeated after a few minutes, as it has 
not been obeyed. His answer is, Avdrdam (ttvtirdani), Sdhib; but 
this means "I am just about to bring it", not "I have brought it". 

124 Lesson 16. 

/ Miardbi yaftch ta'mtr hardeh ast, 'Ardashir, having 
found that city in a state of ruin, repaired (lit. has 
repaired) it'.. Here the perfect is used because Mu- 
hammadans still have the Qur'an, and the city (Madain) 
which Ardashir is said to have rebuilt still exists. 

% 140. The Subjunctive Present is used after qdbl 
00 (pish az) an (in} Mil, where in English we should use 
the Preterite Indicative : as, (a) Qdbl az ankih bi-sliahadat 
rdsad, vatra az khilafat khal c kardand: 'They stripped 
him of the Caliphate before he attained to martyrdom'. 
(b) Pisli az in kih laslikariydn-ra az in jang i c lam d'ihand, 
ulama-y-i Turk fatvaha navishteh ishtihdr dadand kih, etc. 
'Before they informed the soldiers about this battle, 
the Turkish religious-authorities wrote decrees and 
announced that', etc. 

Sa e d az ankih also sometimes requires the verb 
following it to be in the Present or in the Perfect 
Subjunctive, especially when a purpose or something 
regarded as future or uncertain is implied ; but the 
Preterite Indicative with its future sense may also 
be used even in this case, as well as when a definite 
past event is meant: as (1) Ba"d az ankih ura didam, 
(or dideh btisham, or bi-binam), Mtdb-ra bi-vai mi- 
dilmm (khvaliam dad}. 'After I see (may have seen, have 
seen) him, I shall give him the book': (2) Ba"d az 
anWi ura dtdam f Icitba-ra bi-vai dadam, 'After that I 
saw him, I gave him the book'. In the former sentence 
the seeing is future and more or less doubtful, in the 
latter it is an event that has occurred in the past. 

141. Ta requires the Present Subjunctive after 
it when it means 'in order that', in which case ta 
rinkih may be used: as, Ta (ankiti) Jchilaf-i dar ummat 
vaqi f nd-shavad, sJiamshtr az gUlaf nd-Tcashtd, 'He did 
not unsheath the sword, in order that there might not 
occur (lest there should occur) opposition (dissension) 
among the people'. This construction is very usual. 

But if ta denotes 'so that' and states not so much 
a purpose but a result, or a purpose regarded as accom- 
plished, it takes the Preterite Indicative after it. E. g. 
Padsjiah kusUd ta qabileli-y-i khyudra Uydk digar miittafq 
va bd kliyud yak-dil va ydlt-zaban saleht; 'The king exerted 

Use of Tenses of the Verb. 125 

himself so that he brought his people (tribe) into accord 
with one another and made them of one heart and of 
one mind (tongue) with himself. (It is possible, but 
less accurate, to translate this preterite with ta by 
should bring, which in Persian would be denoted by 
the Present Subjunctive). 

Ta anJcih with the Preterite also means 'until' : as, 
Ta anJcih ura dana sakhtand, 'until they made him wise'. 
But when 'until' refers to something future (and hence 
doubtful} it is expressed by ta followed by nah (na-) 
and the Present Subjunctive, and the secondary clause 
( 112) follows the primary: as, Tabi-sarMr i c ali amr 
i ^agimi-ra l arz na-kunirn, nd-Jchvahim nishdst, 'We 
shall not sit down until we tell your honour an important 

142. In letters, the Pluperfect Indicative is used 
in referring to what a correspondent has said, where 
in English the Preterite or even the Present would 
be employed: as, Dast-khdtti Wi bi-sarafrazi-y-i in c abd 
marqum farmudeh budid ziyarat gar did: 'The note 
which you did me the honour to write has been re- 
ceived with respect'. Here also we find the Preterite 
used for the Perfect. (With the use of the Pluperfect 
in letters, compare the Latin usage.) 

143. If a plural noun be the subject of a sentence, 
or if the subject consists of two or more nouns in the 
singular, the verb must be in the plural when the nouns 
denote persons. If they denote animals, the plural is 
almost always used ; if things wittiout life, the verb 
should be in the singular, though very modern writers 
as well as many speakers now sometimes use the verb 
in the plural in the latter instance also. 

A plural verb is used with a singular noun to 
shew respect : as, A *la 3 Hdzrat i Padshah chinm farmudeh 
and, 'His Majesty the king has (have) thus commanded'. 

A noun of multitude requires the plural after it: 
as, tamdm i an taifeh ravaneh shudand ; 'the whole of 
that tribe departed'. 

If hdr yak, hdr has, hdr sJidJchs, be the subject of 
a sentence, and if any plural noun or pronoun preceded 
by az come between it and the verb, the latter must 


Lesson 16. 

be in the plural and must agree in person with the 
intervening plural word : as, liar yak az ma anra didirn; 
'every one of us saw (we saw) it'. Similarly, liar his (az 
istiiiri) bi-khaneh-y-i Jfhyud raftand, 'Every one (of them) 
went to his own house'. 

144. The Present Participle is, when used at 
all, generally used adverbially, and is sometime repeated 
twice; as, davan davan amad, 'he came running'. It is 
not used (as in English) along with the verb to be: 
for 'I am running' is expressed by mi-davam. A few 
apparent instances to the contrary occur, but in these 
instances the Present Participle has become a mere 
adjective : as, tarsan id, 'you are afraid' : so also giriyan 
shud, 'he became tearful', 'he wept'. 


IsMndar i Rumi, Alexander of 

Macedon (Greece). 
Aristu, Aristotle. 
az pidar = az tin i ptdar. 
khiradamfiz, teacher of wisdom. 
Jiaman, so much (and no more 

=) only. 
dastgtr, helper, ("every one's 

helper in affairs of this world 

and the next"). 
bi-chdng avdrdan, to get posses- 

si on of. 

mnsdlldh, armed. 
tflr, & spider's web. 
samfm i qalb, bottom of his heart. 
post (Eng. ^word.), post. 
talagraf-khuwh, telegraph sta- 

'tiqab uftddan, to be late. 

aJidmm (Saperl. of muJiimm) very 

kfighaz, a letter. 
chapffr i daulat i Inglts, English 

Government (Consular) cou- 

tdkhtan (faz}, to rush upon, 


bdsteh, a parcel. 
ihtimal i kutti dsrad, it is very 


Iji-ndifi, somehow or other. 
radtl namudan, to restore. 
ba dddb va muriivvat, polite and 

Jcavfdan (to dig =) to search, 

'go through'. 
jur'at kdrdan, to dare, venture. 

Exercise 31. 

Use of Tenses of the Verb. 127 

l jU-L ^j jl 

Translation 32. A Tale. 

In ancient times (time) there was a prince who, 
having suffered (obtained) a severe defeat in battle, 
was compelled to flee that he might escape from (his) 
enemies' hands (hand). When evening came on (became), 
having reached a forest he entered it, and, being 
wearied with his journey (from weariness of journey), 
he cast himself down on the ground under a tree and 
went to sleep. Then a robber, having seen him in that 
condition, came near, intending to kill him and seize 
his belongings and his clothes (in order that, having 
killed him, he might bring to grasp his property and 
attire). But at that perilous moment (hingam) a fly, 
alighting (having sat down) on the prince's cheek, bit 
him so that he instantly awoke from (his) sleep. When 
the robber saw him awake and armed, he was afraid 
and disappeared without attacking him (not having 
made an attack upon him). After that, the prince 
concealed himself in a cave. That very night a spider 
spun a web at the mouth of the (that) cave. Early in 
the morning two soldiers from the army of the enemies 
who were pursuing him reached that place. The prince 
heard them talking to one another (that they are 
talking with). One of them said to his comrade, "He 
must surely be in this cavern". But the (that) other 
in reply to (of) him said, "No, it is impossible, for 
lo ! the web of this spider has not been torn". When 
the soldiers had gone away, the prince thanked God 
Most High from the bottom of (his) heart and said, 
"0 God, I thank Thee that yesterday Thou didst save 
me from great danger by means of a fly, and to-day 
through a spider". 


Lesson 16. 

*-O j* 
jl Jk,U rlJU:' Ul ^ 



;l JJ U3 
f . 

iy i 


_Li (IT) 

il ^.^P Lj- C J, CiA J-J 
r /*JU.l ^S I l^_^ai-C I 

/* ' I ' 

\jU4I i jl jlo ^jlj 

jliI^T <o 

. A J J 

Second Part. 

The Arabic Element in Persian: Compound 
Words, Idioms, Government of Yerbs. 

Indroductory Observation on Arabic Words in Persian. 

145. The Arabic language and literature have 
for many centuries exercised a very extensive influence 
upon those of Persia. This is due partly to the Arabian 
conquest of the country some twelve and a half cen- 
turies ago, accompanied as it was by the compulsory 
conversion to Islam of the great mass of the people 
and the addition of a considerable Arabian element 
to the population. But, in addition to this, the Qur'an, 
Traditions etc., require to be read in the original 
Arabic, in which language also prayers must be said. 
Moreover, Islam has caused the destruction of the 
greater part of Avestic and Pahlavi literature and the 
total neglect of the study of the scanty relics of these 
ancient forms of the Persian language. Arabic is, there- 
fore, almost the only source from which new terms 
can be borrowed and new words coined to express 
theological, literary, and even scientific ideas. Though 
in recent years a few isolated words have been borrowed 
from various European languages, yet none of them 
has influenced the grammar of Persian in the slightest 
degree, which it is not too much to say that Arabic 
has done very extensively. Not only has a very large 
portion of the vocabulary of the language been borrowed 
from the Arabic, but the Arabic element is still in- 
creasing. Many pure Persian words, still in everyday 
use in Urdu (Hindustani), are completely obsolete in 
Persia itself. Natives of Persia hardly over middle age 
can remember that some of these words were still in 
use in their childhood, though they have now been 
supplanted by Arabic words. 

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 9 

130 Lesson 17. 

146. One of the great advantages of the Arabic 
language is the facility with which it permits of the 
formation of "a great multitude of words from a single 
root. If the meaning of the root is known, even a very- 
slight acquaintance with Arabic Grammar will suffice 
to render its derivatives easily understood the very 
first time they are heard or read ; such is the wonder- 
ful and almost mathematical precision with which these 
words are formed in accordance with the fixed principles 
of Arabic Grammar. It is one of our main objects in 
this part of the present work to explain the method of 
the formation of the most usual Arabic derivative forms, 
and thus to give the student a key to the understand- 
ing of an immense and most important portion of the 
vocabulary of the Persian language. But, as it is not 
designed to deal with the whole of Arabic Grammar, 
but merely with that part of it which it is necessary 
for the student of Persian to know in order that he 
may attain a satisfactory knowledge of the latter tongue, 
these notes will be reduced to the narrowest possible 
limits consistent with the object in view, so that they 
may be practically useful. 

147. In Arabic (as in all the other Semitic 
languages) the larger number of roots consist of three 
radical letters, very few being composed of four, and 
none of more than four. Any of the letters of the 
Arabic Alphabet (all of which are considered as con- 
sonants 4) may be employed as Radical or root letters, 
but only a few of them can be used to form derivatives 
by being attached to the root. Those so used are 
styled Serviles and are the seven letters contained in 
the words ^~.j\ -j 1 . By prefixing, affixing or inserting 
one or more of 'these in the right place all Arabic 
derivatives are formed. 

148. Arabic has two Genders, Masculine anc 
Feminine, and three Numbers, Singular, Dual anc 

1 In a certain class of words, as explained in Lesson XXJ 
( 181), the letters \ and j also seem to be used as Servile 
but they are then euphonic substitutes for o. The same thin$ 
applies to the final at the end of Arabic words used in Persian, 
being for Arabic ; (pronounced o). 

Indroductory Observation on Arabic Words in Persian. 131 

Plural. It lias only three cases in each number, Nomi- 
native, Accusative, arid Genitive. It also possesses a 
Definite Article Jl (al) which is unchangeable except 
that (1) its vowel is elided when a word ending in a 
vowel precedes it, and (2) that when the word to 
which the article is attached begins with any one 
of tho 13 letters jkU ( >,j* c r ( _r'jj:>.> t l>o 
the J of the article is assimilated in sound to that 
letter, as is shewn by a tasJidid ( 21) placed over 
the first letter of the said word. 

149. Of the three Arabic cases, only the Nom. 
and Ace. of the Singular and the Ace. of the Dual 
and Plural are in use, the Ace. of the Dual and 
Plural being used in place of the Nom., and that too 
in a form shortened by the omission of the final short 
vowels. The Ace. Singular is used only as an adverb 
in Persian. In the following Lessons the short final 
vowels and everything else not used in Persian are 
omitted, but the student will find them in Arabic 
phrases adopted into the language as single words 
(Appendix A). 

Seventeenth Lesson. 

Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives. 

150. A Regular Masculine Noun or Adjective 
is thus declined (in the shortened form used in Per- 
sian: 149): Jlj (genitorjj a male parent, a father. 

Plural. Dual. Singular. 

(valid] Jl_j Nom. 
(validiri) &j>\) (validairi) ^.'-Jlj (validan) tJlj Ace. 

151. A Feminine Noun or Adjective is regularly 
formed from the Masculine by affixing to the Masculine 
the termination 5 (-aturi), which in Persian becomes 
(eh): as Jlj (valid) '& father' (genitor), iJlj (ralideh), 
'a mother' (genitrix) : ^l* (saw), 'second', m.\ ;IT' (saniyyeli) 

1 All Arabic nouns and adjectives ending in ^ (*), in 
Persian properly have this letter tashdtded, so that stint should 


132 Lesson 17. 

'second',/. In Persian the feminine termination (; ) of 
nouns may become o (af) as well as (eh), and 
in some words both forms are used, as ojUl (ijazaf) 
and jLl (ijagdi), though these have sometimes different 
meanings, as <z^J (tarlqat) and <*J (tarlqeli), o^ljl 
(irddaf) and jljl (iradeh). Feminines are thus declined: 

Plural. Dual. Singular. 

(vdlideK) Jlj Nom. 
(validat) oljjlj (validatatri) ^Jlj (val j tdatari)tjb\) Ace. 

152. The feminine plural termination jjl (,) is 
sometimes appended to purely Persian nouns, the chief 
of which so treated are: .> (dih), plural oU^ (dihat) 
'a village'; J-L*^ (farmaish), 'a, command', plural 
oli.*U^ (farmaishdt)', tzz.j (navishteh), 'a document', 
plural oU^_y (navislitajut) 1 ; J^jl^; (nigdrish), 'an epistle 7 , 
plural oUjW (nigarishat) ; ^jK (karklianeh), 'a factory', 
plural oWli-jlT (TcarJchanajat); ajr , (mtveh), 'fruit', plural 
oU_>- (mivajat); l (bagh), 'a garden', plural olcl ^6a- 
pfca^; oL'jjj (ruznameh). 'a, journal', 'newspaper', plural 
oU*l'jjj (rnznamajat). So too, by false analogy, the 
Arabic (broken) Plural word <Lc (dmaldi), which in 
Persian has a Singular meaning and denotes 'a work- 
man', often forms its plural oU^ (amalajat). The term- 
ination ol (at) is sometimes used to form the plural 
of words that can in no way be regarded as femin- 
ine, as in the last example. Again, an Arabic noun 
in Persian sometimes takes a double plural (as in 
that example): e. g. _,*^ (jdultar)*, 'a gem', broken 

be saniyy. But in Persian the tashdtd is omitted in the masculine 
(though it is retained in the fern.), and the accent in the masc. 
is often thrown back. 

1 Navishtth and other Persian words in had at one time 
<J"7 softened into J^ ( 36) as their final letter. This in Arabic 
became , hence such plurals in oL (jut). 

2 This is an instance of a Persian word (jt>, gmthar) 
Arabicised, and then taken back into Persian with one or more 

Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives. 133 

( 157). Plural yblj*. (javahir), double plural ol^l^ 
(javahirat) ; ~,j (rasm) 'a custom', 'rite', broken plural 
rj-o (rusum), double pi. oU^-j (rusumat); l_jj (dava), 
'medicine', broken Plural 4jjl (ddviyeh), double plural 
i>U' (adviyajaf], besides what is in Persian considered 
its proper Plural, oLIjj (davajaf). These different Plurals 
have often different meanings (vide 167). 

153. The Ace. Sing. Masc. (as shewn in 150) 
is formed by adding I (pronounced -an) to the stem, 
the Ace. Sing. Fern. ( 151) of words ending in * (Ar. 
; ) by simply adding the tanvin ( ; vide 23) without 
the alif. Though these formations are in Persian used 
only as Adverbs, yet their occurrence is very frequent ; 
as, iUI (amtinatan) 'as a deposit', VL(for -yU.) }iala, 'now'. 
If the article Jl is prefixed to such words the tanvin 
(and also the alif, if used) is dropped; as, CM)! (algisseJi), 
'finally', jVl (al'an), 'now', 'just now'. 

154. All Arabic nouns in Persian which end in 
, s , o not belonging to the root as the o does 
in cij (vaqt, m., 'time'), and all broken (% 157) Plurals 
&re feminine, and almost all other nouns are Masculine. 
Their gender needs to be remembered only when it 
is desirable to append to them an Arabic adjective. 
(Even in this case, if the said adjective is in such 
common use that it has virtually become a Persian 
word, like ^.sf (djtfy, 'wonderful', it does not generally 
take the feminine form.) E. g. umur i JcaStreh, 'many 
matters' ; khataya-y-i Jcabitreh, 'great sins' ; (but umur i 
djlb, 'wonderful things'). 

. 155. The Comparative (which is also the Super- 
lative) of Arabic Adjectives is formed by prefixing 
alif to the masculine, omitting formative letters [on 
the model of t ^ Pos. (dzim), 'great', ,^1 Comp. 
(a ( zam] 'greater', 'greatest']. The Feminine affixes ($ (a') 

Arabic Plurals. Cf. dastur, a Zoroastrian priest, broken Plural 

134 Lesson 17. 

instead [Oa* Pos. (dztmeh), ^Ja.^ (uzma,) Comp.] except 
when the masc. ends in (5 (a 1 ), in which case the 
Feminine ending is I (a), appended to the < : Exam- 

Comparative. Positive. 

Fern. Masc. Fern. Masc. 

(uzmif) y (d'zam) fi\ (azimeli) <~& (azim) ^ (great) 
(kttbrti") 6j^f(dkbar) ^3~\ (kabfreh) ^3" (kabtr^J^f (big) 
(uft?) ^)jl (dwdf) Jjf (first) 

(uBtaf) &J\ (dkhar) J3 (akhfreh) .^f (^)^j-( (last) 
(jfcusrtf) &JLf(dks t ar) J'\ (kasfreh) ^^f(ka$r) ^3" (much) 
('%#) Idi (a.W} JS.\ (Wyyth) tU ('^^jl (high) 

[In Persian ula ' is hardly ever used in the sense 
of 'first', as fern, of dvval, since the latter word has 
become Persian ( 154), but ula 3 (erroneously pro- 
nounced auM 3 ) is used in the sense of 'excellent'.] 

An Arabic adjective in the feminine is occa- 
sionally added to a non-Arabic (i. e. purely Persian 
or Turkish) noun; as 3*e&j?\ (Banu-y-i uzma 3 ) 'Great- 
est Lady' (a title). But this usage is of extremely 
rare occurrence. 

Whenever any Arabic noun or adjective which 
ends in t (a') is followed by the izafeJt, the said 
ending is changed in \ (-a), and < takes the place 
of the izafeh: as, jUol^Uic.^ie (ulum % uzma-y-i ishari), 
'their greatest sciences'. But this does not apply to 
Proper names of Persons, as Yahya-yi ta*mid -diJiandeh 
(.XAJ -u~rjs'_), "John the Baptist". (V. Note to 34). 

156. Sometimes in Persian we find two Arabic words 
united together to express one idea. If these are both Nouns, 
the second is in the genitive case (the sign of which is dropped 
in the Persian usage of such words); if not, the second is an 
adjective. In either case the second of the two words (unless it 
be a Proper name) has generally the article J| prefixed ( 148), 
and the last vowel of the former word (if it be singular) is 
t), unless it is governed by an Arabic preposition, in which 
case the said vowel becomes -i ( ). Thus we have 

(hubbu'l vdtan)^ 'love of one's native land' (amor patriae), 'patriot- 
ism'; jUaLlrfjk (Zittu's Sultan), 'Shadow of the Sovereign', 

Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives. 


(a title); tXj^Tj (Ruknu'l Mulk), 'Pillar of the kingdom', (a 
title): and on the other hand ^UTf^jlo. -^ (min jdnibi 'ttdh) 'from 
the (side =) presence of God'. If ' the former of the two words 
is a masculine or feminine dual or a Regular masculine plural 
in <_/_ (-in), the n ( j) is dropped when it is "in construction" 
with a word following: as J.fl^.1 J^ (Ban? Isra'U), 'the Children 
of Israel'. 


Abu Bakr (the first Caliph). 

kMdfat (vulg. KhaUfat), Cali- 

farmudeh, a command. 

alaihi'ssaldm, Peace upon him. 

mahkum kdrdan, to command. 

dah sdlagi, age of ten years. 

rast, straight. 

khmirdt, smallness, youth. 

buzurgi, bigness (manhood). 

bait, verse, poetry. 

pich, bend thou (Imperative). 

nd-shavad = ndmi-shavad ( 107). 

abnd (Ar. pi. of ibn), sons ( 167). 

maydn ( 45), we. 

vuhush (Ar. pi. of vahsh), wild 

ajz, weakness : ajzt, a weakness, 
an infirmity. 

gushzad i to, (ear-struck of thee 
==) heard by thee. 

mikh mikh kdrdan, the grunting. 

kuh-anddm, (mountain-bodied =) 
as big as a mountain. 

sdg-i tail (Arabian dog =) grey- 

sd'at i chahdr, four o'clock. 
(bar) chdshm, (on the eye =) most 

chttrvadclr (animal owner =) 
caravan leader. 

hdrakat kdrdan, to set out, start. 

nashtd, early breakfast. 

mail farmudan, to desire, wish. 

muydssar, obtainable, to be got. 

tukhm i murgh, hen's egg. 

birydn kdrdan, to fry. 

fibpdz kdrdan, to boil. 

kibdb kdrdan, to roast. 

utdq, a room. 

shur, brackish. 

lahdf, padded quilt. 

dushdkk(pron. dushdkk), mattress. 

pushti (bdlish) vulg., pillow. 

rakht i khedb, bedclothes, bed- 

aivdn, porch. 

kliyurjin, travelling-bag. 

shdb bi-khair, good night. 

Khudd hdjiz (i shumd), (God be 
your Protector =) goodbye 

Exercise 33. 

-^ Ali>- 4^ 1 J O ^ V- ^JV* .J 

136 Lesson 17. 

Translation 34. A Tale. 

One day a lion and a hare were conversing with 
one another. The hare asked the lion, saying, "Is it 
true what they say, that the feeble and cowardly cock 
by crowing is able to drive away such as you (the 
sons of your kind) who are very brave and strong?" 
The lion in answer to him said, "That saying is (cer- 
tainly) quite true; nay more (bdllrih), it is no secret 
(mdkhfi nist) that all of us large wild-beasts have 
generally an infirmity of that kind (like that) : and in 
the same way too thou hast no doubt heard that the 
grunting of a pig makes a huge elephant fear and quake 
(fearing and trembling)." The hare said, "Is it so?, 
then I now understand (understood - - 138, ) 
why it is that the voice of greyhounds frightens us 
hares so much." 


(Master and Servant travelling). 

^.1 Ul 

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 137 

^-l j- -^ U J. oJ^. r -*H y '->>. ^^/j*- 
Ui - VUj - jryUft/T'fe-i 
L jlL u-Jj-s jirl rfjb ?js* /) 


l jl 


Eighteenth Lesson. 

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 

157. Very few Arabic masculine nouns form 1 
their plurals regularly in accordance with 150. Most 
masculines and many feminines have what is known 
as a Broken Plural, so styled because the noun is 
broken (as it were) to allow of the insertion or omission 
of a vowel or of more than one. The new word thus 
formed is in reality a noun of multitude of the sin- 
gular number and feminine gender, but it takes the 
place of the obsolete or rarely used regular plural, and 
is hence styled the plural of the noun or adjective 
from which it is derived. In practice, the simplest 
way to learn these Broken Plurals is to learn the 
nouns given as examples in the following lists, and 

1 The most important classes of nouns that form their 
plurals regularly are Participles of the various Voices of the 
Verb (Lesson XX), except the Present Participle of Voice I. 
when used as a noun (it is generally an adjective and is then 
used with a regular plural.) The Infinitives of all the Voices 
except that of Voice I. (which has a broken Plural) take the 
Plural in ol # 

138 Lesson 18. 

to take them as models upon which to form the plurals 
of other nouns of the same measure (vazri). It will be 
found that the- task is a very simple one, especially 
if the broken plural of every new word be learnt 
along with the singular. In the singular attention 
must be paid mainly to the number of consonants in 
a word (it being remembered that in the Arabic 
Alphabet every letter is accounted a consonant). 

158. The addition of the feminine termination 
(or o ) to form a new noun rarely removes the noun 
(or adjective) thus formed from the category under 
which it would fall if it had not this final syllable. 
This will be noticed under each of the Models now 
to be given. 

Under each Model the most common and necessary 
forms come first and the rarer ones at the end. 

159. Model I. Nouns formed of two Consonants 
of which the latter is doubled (tazlidided). 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) Z^ (hadd), limit, bound: jjot (hudud). 

(2) j_ (sirr), a secret, mystery : ji^l (asrar). 

(As these classes of nouns have really three con- 
sonants [since j^. is a contraction for jo>. and J-. for 
j^>], therefore this Model is practically the same as 
the second Model, examples 1 and 2.) 

160. Model II. Nouns of three consonants. 
Singular. Plural. 

(1) J*\ (amr), a command, jj*\ (umur), matters (v. 

matter. 167). 

(2) j&>: (hukm), an order. *L_Cf (ahkam). 

Sometimes assimilation occurs in the Plurals of 
words of these classes, and occasionally a root letter 
that is omitted in the singular recurs in the plurals: 
as, S. f y m P. f i;i (for f 1j..i); S. a, P. ^\j>.\ (for 
oil. I); S - - ! ^ p - J'jtf (from 1/J^). ' 

Less usual forms falling under this model are : - 

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 139 

Singular. Plural. 

(3) J (bahr), sea, ocean. jU v (bihar). 

(So also with, tlie termination -^ or o-i) 

cX* (Jch'islat, khdslat), JLai- (KhisaT). 


(4) jjij'i (arz), the earth, a ^'Jf (wrazi). 


(So with the termination < ). 

<L/ (laileh), night. JL/ (lay alt). 

(5) ^ (MO&I), prophet. li*f (anliya). 

(6) ^^, (softl), lad. 0L*^ (sibyari). 

. 161. Model III. Nouns of four consonants, of 
which the second is alif. 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) J^lc ( f rimil), agent, fac- & (dmaleli)^ Jl [170] 

totum. (iimmal). 

(2) ^Afc" (Mhiri), priest, ma- $"" (kdhaneli). 


(3) ^cL (sha : ir), a poet. *l^ (shu'ara). 

Less usual are the following measures : 

(4) _.L (sahib), owner (Ar. yl^f (ashab, companions 

companion.) of Muhammad, etc.) 

(5) ^li (qagi) ecclesiastical sU (quzaf). 


(6) ^Alj (rahib), monk. jl^j' (ruhban) 1 . 

(7) J>-L (sahil), shore, coast. J-l_^ (samhil). 

(So also the latter form with + or o-^ added: - 

<ujV (lagimeh), (|;.,f.,ne- *JI_/ (lavazim), n. f. neces- 
cessary. saries. 

(8) <*lj (vaqi'eh), an occur- ,i_,lj (vaqayi c ). 


1 In Persian used in the sense of a singular. 

140 Lesson 18. 


162. Model IV. Nouns of four consonants, of 
tich the third is ^. 

Singular. Plural 

(1) <. (hakim), sage: *LC^ (hukama). 


(2) w~J (tabib), physi- +ty\ (a tibia). 


Adj. (3) >/* (kanm), kind, JjT" (kiram). 


(4) j.> (tariq), road, jL' (tumq). 

163. Model V. Nouns formed of /twr consonants, 
of which the third is alif. 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) otT (Qdtab), a book. JJT (^*M6). 

(2) (j-U, ((libas), a garment, <_J( (dlbiseh) 


164. Model YI. Nouns formed of four con- 

sonants, but of other than the measures mentioned 
under the three last models. 

Singular. Plural. 

(1) osA* (mdsjid), a mosque. oa.ll* (masajid). 

This method of forming the plural is used even 
when the feminine termination or o^- is added. 
However much the form of the noun in the singular 
may vary from (1), in the plural the model is follow- 
ed, except in the very few nouns that fall under (2) 
and (3). E. g. 

^f^> (nasihat), advice. L*f (nasayih). 

* (da'vi) or J_^S (da ( va : ), &&* (da' am). 


<! U j (risaleh), a tractate. Jf L j (rasail). 

Very rare are the following formations: 

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 141 

(2) ^J (Qaisar), Caesar, _ r ^Ll (Qayasireh). 


(mdlak) dii (for '& (mdTak), gj%! (&M) (malaikeli, ma- 

angel. laik}. 

Adj. (3) j \ (dsvad), black. jb^L (sudari). 

Other examples of (2) are jU{, PI. oil*; (Af- 
ghins); o&?1 PI. AiiLf (bishops)', ^**j\, PI- ^Ijf (Ar- 

165. Model VII. Nouns formed of five con- 
sonants, the fourth of which is a Weak Letter (oZi/, 
vav or /). However much the form of the singulars 
of this class of nouns may vary, the plural is formed 
on the one model, as will be seen. 

Singular. Plural. 

'jllail (sultan). Sultan, ruler. c^Ml 

jyl (qanuri), law. t>yl_js 

(mdktub), written. w-TlS^ 

(tadbir), plan, device. -?J- V( " 

If the 2 nd and 3 nd consonants _in such words are 
the same (i. e. a lashdided letter, as jlS^' for j'&lfj' ), the 
plural still follows the usual form : as 

jK'j (dukkari), a shop. cjrfVj 

All the words given under these models are 
actually in frequent use in Persian, and a very large 
number more are formed in accordance with the 
same rules. 


* Umar ibnu'l Khatttfb, name of pishkdsh, a present (to a super- 

a Caliph. ior). 

JSalmdn, a noted Persian con- saughtit, a present on returning 

vert of Mu hammed. from a journey. 

rahmatu'lltih 'alaih, God's mercy judd, separated, separate. 

on him! gul i ydkheh ) Brooch 

Janfib i Scdmtf'n, his honour gul i stneh \ 

Salman. ffwfewft, mixture. 

i On this model is (wrongly formed C^ljl tne plural of 
the Turkish word jli. (khnn, a title). 

142 Lesson 18. 

7<, food. bar (jeweller's word), alloy. 

bdndagi, service of God. ^fa ( o f a jewel), of the first 

Izacl, God (old Persian). water - 

sitir all the rest (of). zdrar kdrdan, to suffer loss, to 

Hunltd, Indians (pi. of Hindu). lose. 

'ala'lkhusus, especially. sigtir, cigar. 

har chih zudtar, as quickly as qab, a thing for holding, case. 

possible. quit, a small hox. 

to'tintf, a present (to an equal), kibrtt matches (sulphur). 

[Note: Articles of gold and silver are sold by weight, one 
krnn a misqal for silver, plus about at least half as much again 
for the carving, etc.] 

Exercise 35. 

vlj y 4>- 

' '.Is -' 

3 xJu^ff b ^.31 gj^> ^u ij UP il i. 

l jUL- ^,U>- c^L 




Translation 36. A Tale. 

Some of (as) the historians of ancient Greece have 
related (hikayat Mrdari) wonderful fables concerning 
the habits and customs of the people of India, one of 
which is the following (this, that) : - - In that country 
there is a sandy desert, where on account of the 
dryness and aridity (bi-att) there is no population 
(Sbadi). In that terrible wilderness there are found 
enormous ants, which are smaller than dogs but larger 
than foxes, and these ants dwell under the ground in 
such a way that, having dug away the soil they cast 
(pour) out the sand (sands) in the same manner that 
ordinary ants in other (sair i) countries do (thus), and 

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 143 

in (those sands) the sand which they throw out there 
are pieces of gold. Accordingly, those Indians (Hunud) 
who purpose to go in-search-of that gold devise a plan 
in this way. Every person yokes together three camels, 
one of which must be a female, in such a manner 
that the female camel (may be) is between those two 
male camels : and that female camel should have been 
recently separated, from her young one (kurreh) since 
under those circumstances (in that state) camels are 
particularly swift. Their master mounts that female 
camel, and, when he has filled his sacks with (as) 
that sand, he urges on the camels as quickly as possible, 
in order that, having got beforehand with the ants (sibqat 
jtistan bar), they may flee, lest those ants, having run 
after them, should tear them in pieces (pareh pareli 
/cardan). Having thus got possession of (bi-chatig avdrdan) 
the gold, they sell it to foreign merchants. 


~$ J\> Ul 

; ^'j^' 
/JjJ ^ 



Lesson 19. 




t/.l Ui 


r j '^ 




Nineteenth Lesson. 

Irregular and double Plurals. 

166. Some Arabic nouns which form their 
Plurals irregularly occur in Persian. The chief of 
these are : 

Singular. Plural. 

(insari), man (homo), ^'j (was), human beings. 

(akh), brother. ^L**l (ikhvari), brethren. 

(ukht), sister. *'>-i (akhavat), sisters. 

j; (famm}. mouth. *\\ (afvah), rumour. 


Irregular and double Plurals. 


U (ma), water. * U (miyah), waters. 

z>~Ji (quvvat) strength, power. * \^ (quva) powers. 

<,J% (qdriyeh), town. * !_,; (qura), towns, cities. 

Those forms which are marked with an asterisk 
are very rarely used in Persian. It will be noticed 
that sometimes there is a difference of meaning be- 
tween the singular and the plural. Akh (fl) is in 
Persian used principally in the form <j-\ (dkham) to 
mean 'my brother', which should be J*\ (dJchi) : some- 
times ^(SyA (dkhavt-yi man] is said with the same 
meaning. Ikhvan is used in the religious sense of 
'brethren' principally. Akhavat (of_^f) is used in such 
expressions as 'sister languages'. 

167. Other Arabic nouns take two or even 
more different Arabic plurals in Persian, some of which 
are irregular. These have often different meanings. 
The principal are : 

,\^ (ibri), son. 

"\ (amr), affair, command, 
ul (bait), verse, (house), 

r* (shaikh), old man (a 

jL (short), condition, wa- 

r tf (katib\ a writer, a scribe. ^.l 

~\ (ism), a name. L2 

(fath), victory. ^ 

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 


(&am, for bamn, 156), 
sons : * LI (abna), sons 
(in a figurative sense). 

^f (wmV), affairs; ^j\ 
(avamir), commands. 

l-i ((abyat), verses; o_^ 

(buyut), houses. 
JL (shuyulch), old men; 
(mashaikli), elders. 

(shurut), J*,l_,i (sha- 
rait), conditions. 
^ (Icuttab), copyists; < 
(Jcatabeh), scribes. 

(asma) and ^ L( (asaml,), 

(futuh), conquest; oL_^i' 


146 Lesson 19. 

oU.!jS (davajat), medicines. 

Ijj (dava), medicine. 4>/i\ (ddviyeh), spice: pi. 

olf jjf (adviyajdt), spices. 

jj> (nur), light. j\j>\ (anvar), lights; jl^J 

(nirari), a fire. 

*3\i. (khadim), a servant. Joi. (khuddam), servants: ,oi- 

(khddam), retinue. 

168. Some Arabic nouns end in what is known 
as 'the J- of unity', and they drop this to make their 
meaning general, which has often the effect of ex- 
pressing a plural signification. The original difference 
between the general form and the proper plural is 
well seen in the following word. 

Singular. General form. Plural. 

<' , -i - c ^ ' / T, e x ( > ! ~^ (shi'ar) ) 

^ (shareh). a .*i (shar), the ' , e _\ ' es 

i i- i, / mi v j\ { J**z (sliu ur) i 

single nair. nair(ofthehead). | -*^, \\f. 

\ jLil (ash ar) ' 

Often, however, such words have not in Persian 
any plural form, but use the general form as a plural. 

Singular. General form. Plural. 

^^ (Mrfaf), an oj>- (Mraf), in- 

industry. dustries. 

fT (shdyareh), js~ (shdjar), trees j\*f"\ (ashjar), 
a tree. (in general). trees. 

I j^. (bilad), a coun- 

Aul' (bdladeh), small M! (bdlad), town, i try, region, 
town. i jlol' (buldan), 


Singular. General form. 

cl* (mittat), a sect. jL(mtlal), sects, communities. 

oj'j j (ddulat), a state, wealth. J ,' j (duval). states. 

^- -' 

0-.1 (ummat), a people, re- ^f (umam), communities. 

ligious community. 

(*'iaO, favour. r i, (w^am), favours. 

Irregular and double Plurals. 147 

All such, words in all their forms are feminine : 
e. g., "The Great Powers of Europe", v_Jjf L&JJjj 
(chived i mu l dgzameh-y-i Urup): "The United States of 
America", U'jjt-Sos^JJj (duval i muttdhideli-y-i* Ydngi 

169. The two following rules are observed in 
Persian in reference to certain classes of Arabic nouns 
and adjectives : 

Rule I. An Arabic noun feminine, singular or plural, 
if followed by an Arabic adjective, requires that ad- 
jective to be in the feminine singular: as, 

<u~L~.j^( (umur i siyastyyeh), political affairs. 
<!*%. iJ (vaqai 1 i mulummeh), important events. 
C'UL OjL/Ml (Salatin i Sasaniyyeli), the Sasanian kings. 
(mululi i mazbureli), the kings aforesaid. 
(malaikeli-y-i muqdrrabeh}, the angels nearest 

(to God). 

Often, however, but not always (as the above 
examples shew), if the noun in the plural denotes men 
or angels, the adjective is put in the proper Arabic 
plural form: as, 

jUL.1 $L~'I (aribiyd-i atMr), the pure prophets. 
f\J^*&- (hukkdm i kiram), gracious governors. 

Rule II. Arabic cardinal numerals between 3 and 
10 (inclusive) may be used with Arabic nouns, in 
which case the adjective follows the noun and is 
united to it by isafeh, in accordance with the Persian 
idiom in reference to most other adjectives, not car- 
dinals. But the noun must be in the plural and the 
adjective in the feminine singular: as, < jlJ-.L'l (anajil-i 
drba'ah), 'the Four Gospels'. Contrast the Persian equi- 
valent J-jfljU*. (chahar Infil), in which the numeral 
precedes the noun and the latter is in the singular. 

1 Yangi Dunyai, 'the New World': ydngi is AzarbaljSni 
Turkish for 'new'. The United States are also in Persian news- 

papers often called (Jjjl'f, an attempt at writing tats Unis iu 
Persian letters! 



Lesson 19. 

170. A number of Arabic words in the plural 
are used with a singular meaning in Persian. In order 
to express thB plural, the Persian plural termination 
jl_ (an) or U (-ha) is then added. Examples: - 

Singular. Ar. Plural. Persian Plural. 

t>j (Rabb), Lord ^\>j\ (arbab), a l^Ljl jUj( oLLji 
(used of God peasant proprie- (arbabha, arbii- 
only). tor, or the head- 6an, arbahat). 

man of a village. 
*->\j>' (navvab), a 

\*\j? Jlljp. (nav- 

*--!* (ndib), vice- 
gerant : police- 
man.^ lff ,,, 
Jlc ('amtt), agent. Alic (dmaleti), a ^L=M- IA^ (dma- 
workman. la- lajat^ dmalahha). 
bourer. ( 152.) 

171. Any Arabic noun used in Persian may 
take the ordinary Persian plural terminations ( 31) 
instead of forming its plural in accordance with the 
Arabic rules. But Arabic plurals are very extensively 
used in Persian with Arabic nouns both in speaking 
and in writing. 


Bi-sdr burdan, to spend time, dslipaz, a cook. 

live. Hdzrat i Vain, His Eoyal High- 

surmeh, collyrium (to brighten 


hamshikur, hunting-companion. 
Khudn-rastdeh, (one who has) 

attained to (a knowledge of) vcfdeh Itlivnstan, to invite. 


pai burdan, to follow, turn to. biklarchtn ( ., 

kaukardk < ^ 

dam zddan, to cavil, ask why 

, 11 


and how. sib i zamml (pomme de terre), 

ddrajeh, (spiritual) rank, degree. potato. 

ujrat, wages. kdlam i Fardngi, cauliflower. 

tiikhm, (seed), egg; t. avardan bfidinjan, egg-plant fruit (in 

to lay an egg: (fully, tukhm India Brinjal.) ( Faranyi, 

i murgh). tomato). 

murgh, a hen, a fowl. shurvti, soup. 

nastyyat, on credit. 
bamdadsn, on the morrow. 
chdndi, (for) some time. 

tnrubcheh, radish. 

'ainu'nnns (ananas), pineapple. 

purtuqdl, a lime. 

add ndna-kard, would not pay. azgtl, a medlar. 
kadkhudff, headman of a village, alubdlu, sour cherry. 

Irregular and double Plurals. 


wdktfiban, in writing. 
jujeh, a chicken. 
aqdllan, at least. 

ittifdqan, by chance. 

i J i 
zarang, clever, cute. 

chigunagi, state of affairs. 
qdhqalieh, loud laughter. 
2>tshkhidmat, table-servant. 

gilds, sweet cherry. 

tut i Fardngi, strawberries. 

tiltt, plum. 

rilucheh-y-i sabz ) 

* -L > areensrasre. 

gaiyen > 

khtineh-y-i miz, drawer of a table. 
sTikhtehdan, ashtray (for cigars). 

Exercise 37. 

Translation 38. A Tale. 

A labourer lived a long time in foreign (distant) 
countries, and, having at last returned to his native- 
land, and having soon wasted all the money (moneys) 
which he had saved (heaped up) from his wages, 
reached the extremity of poverty and impecuniosity. 
One day, having entered a small village, he went to 

1 This refers to the Persian custom of making plots of 
ground intended for cultivation lower than the adjoining water- 
courses in the fields, so that they may be easily flooded when 
desired. The paths and other elevated patches of ground remain 
diy, as the water does not rise so high. 

160 Lesson 19. 

a well-known shopkeeper, and asked him for (asked 
from him) a dozen (twelve) cooked eggs on credit, and 
having got them he ate them at dinner-time : and next 
day, having set out, he went to his own village. When 
some time elapsed and that labourer would not pay 
his debt, the (that) shopkeeper, having laid a complaint 
in writing against (having made .... from) him before 
the headman of that village, said, "Such and such a 
person has bought on credit (has made credit) from 
me twelve cooked eggs, and until now has not given 
the money for them (of it), and on that account has 
caused me great loss ; for from those twelve eggs twelve 
chickens would have been produced for me, and every 
chicken, on becoming a hen, would have ere this laid 
at least some hundreds of eggs, from which a large 
number of (basa) other chickens would have come into 
existence (pad/id amadan)". And in this very manner 
that covetous shopkeeper claimed (was claiming) an 
enormous sum. When that impecunious fellow heard 
this, having gone into a wineshop he desired to forget 
his ill-luck in wine (having drunk wine). There he 
happened to meet (by chance he met) a clever clerk 
(katiti) who (that that clerk), having enquired the 
state-of-affairs, said to him, "Dear friend, be of good 
cheer, for, if you put your matter into my hands 
(entrust your matter to me), everything will turn out 
(sMdari) all right (durusty '. The labourer, having thanked 
him (ighar i mamnuniyyat Jcdrdan), went to the headman 
and said, "Such and such a clerk is my attorney (vakil) 
and will soon be present to answer (having become 
present will give answer) in my stead". The headman, 
having for a long time waited for (having become 
expectant of) that clerk, when he did not come, sent 
in search of him and asked him, saying, "Well, so 
and so (ai fidari), why hast thou wasted my time ? 
since I have been looking out for you for some time 
(it is a space nmddat I draw the expectation of 
thee)". He said, "Sir, I was cooking peas, for I wanted 
to plant (having planted) them (it) in my garden and 
to see what will come of it (what will become)". The 
headman, having laughed aloud, said, "Yon fool (ai 

Irregular and double Plurals. 151 

dhmaq), do you not know (thou knowest not) that 
cooked peas never grow?" He said, "Sir, if it is so, 
then when does a chicken come out (come up) of 
(from) a hen's egg that has been (may have been) 
cooked?" The headman, on hearing this, rejected that 
shopkeeper's complaint. 


f V _J. f.z$ 

j j; <. A, I 

^, x. c-Jijij ^_^l j, 

j _^A 


J j 

"-.-,, I j ui I li I ' *> li 
J^ _P-^ 

jLJS ) *4 j ,*L- It 

152 Lesson 20. 


T\ventieth Lesson. 

Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 

172. As has already been explained ( 147). 
the Root of the Arabic Verb generally consists of 
three Radical letters. From this root a number of 
Voices are formed by prefixing or inserting one or 
more of the Servile letters mentioned in 147. (The 
nearest analogy to this in English is afforded by 
such verbes as 'to raise', 'to* seat', 'to lay', formed 
somewhat similarly from 'to rise', 'to sit', 'to lie'.) 
All the voices formed from any root have a connexion 
in meaning, with one another and with the root, 
though in English their meanings have often to be 
expressed by quite different words. "When the mean- 
ing of the root is known, it is not difficult to know 
the signification of each of its derivatives. This will 
be readily understood from the following Paradigm. 

173. Voices of Kdtaba, 'he wrote' ( J^T"). ! 

174. The voices are quoted and generally known 
by the numbers prefixed to each, u'hich must be learned. 

The Preterite is not used in Persian, but it is 
here supplied as a necessary link between the various 
Voices, and it is useful in shewing how the other 
forms are produced. Very few Verbal roots form all 
these Voices, but all may be produced from each 
root if required. A vast number of Arabic words used 
in Persian are formed from their respective roots in 
the manner shewn in the diagram. All the Infini- 
tives are Verbal nouns, and (as used in Persian) most 
of the Present Participles Active and many of the Past 
Participles Passive are employed as nouns, though 
(as the name Participle implies) they may also be 
used as adjectives. 

1 (Vide the Table, p. 158). 

Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 



-- 8 





\ f 



QJ r-i 


tJO o 









^^ a 



H * 


' -*J O 

"3 2 . 

3 5 *" 

5 <s o 

3 <U<5 

^ G 

6 o 


^H ^ 



*5 ^ C 
34J O 


fl a3 
o w 





c "o o> 
w a! a 

M p 

cS i 

154 Lesson 20. 

175. The prefixed or inserted ^. is the remnant of a word 
meaning self. The ^ of Voice X. is a weakened form of the 
prefix of Voice IV. (originally in the Semitic tongues ^ and 
meaning 'to make"*, then weakened to ^ * and T). The doubling 
(taslidfding) of the second Radical in Voice II. is the result of 
pronouncing Voice I. with greater emphasis: it accordingly adds 
force to the meaning of Voice I., if that Voice has a transitive 
meaning, and renders it transitive if it has not. The Infinitive 
of Voice II. is formed not from its preterite but from an ad- 
jective (of the form ^^} derived directly from Voice I. and 
having sometimes an Active and sometimes a Passive Participial 
meaning: to this adjective the o above mentioned is prefixed, 
and the word thus produced originally meant 'to produce such 
an effect on or for oneself. The mu prefixed to all the Participles 
except those of Voice I. is the remains of a word which meant 
who' or 'which'. Voice VII. is formed by prefixing to Voice I., 
thus producing a Passive sense (it is doubtless the remains of 
a pronominal or demonstrative word): the I prefixed in this 
Voice and in Voices VIII., IX. and X. is only to assist the 
pronunciation and goes out altogether when no longer needed 
for that purpose, e. g. when mu- is prefixed. Voice III. is formed 
by taking the Present Participle Active of Voice I. and turning 
it into a verb denoting 'to act as one doing such and such a 
thing': e. g. in this Verb 'to act as a katib or writer'. Voice VIII. 
inserts the o instead of prefixing it: this Voice seldom occurs 
when Voice V. does, and is really (originally) an optional form 
of that Voice, used in its stead when euphony requires. Voice IX. 
is really formed from adjectives denoting coloxirs (which in 
Arabic in the masc. sing, generally prefix alif to their triliteral 
root, as j^-f, dsvad, 'black'; dhmar, 'red'): and the verb denoting 
to produce that effect, to grow of that colour, is made by merely 
taslidtding the last radical: as ahmdrra (jlif), 'to grow red', 'to 
blush'. It will thus be understood how little there is really 
mysterious about the origin of the various Voices and tenses 
of the Arabic verb. 

176. The second vowel in the Preterite of Voice I. is 
sometimes i ( ), sometimes ( ) instead of being, as here, 
a (-L): but this does not concern the student of Persian. The 
form of the Infinitive of Voice I. also varies, and a single root 
has frequently several different forms of tiiis infinitive. Except 
in these few matters and in the instances in which (vide 
Lesson XXI.) euphony demands a contraction or the assimilation 
of certain letters to one another, there is no irregularity in the 
formation of the different parts of the Arabic Triliteral verbs, 
all being formed according to the Paradigm given in 173. 

It will be a most useful exercise for the student to form 
from other Arabic roots (e. g. from JJ [Infin. I. JJ], k 

Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 155 

[Infin. I. \z: Pret. I. 'if], Ju* [Infin. I. jltj) words in accor- 
dance with, the Paradigm, and to trace out their meanings. 

When it is desirable to find the root of a word, this is 
done by striking out the formative letters: e. g. the root of 
JUIL.1 (istiqbdl) is JJ, and istiqbdl is Infin. X. of that root. 


HaMb, a man's name. 

Hajjdj, a tyrannous governor of 

Arabia under Caliph ' Abdu'l 


Bdsri, native of Basreh. 
Khvdjeh Hasan, a man's name. 
ishtin, = he, she (said out of 


'alailii'rralimali, on him be mercy. 
rahmatu'ttdh 'alaih, God's mercy 

/>n him. 

'Ajawi, non-Arabian ; Persian. 
ftduma'eh, hermit's cell. 
namdz, Muhammadan stated 

prayers (offered 5 times daily). 
daur i ura giriftan, to surround 

chanddn kill . . . kdmtar, the more 

.... the less. 

qadfmu'l ayytim, ancient times. 
Ldndan, London. 
sanjdq, a pin. 
inshsa'Udh, please God. 
sarfeliju, saving, careful, econom- 

bachdieh-giirbeh, a kitten. 
tasJtrff biytivarid tu, come in. 

b'ismi'lldh, (in God's name), 

said in inviting one to enter, 

to sit down, to eat, etc. 
rub' bi-cltahdr mdndeh, a quarter 

to 4 o'clock. 
gardan(t)dan, taking (a horse) 

out for exercise. 
davtindan, making (a horse) 

qddam rdftan, to walk (of a 


yurgheli rdftan, to amble. 
yurtmeh rdftan, to canter. 
lukkeh rdftan, to trot. 
damdgh ddshtan, to be somewhat 

sarkdsh, obstinate, stubborn, 

Hun, see! lo! 
kabfid (nikli), grey. 
bur, brown. 
Icdhar, bay. 

titei, Arabian (not in use). 
asU (najib), wellbred, blood-. 
kuran, chestunt-coloured. 
ytibii, pack-horse. 
tatimmeh darad = to be concluded. 

Exercise 39. 

.1.1 .-'I . ^ ... 1 

-9- J \ jU JUS U ..) A~^~> 

156 Lesson 20. 

Translation 40. A Tale. 

In ancient times in the city of London there was 
a wealthy merchant, who took (gave a place) into his 
house a poor orphan and brought him up (was nourishing 
him). Although this child was so (small) young that 
the merchant did not appoint him to (over) any work, 
yet he himself, (loving toil) being diligent, and having 
devised some work for himself, busied himself in (of 
this, that) collecting lost pins. "When he had picked 
up a number of them, he brought them to his master 
and gave them to him. The merchant was pleased 
and said, "Please God, by and by (after a little) this 
boy will turn out (become) a trustworthy and economi- 
cal man". One day in that house a cat gave-birth-to 
some kittens, and that orphan obtained permission to 
rear one of them for himself. When that kitten grew 
up (became big), one day it happened that the (that) 
merchant, having laden one of his ships with (az) 
various kinds of merchandise (amval va ajnus i tijaratt), 
was sending it to a distant country, and he wished 
to go on board the ship and see whether (kill a>/u) 
everything was right (bi-tarttb a-st). On the way as he 
went he met that boy holding (who had) his cat in 
his arms (bosom). He said to him, "Child, hast thou 
not something too to send across the sea for sale?" 
He said, "Sir, you well know that I am destitute and 
have nothing but this cat". The merchant said, "Well. 
send that cat, that having sold it they may bring 
back its price for you (thee)". The boy handed over 
his cat to one of the sailors and asked that they should 
sell it for him: and the ship started. (To be concluded). 

Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 157 

*j*'j*" -5"* 

1:1 jji csj jj^ ^u^ Aob ^^- r -u 

-Cu .. -^._* f^ ^u^ 

A.' I ci 

jJA*i ' _ 


ljclj Ul 

- - - ' 

_-l J-.l <".i 1 r JM 


Ul c-l jL- ltL- l^-l J. 

45 .jlo,' S .__- 1 jl - 

Ai'jl 3 ,\> 
-" ? ***' 

\ J\ *** A-C< 4J i_- ' (_/_l 

158 Lesson 21. 

Twenty-first Lesson. 

Arabic Verbal -Forms (Continued): Verbs with Feeble 
Radicals, etc. 

177. In certain classes of Arabic Verbs a few 
contractions and other alterations of the foregoing 
scheme ( 173) take place, mainly for the sake of 
euphony and to facilitate pronunciation. These occur 
mainly when one of the three Radical letters of the 
verb is a weak letter (\ <s j). These changes, 
however, take place in accordance with fixed rules, 
the most important of which we now proceed to 

178. If the middle radical be I <s or j, 
it is represented by lidmzeh ( ) in the Present and 
Past Participle of Voice I. : as, from V J_y , Pres. P. 
Act. Jj't, Past P. Pass. JjL.'; from VjL, Pres. P. Act. 
JfL, Past P. Pass. JZ; from V^u, Pres. P. Act. J*U, 
Past. P. Pass. J>'. 

179. In Voice II., if the third radical be one 
of these three weak letters, the Infinitive adds a : as. 
from r^ji the Infin. of Voice II. is <[y 7 (in Persian 
usually ?>& taqvfyyat). 


180. In Voice IV. if the third radical be j or ^ 
it is dropped in the Infinitive : as from V ^\, Infin. IV. 

- -^ 

ritJj But if the 2 nd radical be j or <j, it is dropped 
in the Infinitive IV. and is added at the end of 
the word: as, from Vj^ IV. Infin. *l (Pers. cJ'Ui). 

In this class of Verbs the Pres. P. Act. IV. has 
^ and the Past. Part. Pass. IV. has I (by contraction 
in each case) before the final letter: as, from Vj^, 
Pres. P. Act. IV. W, Past. P. Pass. IV. Ll> (con- 
tracted from Jjy and Ja^ respectively). If the first 
radical be I or'j, in Infin. IV. its place is taken by 
L$: as, from VI^J, Infin. IV. ^Ul. 

181. In Voice VIII., if the first radical be a 
weak letter, it is assimilated to the inserted o throuh- 

Arabic Verbal Forms : Verbs with Feeble Eadicals. 159 

out, so that this o has the taslidid: so from V_u.j comes 
Infin. VIII. jtfl (for jUl); Pres. P. Act. jj? (for 

If the first radical be ^ or J>, the letter ] is 
inserted throughout in Voice VIII. instead of o: as, 
from V. Past. Part. Pass. ^>J***l. If the first radical 


be \, or Ji, this letter is tashdfded throughout Voice VIII., 
instead of o being inserted: as, from Vx, Pres. P. 
Act. VIII., ^iLl, Infin. VIII. %) (#$') 

If the first radical be j, a j is inserted in Voice 
VIII. instead of o: as, from V]^ Infin. VIII. %3j- 

If the first radical be o, j or j, it is usually 
tashdided instead of having o inserted after it in 
Voice VIII. throughout: as from ^jfj, Pres. P. Act. 

vin. /. 

182. In Voice X., if the 2 nd radical be , or <^, 
it falls out in the Infinitive, and the ending is 
appended: as, from Vj|^ Infin. X. VUl) (in Persian 

183. In verbs which have I for their first radical, 
this letter is changed to j after the prefix ^ (mu) : as, 
from Vji.1, Infin. III. -U.I> (mu'akliatzeh, sometimes 
pronunced muvakliazeli or even muvakhiqeli, the second 
in such forms Infin. III. in ordinary Persian 
becoming '). 

18-4. A few other similar changes occur in 
Arabic Verbs of the classes mentioned, but as they 
are caused by the carrying out of the principles 
already illustrated, they present no difficulty. If a 
root contains two weak letters or otherwise conies 
under two of these rules, both operate: as, from V^ji, 
Infin. IV. ,Ul (Vide 180); from V~~^ Infin. VIII. 
Isrl (Vide 181, 180). 


Lesson 21. 

185. The Arabic words jj (Irreg. genitive 
Sing, ^i, used as Nom. in Persian : Plural ^3 i), 'owner', 
'possessor', *H 'nothingness', and J 'other than', are 
of frequent use in Persian in composition with other 
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best under- 
stood from the following examples: jM*HjS, 'possessed 
of glory, glorious, Lord of Glory' (said of God); 
jb^S 'possessed of grandeur', 'grand', 'eminent': 
Jj*A f jie., 'nothingness of knowledge', 'ignorance'; 
oj r -vt, 'nothingness of power', 'powerlessness' : f^ 1 **^, 
'other than known', 'unknown'; ^j*jf- (ghair i mar 3 *), 
'other than seen', 'unseen', 'invisible'; jjosc*^, 'other 
than bounded', 'unlimited', 'boundless'. 

186. The following Arabic phrases are in con- 
stant use as single words in Persian, so that the 
student ought to learn their meanings. Many others 
will , be found in Appendix A. 

4fcbj (fi^ljumleti) on the 


I j (filhagtqeh) in truth. s 
l.'t (Wlfi'l) in fact. 
ij (bd'dahu) after it 


A-W' (bd'daJia) after her 
(them, of things). 
* Ul (dmma ba'd) but next. 
Jte (cm qarlb) soon, 

(alqisseli) in a word, 


6 (hakaza) thus. 
|) (lihaza) therefore. 
,' (ma'k&p) besides 

this. ^ 

(ma bdqt) the re- 


(dla'ddavam) con- 

(dldlklmsus) espe- 

lJl (iltildbad} for ever. 
1 A, I (abadu^labad) ever 

and ever. 
(Jauqu'l'adah) ex- 

J-L (hasilu'lkalam) 

finally, in short. 
(vagkatrek) etc. 
(ma jaro) what 
occurred, event. 
(ft ma ba'd) for 

the future. 
(ma'haza'lqiyas) on 
this supposition. 
(musharun Haiti) the 
person indicated. 

Arabic Verbal Forms : Verbs with Feeble Radicals. 161 

It will be noticed that in Arabic phrases when- 
ever a long vowel immediately precedes a word 
beginning with the article Jl, the said long vowel is 
pronounced short, as in the above examples. 


Musa', Moses. haif ast, it is a pity. 

alft'nahiyyinn ~) on our Prophet alfifz (Ar. pi. of lafz), words. 
va dlaihi'ssalnm \ and on him be maghshush, indistinct, confused, 

peace. inaccurate. 

Iblts, Satan. ahl i zabtin, those whose native 

Khastiis (Ar. pi. of khastseh'), language it is. 

peculiarities. muhcivareh, idiom. 

vasdvis (Ar. pi. of vdsvaseJi) temp- zarbu'lmasal, proverbial: a pro- 

tations of Satan. verb. 

Kibriya, the Divine Majesty. bi-tarfy i ultf (aula'), far more. 
haivtfn i dardndeh, beast of prey. Icumak, aid, help. 
zahreli, bile; daring. hifz Mrdan, to learn, learn by 

puz, snout. heart. 

mu'dttim, a teacher. qavantn (Ar. pi. of qnnuri), laws. 

mlrza (here), a teacher of Ian- qava'id (Ar. pi. of qa'ideK), rules. 

guages. sarf va nahv, grammar. 

muta'dtlim, a student, pupil. 

Exercise 41. 

-j (|jo U'jjj $ j^J 

puilf L* jiHjj^ 45 ij 

&~* J *-! 


Translation 42. 

(Conclusion of the Tale of the Boy and the Cat.) 

After some months that vessel reached an unknown 
island and cast anchor. When the sailors disembarked 
(came to the dry-land), they were informed that a 

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 11 

162 Lesson 21. 

sovereign (stdtani) reigned (reigns) over that island: 
and when that sovereign heard that some foreigners 
(foreign persons) had arrived in (have become arriving 
of, varid i) his country, he commanded that they should 
be invited (so that they invited them) to lunch (that 
they may eat lunch) with him. But when they sat 
down at the royal table, they saw that, although there 
is plenty of (plentiful) food, yet it is impossible (not 
possible) to eat as much as even one morsel in comfort, 
because the king's palace is full of (from) mice and 
rats (mice small and large), which are so daring that 
(having dared to this limit) they snatch the morsels 
from the guests' hands. The sovereign, having become 
ashamed, said, "Whoever discovers (may discover) a 
remedy for (of) this calamity, I shall give him a large 
sum". Then one of the sailors said, "Your Majesty, I 
have a beast of prey, which, if you permit (if there 
be permission), will very speedily (with complete haste) 
completely destroy all these mice". "When the king 
commanded, they brought that cat, and the cat busied 
herself in the chase in such a manner that after half an 
hour no mouse dared to (had daring of that, that it should) 
shew its snout. The king, having become extremely 
pleased (joyful), purchased that cat for a sack full of 
gold (fczZa), and in that manner that orphan became rich. 


~ J 


VL Ul 

i c~.l .^g oj'Ur Af- 

.l Jolt 4)"^ 

Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 163 

is Oil 


U J 

I -^l> -Ui,^>. sJ'JJ^ * <*^ 

'j".j ~ ' J^-* *^ *li). ($-l*O -5-** * 


J/ .^^ jl 

Twenty-second Lesson. 

Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 

187. Besides the Participles and Infinitives of 
Verbs as explained in Lessons XX. and XXI., manj- 
other words are formed from Arabic Triliteral roots. 
We now proceed to explain the method of such for- 
mations, the principal of them only and those most 
frequently met with in Persian being given. It will 
be found that an acquaintance with the methods in 
accordance with which such words are produced will 
enable the student, not only to remember the meanings 
of the words when once learnt, but also to know their 
meaning the first time he meets with them, if he knows 
the meaning of the root. If, for example, he knows 
( 190) that mi prefixed to the root and a inserted 
before the last radical forms nouns denoting instruments, 
it will not be difficult to remember that miftah 


164 Lesson 22. 

so formed from V *& 'to open', means 'a key'. As the 

same rules are, with few exceptions, applicable to all 
roots if necessary, it will be understood that a vast 
number of words may be produced from almost every 
Arabic root, and that little doubt can arise about the 
meaning of each word so formed. 

188. Nouns denoting people engaged in any trade 
or occupation are formed by tashdidmg the 2 nd radical 
and inserting a before the third: as, from V^j^, 'to 
turn, to change', comes olj^ (sarraf), 'a money-changer': 

from V^^;, 'to cut up, dissect', comes v^** (4 a ??ab), 'a 
butcher': from Vjjj 'to sprout', (ji{ vegetable), comes 
J\% (baqqal), 'a greengrocer'. 

189. Nouns denoting the place where anything 
occurs are formed by prefixing ma to the B/oot: as, 
J-SZ (mdktdb), 'a school', from V jjf 'to write': -^-^ 
(mdsjid), 'a mosque', from Vu=- 'to worship'. Nouns 
sometimes add a to this form; as <&s? (mdhkameh) 
'tribunal' (in vulgar use in Persian in the sense of 
'a doctor's consulting room', from hakmi in the sense 
of 'a doctor') from Vj. 'to judge', 'determine', 'com- 


190. Nouns denoting instruments are formed by 
prefixing mi to the root and by (frequently) prefixing 
a to the third radical: as (j>\ji+ (miqraz), 'scissors', 

from j>jt, 'to cut': <jH~* (misvak) 'tooth - pick', 
'small piece of wood for rubbing and cleansing the 
teeth', from V^^ 'to cleanse the teeth' : j \-*+ (mi'yar) 
'touchstone', from V^, which in Voice II. means 'to 
verify a weight', 'test a coin'. 

191. Many nouns and some adjectives are form- 
ed by inserting j before the third radical (such nouns 
are forms of the Infinitive of Voice I., of which 
there are 24 possible forms): as Jy.i (dukhul), 'act of 

entering', 'entrance', from Vjl^ 'to enter': 

'necessary', from V^, originally 'to press', 'to con- 

Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 165 

strain'. Others to this form add : as jj_^ (zarwreh, 
in Persian ojj_^, zarurat), 'necessity'; ^J5^ (hulcumeh, 
in Persian ^jl hukumat), 'rule'. 

192. An adjectival form is obtanied by insert- 
ing i before the last radical: as, ^jT (karim) 'kind', 
'gracious', from VTT7 'to be beneficent': J^ (ycdU), 
'scanty', 'small', from Vj;, 'to be few': jX (jalil) 'glo- 
rious', from Vja., 'to shine forth'. From these adjec- 
tives nouns may be formed by changing the I into a, 
with or without adding : as J}U (jalal), 'glory'; 
*X\f (Jcarameh, in Persian ^\jT karamat) 'generosity'; 
or even by merely adding the , as tL^ (fazileh, 
in Persian cJLi faztlaf), 'superiority', from Vj^, 'to 

193. Other nouns and adjectives are formed by 
adding -an to the root: as jUail (sultan), 'a ruler', from 
VjaJU? 'to be despotic' ; jl^ (hairari), 'astounded', from 
y^>. 'to be bewildered'; <Mof ('irfari), 'knowledge', 
from Kj_^ 'to know'. From the same roots may be 
formed other nouns by merely adding a (in Persian 
changed into o ); as c:lu. (sdltanat), 'sovereignty', 
'kingdom'; o^ (hatrat), 'astonishment'. 

194. Many nouns (infinitives of Voice I.) insert 
a before the last radical (cf. 192): as *&' (kcdam), 
'speech', from Vj^; j\J (qarar), 'agrement', from Vj;; 
jl^i (farar] 'flight', from Vj t . Some adjectives also 
have this form ; as J%^ (halal) 'lawful', from Vj,., and 
{\j>- (haram), 'unlawful', 'forbidden', from V. ,.. Nouns 
of this formation often add -^- (in Persian o ); as 
ojls? (tijdrat], 'commerce', from V '^. 

195. A few insert a before the second radical: 
as ^"U. (fthatam), 'a seal', from Vj^; Jilt (qalab), 'a mould', 
from V,jy;. From the present participle Active of 

166 Lesson 22. 

Voice I. we have nouns feminine in ; as oV1 
(faideh), 'benefit' ; -**t qa'idek), 'a rule' : (from Vjj and 

196. Many other nouns are formed (Infinitives 
of Voice I.) by the addition of various short vowels 
to the radical consonants: as Jt ( l ilm), 'science'; ^2J. 

\ , 

(husn), 'beauty'; J&, (tdlab), 'request', 'demand'; ^o* 
(huda'), 'guidance', ^o* (qudus), 'holiness'. Adjectives 
are also formed by means of the insertion of the 
short vowels : as, ^-^ 'handsome' ; ^^ (ndjis), 'defiled'. 

197. Some nouns add to the root (this in 
Persian sometimes becomes , ): as tSje-'* (da'va 1 
da l m), 'claim', from VJ^; <y ('/afoa'), 'decree'. 

198. The Arabic diminutive rarely occurs in 
Persian: its formation will be understood from the 
following examples: j^.j (rujaU), *'a mannikin', from 
Jj (rdjul), 'a man'; ^Ja! (husain), 'goodlooking', from 
^^ (hdsan), 'handsome' (a proper name). 

199. Attributives, nouns and adjectives, are 
formed in great numbers by adding I (fern, -iyyek), 
to the original noun: as &j+*+ (Mfen), 'Egyptian', 
from ^. (Misr), 'Egypt'; J\*i*>\ (IsfaMni), 'a native 
of Isfahan'; cjj> \zaruri), 'necessary'; J4 (^*)i 
'childish'; ^\ (Bain), 'foUower of the Bab', etc. If the 
noun ends in or ^ , these letters maybe droj 
ped or changed into j before the addition of the -i: 
as, c^a, (Bdsri), 'a native of Basreh; 4^--? ( l lsa^) 
'belonging to Jesus', from J_c ('-&')? 'Jesus': ^y- 
(sdnavi), 'annual', from ^L (saneti), 'a year'. The femi- 
nine singulars of nouns (and adjectives) in * are often 
used with the significance of the plural and instead 
of the^ latter: e. g. ol (BabiyyeK), ^ (BaliaiyyeK), 
'the Bsbis', 'the Bahais'. (This is owing to the omis- 
sion of the noun ^ (mittaf), 'a people, sect', or ^ 
with the same meaning). 

Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 167 


(The key to the explanation of the following Story is the 
Muhammadan tradition quoted almost literally in the Moral 
- that one who gives to the poor gets ten times as much in 
return from God in this world and seventy or even seven 
hundred times as much in the next world.) 
Sham, Damascus; Syria. q&im maqam, lieutenant, substi- 

'Usmlin ibn i 'Ufftin, afterwards tute. 


muvtifiq uftddan, to turn out 

dali btst = ft dah Mst, twenty well, succed. 

in ten, = 200 per cent. khytihad namud = .should form, 

(fi)yak dah, ten in one = 1000 

per cent. 
dunyti, this world. 

mutafakkireh, reflective: quwat i 

mut: reflective power = power 

of reflection. 

kimiytf, the philosopher's stone, murtasims&khtan, to paint, depict. 
dar har surat, however that may mdfrash, portmanteau, travel- 

dkhirat, 'uqba', the world to come. 



'ttmil, an official (head of taxa- gwmruM, liable to Customs duty. 

tion department). khurdeh rfzeh, small articles. 

hid&sat i sinn, youth, youth- gumruk, Customs dues. 

fulness. [with, tdraf i shdm, towards evening. 

ittistff dtishtan, to be endowed Khudti htffiz (Khudti hamrfih), 

pishgtih, vestibule. 


Exercise 43. 

jb fdj\ iiifi \^\ jl 

Translation 44. 

They say that Ardashir Babakan, son of Babak, 
is of the race (offspring) of Sasan son (bin) of Bahman, 
son of Isfandiyar. Others mention for him a humbler 

168 Lesson 22. 

origin (descent). However that may be, they say that 
his father was one of the officials (farmers-of-taxes). 
The governor of Darabjird, who was named (had the 
name) Pirl, heard that Babak had (there is to Babak > 
a son, who, in spite of his youth, is endowed with 
an excellent (vafir) intellect and (a) noble (bahir) courage. 
He therefore summoned him: and Ardashir gained 
such credit (i'tibar) with him (in his presence) that, 
whenever any matter prevented him from conducting 
the government, he used to make Ardashir his sub- 
stitute : and Ardashir's conduct (Itirdar) on these occa- 
sions turned out so well that after Piri's death he was 
appointed to the government of Darabjird. It is no 
marvel that a youth like Ardashir, who had made 
such rapid progress (who may make progress with 
this rapidity), should conceive great projects (vide 
100). They say that the force of reflection in sleep 
depicted in the vestibule of his brain his waking 
thoughts (the thoughts of his wakefulness), and flatterers 
explained (interpreted) this dream as (bi-) signs of 
future (coming) greatness. All historians assert (bar an 
and) that reliance upon these dreams became the 
cause of Ardashir's rising up to claim (of this, that A. 
came up in claim of) the sovereignty of Persia: and 
if in truth he and his followers had (have had) con- 
fidence in (bi-} this kind of dreams, there is no doubt 
that it must have helped (ought to have helped) in 
his advancement to the lofty dignity (dignities) of 
the sovereignty. 



Ul ^jU' ^J jfjl gy^ ju^ \j\ 
Ji^ If j 
: f\ e 

Uc- Jil Ul 

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 169 


L ,/UU'il ^T *jU' 

t . I I ' . ' 5 i '/-" <-^ 

-AJ.' C^ 

Twenty -third Lesson. 

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, Adjectives 
and Adverbs. 


200. In Persian, as in the other Aryan lan- 
guages, many nouns and adjectives are derived from 
simpler forms by the addition of certain terminations, 
which, though doubtless they at one time existed as 
independent words, have now become mere affixes. 
The principal of these terminations in use in Persian are : 

A. To form Nouns: 

(a) -Saw, denoting 'guardian': as jlj^, 'door- 
keeper' (from jj a door); jUl (baghbari), 'a gardener' 
(from l a garden). In vulgar pronunciation this ter- 
mination becomes awan (awun}. 

(b) -kar, more rarely -gar, denotes the doer: as, 
jlS^Gf (gunahkar), l & sinner'; jlfjjj^, (Parvardigar), 'the 
Nourisher' (God). 

170 Lesson 23. 

(c) -andeh, formed from Verbs ( 89, e), denotes 
the Agent: as, -^T (Afarindndeti), 'the Creator'; 
juiT (kundndeh), 'the doer'. 

(d) -gar, denotes one working in or engaged in 
something; as, _,tlbT (ahingar), 'one working in iron 
(akin), 'a blacksmith'; J'jj (zdrgar), 'a goldsmith' (ear, 
'gold'); jTb^- (saudagar), 'a trader'. 

(e) -ar denotes (1) the agent: as, jlu,^ (khari- 
dar), 'purchaser'. 

(2) an action: as, J!AO (dtdar), 'vision' (of Grod). 

(3) hence (concrete) a thing: as, jbj (mur- 
dar), 'carrion'. 

(f) -dan denotes a receptacle: jl-w (sham'dari), 
'a candlestick'; jljuil^ (chiraghdari), 'a lampstand'; 
j|jui (qalamdari), 'a pencase'. 

(g) -istan, -stan, -bar, -zar, -sar, -lakh, -sfian, denote 
a place abounding in the thing named: jtLJ^ (guli- 
stan), 'a rosegarden'; jll-jj^b (Hindustan), 'India'; jU_j>. 
(juybar), 'a place abounding in streams'; jljlf (gulzar), 
'flowerplot'; jLtL, (sangsar), originally 'a place abound- 
ing in stones' (now used with the verbs namudan or 
sakhtan to mean 'to stone to death'); jU_^" (ktihsar), 
'a mountainous district'; ^fi~ (sanglakh), 'stony ground' ; 
j^ (gulshan), ; a flowerbed'. 

(h) -i forms abstract nouns and corresponds to 
-ness in English: jZ (ntkt), (*> (nikui), 'goodness'; 
t^ (bddt), 'wickedness'; ^jj (raushani), 'brightness', 
'light'; (jLijj (raushanai), 'light' (from obsolete adjec- 
tive raushana); ^"i'lj (danai), 'wisdom'. If added to a 
word ending in (originally -ak and then -ag, vide 
36), it changes the li to g; as J^-, 'service', 'wor- 
ship' (from o^ bdndek). 

(i) -ish (an older form of -I), -ak } -a, -an, -eh, form 
verbal nouns: as, J*\*j (farmaisK), jU_> (farman), 'a 
command'; J'ljj,- (sneak), 'a burning'; garma 

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 171 

'heat' ; jj. (Idrgeli), 'a trembling', shamareli, 'a number', 
'reckoning', 'computation'. 

(;) -ok, -akeJi, -eh, form diminutives denoting per- 
sons, implying littleness and either contemptibleness 
or affection: as J^iio (dukhtarak), 'a little girl', 'a 
little daughter' also ^i!s dukhtareh) ; J>~j~> o^ 
(pisarak, pisarek), 'a little boy'; <J"j>^. (mdrdaK), ^^ 
(mdrdakeh), 'a, mannikin', 'a contemptible little man'. 1 

(K) -cheh (rarely -icheh} forms diminutives denoting 
things: as *==H (boghcheh}, 'a little garden'; <*Ljj (dari- 
cheh), 'a little door', 'a window' (that opens : a window 
that will not open is now called *j=? > , pdnjrek). 

(I) Some nouns assume the Turkish termination 
chi or -jt (the latter after n, r or a vowel) to denote 
the Agent: as ^\Jk (talagrafchi), 'a telegraphist'. 
(Vide 207). This class of nouns is increasingly 
numerous in the modern language. 

201. B. To form Adjectives: 

(a) The termination -mand denotes 'possessed of: 
as JLU>J.S (daulatmdnd), 'wealthy'; -co^i (kMradmdnd), 
'wise'; -u*ub (danishmdnd), 'possessed of knowledge'; 
-cj^L (hajatmdnd), 'needy'. 

(b) -var, -avar (-ivar), -avar, denotes 'characterised 
by': as, jjlj (davar}, 'a judge' (for dadvar, from dad, 
Old Persian datha, 'law', now 'justice'); jjTjjj (euravar], 
'strong' (from eur, 'strength', 'violence'); jj^'j (ranjur), 
'vexed' (for ranjvdr); jj^l^U (shu i lehvdr\ 'flaming'; j/L 
(janivar), 'animate'; 'an animal' (from /an, 'the soul', 
'the vital principle'). 

(c) -var and -vish (-vash) denote 'resemblance', 
'suitability'; as jljU (shahvar), 'fit for a king'; J^j*\* 

1 (This explains the formation and use of the word _^ 
(jptreft), denoting an old person of either sex, which has mard 
or zan attached : as pireh mard, 'an old man', pireh zan, 'an old 
woman'. But Persians, not aware of this, write *j*j~\, (,P* r t 
(&* r z zan ^ which can hardly be correct. 

172 Lesson 23. 

(mdhvish), 'like the moon'. But jlj-u*| (umtdvar) means 

(d) -sa and -asa denote 'likeness' : as, Ll^* (dn- 
barasd), 'like amber'; LT^I_^ (javahirasa) 'jewellike'. 

(e) -sar, -andeh, gin, denote 'fall of (Latin -osus) : 
as jLjtji (sliarmsdr), 'bashful', 'modest'; -u*_ji (shar- 
mdndeh), 'ashamed'; ^j (ghamgiri), 'sorrowful'. 

(/) -in denotes 'made of: as J.j3 (eann), 'golden', 
(simlri) 'silvern'; jj-^T (ahiniri), 'made of iron': 
(atashiri), 'fiery'. 

(g) -ineh, -eh, are adjectival terminations added 
to words to denote 'duration' or 'frequency' : as, oj^j 
(ruzineK), -daily'; tj,jj&>. (chandruzeh), 'lasting but a 
few days', 'brief; JUyi> (harsaleh), 'yearly', 'annual'; 
-JUU< (panjahsaleh), 'fifty years old'; ojjj-jjljj (davaz- 
deh-riizeli), 'having lasted twelve days'. The termination 
is sometimes merely attributive : as in the phrase 
LJja-lc^UlcJ (du'aha-y-i 'ajizeli-y-i ma), 'our humble peti- 
tions' (better VljJe; vide 202). 

(h) -aneh denotes 'manner': as, 4>'b^ (mardaneh), 
'manly'; 4.'lj>.j (dwaneh), 'like an evil spirit (divf, hence 
'mad': Vtl*^ (muhabbataneh), 'loving', 'affectionate'. 

*) -i forms adjectives denoting 'belong to': as, 
(jdngali), 'belonging to a forest', 'wild'; iS_^ 
(shdhrt) 'belonging to a city', 'urban', 'bourgeois', 'a citi- 
zen'; J\sT (Mjai), 'of what place' (cf. the meaning of 
the Latin cuias). Cf. the similar Arabic affix in 199. 

(/) -nak denotes 'productive of: as v/L'jjj (dard- 
nak), 'producing pain', 'painful' ; JT," j>- (suzriaK), 'burning', 
'glowing'; cfU^ (haulnak), 'terrific', 'awful'. 

(k) -a added to the root of a verb forms adjec- 
tives (similar to present participles in -an): as, L'lj 
(dand), 'knowing', 'wise'; Ijb (dara), 'possessing'; L- 
(bind), 'seeing', 'able to see', 'clearsighted'; l_^ (sha- 
navd), 'able to hear', 'hearing'; \/ (guya) 'able to 

Formation ot Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 173 

speak', 'speaking' (now generally meaning 'so to speak', 
'as if, 'perhaps'). 

202. It will be noticed in the above examples 
that in Persian these Persian terminations are often 
appended as well to Arabic words as to Persian ones. 
In some instances the termination -aneh ( 201, h) is 
needed in order to form (from adjectives which can 
be used in reference to persons only) other adjectives to 
qualify words denoting things. For example, ^^"(Jcartm), 
'kind', 'gracious', j>-\& ( l afiz)i 'helpless', 'humble', are 
used of persons; as, mard i Icaritm, shakhs i l ajiz, 'a kind 
man', 'a humble person'; but 4,'LjTolL.I^ (murasttat i 
karimaneJi), 'kind letters', sukhanan i 'ajizaneh, 'humble 

203. All Adjectives may in Persian be used as 
adverbs, just as in German. Besides this the lack of 
proper adverbs is made up for in several ways: 

(a) By using Arabic nouns (masc. or fern.) in the 
Ace. Sing. ( 153): as, <2JU- (haqiqatan), 'truly'; 5U 
(//'Zon) 'actually'; j^l (aZ'aw), JU.1 (ilhal), 'now' (for 
Jlil^ fi'lhal). 

(b) By employing Arabic nouns with Arabic 
prepositions: as, j^flJ (fi'lfaur), 'at once', 'instantly'; 
J^WPJ), 'in fact'. 

(c) By using a noun with a Persian preposition: 
as, ^^ (bi-khvubi), 'well': aLiil^. (biishtibah\ 'unerringly'. 

(d) By using two nouns together (united by 
izafeh] with the omission of the preposition gover- 
ning the first: as, jlT,i.T alchir i Mr), 'finally'. 

(e) By employing a Present or Past Participle 
adverbially: as c-j- (paivdstek), 'continually'; jljjjljj 
(davan davari) 'at a run'. 

Adverbs of time and place (except 5" Icai, 'when? 
and a few other old words), such as jjj,i (dtruz = 
dtgar ruz), 'yesterday'; U?T (anja), 'there'; U2 (few/a), 
'where?', are so simply formed as to require no 


Chinavad, (Ar. Sirtit), 

over which tire dead pass at 

rastakhfg (Ar. qiytimat}, resurrec- 


alghdraz, finally. 
dti ipur-kliun, heart full of blood 

'arsh, the throne (of God), highest 


ln-j>a va sar (here ==) devout. 
ahdng va farr, (music and pomp 

=) internal dignity and 

baqiyyatu'l umr, 

mardum-azdri, tyranny, oppres- 

Ardavdn, Artabanus IV., king 

of Persia. 
mustduli gdshtan bar, make one- 

self master of. 
rujhfin dtidan, to prefer. 

Lesson 23. 


bridge Shapur, S&poi: 

remainder of 

vafdt ytiftan, to die. 
bar sdr i, upon, against. 
bi'listiqldl, absolute, autocratic. 
tanzim, arrangement, regulation. 
muhimmtft (Ar. PI.), important 

taskhtr Jcdrdan, to seize, take 

possession of. 
tasdrruf, grasp; power. 
'Iraq, the region about Kirman. 
manqul, stated, related. 
az miytin barddshtan, to get rid 

of, do away with. 
az kindreh giriftan, withdraw 

from, resign. 

az ddst rdftan, to be left undone. 
chaughsn-bdzi, polo-playing. 
atta'jilu min'ash Shaitsni va'lta'- 

anmyyu mina'r Rahman, "haste 

is from Satan and patience 

(taking it easy) from the 

Merciful One (God)". 

Exercise 45. 

JJ) J/ j^I- _}\j X 

J\>-' U^ j.J -- 43 JCX 

i/ 1 1. 

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 175 

*-< jJCj jl j L j 

Translatioii 46. 

The first person who helped Ardashir was his 
father Babak. Having slain the governor who had 
been appointed by (from the side of) Artabanus, he 
made himself master of Fars. But Babak, having 
shewn a preference for (preferred the side of) Sapor 
his elder son, gave him the title of governor of (placed 
on him the name of the government of) Fars, and 
after a short time died. Ardashir, after his father's 
death (his father), led an army against his brother; 
and Sapor's people (aqvavri), having seized him, deli- 
vered him up to Ardashir, and in Fars he obtained 

176 Lesson 23. 

absolute sway. It is not known what he did witl 
Sapor, but he executed the persons who had dealt 
treacherously with him. After regulating (regulation 
of) the important affairs of Fars, having attacked 
Kirman, he seized that country; and, before Artabanus 
could engage in repelling him, he had brought almost 
the whole of Traq into his power. It is related that 
Artabanus remained in the district ofJdbcd (= Mountain) 
near Hamadan and Kirmanshahan until the victories 
of Ardashir compelled him either to get rid of Arda- 
shlr or himself resign the sovereignty. 


_:\ LJI jUv; > jLL 
jljl j,=-.1 

Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 177 

Ju U J.-_jC* *l o-Ci. C 1 

<_* j-^ .fj 

41-0 j 




jijjjl L^. 45^vi~-li/.l oJUr w ^ r - jL^ j U 

olffj^ ^^ ^a.'; ) J&>' *^-l ^- 

j-. jl L. j jjU-i t/ IjU^U j-iL_ j_^ j-^J-J 

^jlj i* < J.l Ul 

T\venty-fourth Lesson. 

Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 

204. The formation of Compounds in Persian 
is so simple that it suffices to mention only a few of 
the different classes of compound nouns and adjectives 
so produced. These are very numerous, and may be 
made almost at will. 

205. A. Compound Nouns are formed: - 

1 This is a Persian's lucid(!) explanation. He means to 
say that they place the figure which represents XII. just at 
the handle of the watch, and, reckoning 12 o'clock sunset time, 
count the hours from that on. Thus an hour before sunset would 
he 11 o'clock (generally called yak sn'at bi-ghurtlb mttndefi), one 
hour after sunset would he yak sn'at az dasteh guqashteli. Only 
at the equinoxes would sunrise coincide with the handle, but 
at all times of the year the handle is set at XII. and the sun 
therefore sets at 12 o'clock ("handle time", bi-sar i dasteh). 
Europeans use their own way of reckoning time in Persia, 
and recent Persian newspapers describe this as sn'at i chandutn 
ala Farangi, borrowing the d la from the French. 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 12 

178 Lesson 24. 

(a) By simply placing two nouns in juxtaposition 
with one another; as ,ljU (sMhraH), 'royal road', 'the 
king's highway' ; ol' jj j (ruznameli, 'day-letter'), 'journal', 
'newspaper'; 4,'UMjJir (talagraf-klianeh}, 'telegraph office': 
l> (khyabgah), "sleeping-place', 'bedroom'. 

(b) By uniting two nouns together by izafeh: as 
vl>^J (rakU i khvab), 'bedclothes'). In many such 
formations the izafeh is omitted and a true compound 
formed, the plural terminations (when it is necessary 
to form the plural) being appended to the second member 
of the compound : as ^^j^ (mirghdzab, for amir i ghdzab), 
'executioner' (lit. 'master "of wrath') ; j>"L^ (mircLklmr] 
'chief of the stable', 'head groom'; madarzdn, 'wife's 
mother', 'mother-in-law' ; sahibmdnsab, 'an official' ; 
mirsliikar, 'chief huntsman', 'master of the hounds (hunt) 7 ; 
mirpdnj (= amir ipanj hazar), commander of 5,000 horse'; 
sahiWdianeh, 'householder', 'head of the house' ; sarsUsileJi, 
'head of the line' (founder of a family); shakhnaftr, 
'horn' (for blowing) ; bachcheligtirbeh, 'kitten'. The plurals 
are formed as in the following examples : sahibmansaban, 
shalilwiafirha, qaim maqaman (viceroys, lieutenants). 

(c) By uniting together a noun and an adjective 
or a noun and the root of a verb, with or without 
any additional termination: as t^jU>- (chaliarpay) 'a 
quadruped' ; ashpaz, 'a cook' ; sarbaz, "'a soldier' (lit. 'one 
who stakes his head') ; gululehrizi, 'bombardment'. 

(d) By placing together the preterite stem and 
the root of a verb, united by va or its substitute a 
short u, a very important class of nouns is formed: 
as, guftuguy, 'conversation'; justuju, 'search'. 

(e) By uniting the preterite stems of two verbs 
by means of the conjunction va(o): as cijjo^T (amad- 
o-rdft), 'coming and going'; ju^jc-if (guft va shanid), 
'talk', 'conversation'. 

(f) By uniting together two nouns by va (o) to 
express a single idea: as, l^jJT (ab va "ham, 'water 
and air') 'climate'; marz 6 bum ('boundary and land') 
'country'; (in this and in some other instances the 
conjunction may be omitted:) kliarid vafurush ('purchase 

Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 179 

and sale'), 'barter', 'commerce'. One of these nouns 
may be Persian and one Arabic, or they may both 
belong to the same language. Frequently one of them 
explains the other. The shorter of the two comes first : 
e. g. jang va jidal ('battle', P. and 'fighting', A.), 'war'. 
206. B. Compound Adjectives. 

(a) A large number of Compound adjectives are 
formed by uniting together two nouns: as, J.cL- (sangdil, 
from sang, 'a stone', and dil, 'heart'), 'stonyhearted' ; 
partpa&car, 'of fairy-form', fairy-like'; maliruy, 'moon- 
faced' ; karamshi c ar (from ltdram, 'generosity', and shiar, 
'habit'), 'generous'. 

(b) Similarly an adjective and a noun may be 

compounded together: as c^-^ (nifcbdJcJif), fortunate', 
'lucky'; lihyushbuy, 'sweetsmelling' ; badakhlaq (<jMil.x), 
'immoral'; siyah ckdsJim, 'blackeyed'. 

(c) Other compound adjectives are formed by 
attaching to a noun the root of a verb : as j^J j (dilsuz) 
'heart-consuming' ; rahatamiz, 'rest - giving', 'restful' ; 
dilasa, 'heart-consoling', 'comforting'; jalianara, 'world- 
adorning' ; jahangir, 'world-seizing' ; gitiafruz, 'world- 

(d) Occasionally only part of the verbal root with 
the termination -an is used in composition with a noun 
to form a compound adjective: as ataslifistian (from 
jishurdari), 'fire-darting', 'volcanic'. 

(e) The Past Participle of a verb, in its longer 
or shorter form, is often used in such compounds ; as, 
shalizadeh, 'king-born' (hence as a noun 'a prince') ; 
Khudarasideli, 'having-attained to (a knowledge of) God' ; 
jdhandiddt,, 'experienced', 'travelled' ('having seen the 
world') ; Tcarazmudeli, 'experienced' ('having been tried 
in work') ; salkhyurdeh, 'aged', 'advanced in age'. 

(f) The prepositions ba, 'with', and It, 'without" 
are often compounded with a noun to form an adjective; 
as o.jU~l (la-shaqavat), 'miserable'; ba-safa, ('with pu- 
rity =) 'nice' ; bt-munivvat, 'unkind' ; bi-fdhm, 'senseless' ; 
\i\-iman, 'unbelieving'; bi-dtn, 'without a religion', 'in- 
fidel'. This class of adjectives, like every other, may 


180 Lesson 24. 

take the Comparative and Superlative terminations 
-tar and -tartn. 

(g) The prefix na- (!') with an adjective, participle, 
or root of a verb following equals the English un- or 
the Latin in-: as t^LL' (napaty, 'unclean'; nadideh, 'un- 
seen', 'invisible'; no-dan, 'ignorant'; haqq-na-shinas, 'un- 
grateful'; nd-didant, 'that should not be seen'. (Note 
that, while ndh- or na- is used with finite verbs and 
means 'not', na- is used in these compounds.) 

(h) The particle ham (**), 'together' [Lat. con, co- ; 
Greek auv-\ is frequently compounded with a noun 
following, and the adjectives so formed are freqently 
used as nouns : as, J&j* (hamvdtan), 'of the same coun- 
try', 'a compatriot' ; hamshdhri, 'belonging to the same 
city', 'fellow citizen' ; hamshdg'ird, 'fellow-disciple', 'school- 
mate', 'fellow - apprentice' ; hamdhdng, 'harmonious' ; 
hamrdng, 'of the same colour'; liamshireh, 'partaker of 
the same milk', 'sister'. 

(i) The noun guneh, 'kind', 'sort', is often com- 
pounded with the demonstrative adjectives and the 
interrogative chih:a,s, inguneh, 'like this', 'such': chiguneli, 
'of what sort' ('how')? With chih in the form gun it is 
contracted into chun, 'like' ('how?', 'when'). The word 
fam, 'colour', is now used only in composition: as 
surkfifam, 'redcoloured'. 

(j) Many adjectives are formed by repeating a 
noun twice and placing a between: as gunagun (from 
guneh}, 'of different sorts', 'diverse' ; bardbdr ('breast to 
breast'), 'equal', 'level' ; sarasdr, ('head to head'), 'wholly' 
(used adverbially); labdldb ('lip to lip'), 'brimful'; 
kashdkdsh, 'pulling against one another' ; mdldmal, 'com- 
pletely full'. Sometimes different nouns are united by 
a, or various prepositions may come between them 
instead of a : as, labbarldb, 'lip to lip' ; sardpa (sartapa), 
'cap a pie', 'from head to foot', completely' (used ad- 
verbially) ; sarazir, 'sloping'. 


Haqq, the truth (one of God's bar ma muhdqqaq ast, we know 

titles). for certain. 

miytin, the loins. ihtimtil dtishtan, to be probable. 

taUqi shudan, to meet (in battle), 'att-miqdar, mighty, powerful. 

Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 


rfty namudan, to take place. 
az ddst dadan, to lose. 
khvtindan, to call, proclaim. 
slicihanshtih, king of kings, Em- 

fursat ghantmat danistan (shamur- 

dan), to take advantage of an 


vus'at dtidan, to extend (trans.). 
Furfit, the Euphrates. 
Ddjleh (Dijteh}, the Tigris. 
iqtimat dtishtan, to take up one's 


tavdssul justan bi-, to seek to 


hal nd-dashtan, to be ill. 
chaliideh shudan, to catch cold. 
surat, face, cheek. 
bdd Tcdrdan, to swell, get swollen. 
chtiq shudan, to get well, recover. 
ndbz didan, to feel one's pulse. 
dtM ddshtan, to have something 

the matter. 
tib-gusht, broth. 
ishtiha, appetite. 

Exercise 47. 

182 Lesson 24. 

Translation 48. 

Accordingly Artabanus bound up (his) loins for 
the contest. The two armies met in the plain of 
HurmuzSn. A fierce battle took place, and Artabanus 
lost his crown with his head, and Babak's son on that 
very battlefield having saluted as sovereign (with the 
sovereignty) they proclaimed Emperor. After this 
brilliant victory, taking advantage of the opportunity, 
he not only brought under his power the rest of the 
land of Persia, but, extending the boundaries of the 
realm, he made them reach on (02} one side to the 
River Euphrates and on the other side as far as (to) 
Khyarazm. It is recorded that he built a city on the 
banks of the Tigris: and since it is also stated that 
he took up his residence at Madiin (Seleucia-Ctesiphon), 
they have fancied that he is the builder of this city : 
but we know for certain that long (muddaflia) before 
Ardashir's reign that city was (has been) in-existence 
(maujud). It is probable that this fancy is on this 
(that) account because (Jcih) Ardashir, having found 
that city in a state of ruin, repaired (has repaired) it. 
In short, Ardashir's renown became great (faddnd), and 
he subdued the neighbouring-countries (atraf). The 
kings of the neighbouring-countries rendered (shewed) 
obedience and submission, and mighty monarchs from 
the east and west of the world, having sent to his 
court ambassadors and royal offerings, sought to attain 
his friendship. 


(c~U ^L) r ft>l > Jj. ^ U J. (4oUjL) juiy. L 1 Li (IT) 
r_r-.> j'-s ^ 

jj J v.-." jj J jl jl ) f-Ci 

J. j^jb jto jjj (LT) 

Turkish Comp. : Use of Iztifeh as a Eelative Pron. 183 

ziijj - <j 

r l .jj^' 

O* ^ ^'O 

L <l *Ujl jl jl 

jl') ^ 

jjb i)Kj> 

_ 1 -L- 

s-" Ai- Ul a';5C^ jjj JXU 


T\venty-fifth Lesson. 

Turkish Compounds: Use of Izafeh as a Relative 

207. In a few instances not only single Turkish 
words but two of them united together to express a 
single idea are met with in Persian. In such cases it 
should be remembered that the former of the two 
words is in the genitive (although the genitive sign 
J^- in is omitted), and that the second is followed by 
-i if it ends in a consonant-sound, and by -si if it ends 
in a vowel -sound, including - (-eh). This -i or -si 
means Ms, hers, its, theirs. For example, from the 

184 Lesson 25. 

Azarbaijini Turkish ^ (min), which in Ottoman 
Turkish is ^ (tin), 'a thousand', and J^l (bash), ' 
head', is formed ^L^* (mtnbdshi), 'commander of 1,000 
men', 'a colonel'. From j/ (yuz\ 'a hundred', and 
is formed ^\jj>. (yuzbasM), 'commander of a hundred 
men', 'a centurion': from IcT, 'lord', 'eunuch', and the 
same word we have ^illcT (aghabashi), 'chief eunuch' 
from hakim and bash, ^LJC* (hdkimbashi), 'chief phy- 
sician'. Proper names are also formed in a similar way, 
e. g. Jsj^ CAU guli), 'slave of c Ali (from qul, 'a slave'). 
Very seldom does the former of the two nouns take 
the Turkish plural termination J or jV (ler or lar), 
as in jCj}C- (beglarbegt), 'chief 'beg 1 . 

"When a Turkish adjective occurs it is prefixed 
to its noun, as in Lo^f- (Ydngl Dunya), 'the new 
world', 'America': uHJjS (Qizil-bash), 'red-head' (a tri- 
bal name). 

The terminations f. (chi) and f- (ji) are Turkish, 

as already stated in 200, I. : as, ^f (tufdngcht), 'a 

man armed with a gun', 'rifleman' ; ^ L> (miyanji), 'a 
middleman', 'an arbitrator', 'an intercessor'. 

208. It has been explained in 40 that the 
Izafeh is a shortened form of the Avestic yo, yat ('who', 
'which'), in Pahlavi shortened into i. This accounts 
for its use between a noun and the adjective which 
follows and qualifies it, for mard i ntku really means 
'the man who (is) good'. When the Izafeh comes be- 
tween two nouns not in apposition with one another 
it may now be considered to be a preposition and 
translated by of, as shamsiiir i padshah, 'the sword of 
the king'. But originally, when the Persian noun had 
case-terminations, the second of these nouns would 
have had the genitive ending: so the phrase really 
means 'the sword which (is) of the king'. It is neces- 
sary to bear this in mind in order to understand the 
usage which we now proceed to explain. 

209. Izafeli is often employed not only to unite 
together two nouns which are in apposition to one 

Turkish Comp. : Use of Iztifeli as a Eelative Pron. 185 

another, as Hdzrat i Tokyo 1 , 'St. John (the Baptist)', 
Musaf-y-i nabt, 'Moses the Prophet', but also to con- 
nect a noun with a following prepositional clause. In 
each case it retains its original meaning of a rela- 
tive pronoun, though in the former it is not trans- 
lated in English. Example : Sarkardagan i dar an mdm- 
likat az Sultan baghavat namudand, 'The officers who 
(were) in that province revolted from the sovereign': 
Mara 02 shiqaq i dar din M-rahan, 'Deliver us from dis- 
cord which (may occur) in religion' (i. e. 'from schism'): 
Ashkhas i dar an bagh mara didand, 'The persons who 
(were) in that garden saw us'. In each instance Irih 
and a verb may be substituted for the izafeh without 
materially altering the sense: as, Sarkardagani Wi dar 
an mamlikat budand, etc. The Izafeh in such instances 
as these, and in fact in all other cases also, is gene- 
rally omitted in printing Persian books, but it must 
be supplied in reading. 


Chdshm dukhtan bar, to fix one's kashkih, would that! 

eyes on. alqtib (Ar. pi. of ldqab\ titles. 

dtishti ) 3rd Sing. Conditional, huruf (Ar. pi. of harf), letter 

guzfishti \ ( 103, e). ' of alphabet. 

tf#>,repentant(Pres.Part.Act.L chap kdrdan, to print. 

n /- ;\ 'aib nd-darad, it is no harm. 

' y-?)' mnzl, past (tense of verb). 

bi-yak bar, once, once for all. mtfzi-yi-qarw, perfect. 

bt-khvahand, strengthened for mdzt-yi-mutlaq, preterite. 

khvtihand. mazi-yi-ba'id, pluperfect. 

Dnrn, Darius. bartiyi khtirij, for abroad. 

az tin jumleh, from that collec- ghaib, 3rd Person (pronoun or 

tion = among them. verb). 

dustdar, friend, lover. mukhdtab, 2nd Person, person 
j'arman-guqar, obedient. addressed. 

umarti-ra az u Mm btishad, he is mutakdttim, lt Person, the 

a terror to the nobles. speaker. 

az sukhan&n i ust, it is one of ptikat (Eng. word), envelope, 

his sayings, unvtin, address on a letter. 

Exercise 49. 

} j& 

186 Lesson 25. 

>_/ -^^ J 

.^ ^J* 

c~-\ ^Wj *o l 
j\ jJ 

Translation 50. 

When ArdasMr grew weary of prosperity and 
power, he resigned (left) the kingdom to his son 
Shapur. The days of his reign before the slaughter 
of Ardavan were (is) 12 years, and after his death 
(him) (he reigned) as an autocrat (autocratically) 14 
years. Ardashir Babakan is one of the wisest and 
bravest kings that have (ever) reigned in Persia. The 
narrative (explanation) of his conduct (ahval) is the 
best witness to this statement; for from the lowest 
position he raised (caused to arrive) himself to the 
lofty station of a mighty (buzurg) kingship (sdltanaC): 
and the alteration which he brought about (dad) in 
the state of his realms (mulk) is a marvellous exploit 
(az djaib i Mr). The historians of Persia assert that 
the monarchy (mulk) of Persia was founded (pay girift) 
by Cyrus (kai Tchusrau) and (that) Darius overthrew it 
(az dost ddd = lost it), and Ardashir restored it (baz 
bi-jayi khwid avdrd). And what has been recorded (copied) 
of his sayings is a proof of his goodness of disposition 
and wisdom. Among them are (these) : "When the king 
is just, the people (ra'iyyat) necessarily love and obey 
him", and "The worst of rulers is the king who is a 
terror to the nobles and not to evildoers". This is 
also one of his sayings, that "A country is not secure 
(payadar) except through experienced men, and men 

Turkish Comp.: Use of Izdfeh as a Eelative Pron. 187 

cannot be got together except through property, and 
property is not acquired except through building and 
cultivation (agriculture), and the building of towns 
does not come about except through justice. 


4- 1 (/***-"/ J L- J 3 

lyT La ATo' jil Ul ottjl jiTl \jj 

jVj-s. 4J Jjl J^jj^L jtu.jA[ 4 

jT oUJI iTc-l' VU Ul j 

I-L- u 


V JjlX ^^*ft Ul 

J^'j cT Lijljl ^1 J JUil 

'j^j-t?UaclS'L.4!rL--- t>J j' Ji Jl^ai (^jli t^UacIS^ jjCI_^. Ul 
jl Ul i- 

^. oa- j) jy^ c/'i 

jtlT^.!^. jj LA -UK' ,vl Ul L c*i,y jk-Jo OiL* LI jl 

^x?* * <*-* .-.-- ^ 4? t^' "^ M * " 

- cdAb lv;l -cL cfJ*J jj^Ll Jl^a-l -oil li.M 

(JLlo.) jlS^-, <i^ft A^Jij j a jjJ f r U" ^.M- J C 

jlj ^J_, ^jLj '/I j -U-j rlj. rl<> <^-U*l L) -ti 

jT ^^L, c* 

^ jl 3! ^S 


Twenty- sixth Lesson. 

Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 

210. In Persian the direct object of a trans- 
itive verb, whether the verb be simple or compound, 
is generally in the objective (accusative) case, which 
is in certain instances marked by the use of the 

Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 189 

postposition Ij ( 41): as, Padshah ynsar i Jchyud-ra did: 
Man iira dust ml-daram : Vazir an shdkhs-ra dmr farmud. 

211. But some transitive verbs (for example 
those meaning 'to fear', 'to ask') require a preposition 
before the noun which in English would be considered 
their direct object: as, man az vdi mt-tarsam, 'I fear 
him'. Many intransitive verbs require after them cer- 
tain prepositions which differ in meaning from those 
required in English after verbs of the same sig- 
nification: as, Dar fikrian dmr bud, 'he was in thought 
of (was thinking of, about) that matter: Dar an kar 
tafdkkur nd-namud, 'he was thinking of that business'. 

212. We subjoin a list of the most usual in- 
stances in which either (1) a preposition is required 
in Persian when none is needed in English, or in 
which (2) the preposition required in Persian differs 
from the one which would be used in English after 
a verb of the same meaning. 

su'al kdrdan as ) 

_', to ask (anyone). 

pursidan az l \ 

tarsidan 00, to fear (anyone or anything). 
dochar shudan Iti ) to meet (anyone), to meet 
barkhyurdan bi I with (anyone). 

an shdkhs-ra mulaqat Jcdrdan, to have an interview 
with that person. 

7 . 7 .1 , . _> _j 7 ^ to confess 

an chiz-ra (bi-an chiz) %qrar namudan I , , , ,-,- 

7 7^ ^ ,. Jr 7 , j } that tmng, 

m-cmzi I'tiraj (cardan I ,-> G7 

tafdkkur kdrdan dar } to think about 

ta'dmmul namudan dar or barayi } (a thing). 
iltimas Mrdan ndzd i (bi) 
iltimas dashtan as 

multamis budan az 

to entreat (anyone). 

istid'a namudan az 

-' i. T -LI- to mount a horse, to embark 
savar i asb, Kasht^, -, -, -,- 

7-7,' 7 T, 7 -j on board a ship, to enter 

Kallskeh shudan 

a carriage. 

dakhil i Jchaneh shudan, to enter a house. 

1 In Classical Persian books after pursidan the objective 
with ra is found: but this usage is now obsolete. 

190 Lesson 26. 

dar amadan bi (dar), to enter (a house). 

dar amadan az or birun az, to come out of (a house). 

az sdltanat kinareh girt/tan, to abdicate the throne. 

az mdnsabi isti'fa namudan (khyastan), to resign (ask 
to be permitted to resign) a post. 

az taqsiri dar guzdshtan, to pass over an offence, 

az an khaneh guzdslitan ('tibur kdrdan), to pass by 
that house. 

an chiz-ra az u darkhyast kdrdan, to ask him for 
that thing. 

ura (bi-vai) hiikm kdrdan } -, , 

.* _ >, . / -, /. to order him. 

ura (bi-vat) amr farmudan } 

padshah ura (bidu) hukm dad, the king gave him a 
(written) order. 

az 'dqab i shdkhs uftadan (amadan, rdftari), to follow 
a person. 

masliglml i (dar, ~bi} Icari sliudan, to busy onesel: 
with a task. 

az kdsi* mamnun or mamniin i Jcdsi budan, to be 
obliged to a person. 

iqlimaz namudan az } -, ,-, x 

T ' .i T- T , -, to wink at (anything). 

c/iashmpusiM Icardan az \ 

In-Tiarl pardakhtan, to engage in a work. 

az Tiari pardakhtan, to give up a task. 

milrtakib i (M) dmal i bad shtidan, to engage (be 
implicated) in an evil deed. 

mubtala-y-i (bi, dar} afat shudan, to fall into (be 
involved in) misfortune. 

tashth i aldibar i muvarrikhin i Iran namudan, to correct 
the statements (traditions) of the historians of Persia. 

(an Mghaz-ra islah 1 Mr dan, to correct that letter). 

ihtiyat kdrdan az, to beware of. 

qadir bar an budan kih (pres. Subjunct.'), to be able to. 

ura mutaba'at kdrdan | to follow him (lit. or 

mutaba'at i u kdrdan } figuratively). 

iman avdrdan bi (bar), to believe in (a person). 

stlkihani (ra) bavar kdrdan (tasdlq namudan), to credit 
a statement. 

1 Or tashth, but islah implies more need of correction than 

Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 191 

tavdkkul daslitan bi (bar) Khudd, to trust in God. 
i'timad kdrdan bar 

i'tiqdd ddshtan bi 

to put confidence in. 

mushtdq i mulaqdt i shumd hdstam, I am anxious 
for an interview with you. 

kharidan, farukhtan, bi, to buy at, for (a price). 

arzidan (bi), to be worth (such a price). 

ishdn bahdm barkhvurdand, they met one another. 

utdqrd az mdrdum khdU (ti'ihi) kdrdan, to empty the 
room of people. 

ura bi-iftird nisbat dddan, to attribute forgery to 
him, to accuse him of forgery. 

02 an chlz mutamdtti'' shud, he enjoyed that thing. 

ura bi-an kaldm muJthdtab sdkhtan 

ura bi-an Jcaldm khatdb namudan 

to address that 
speech to him. 

to have need of, be 
in need of, a thing. 

hdjat birchizi daslitan 

muhtdj i (bi-) chizi budan 

ihtiydj bi chizi ddshtan 

libds i fdkhir bar va'l pushamdan, to clothe him in 
gorgeous attire. 

ghdzab (khaslim) namudan bar, to get angry with (one). 

guftan ba lilimid, to say to oneself. 

(bi-vai (ura) guftan, to say to him). 

az ndzar i padshdli arizeli -i guzaranidan, to bring a 
petition to the king's notice, lay it before the 

shikdyat avdrdan bar (Jcdrdan, namudan az, bar), to 
bring an accusation, lodge a complaint, against. 

ittttd i ydftan az (bar), to gain information about. 

khandtdan az, to laugh at. 


Ra'nyti (Ar. pi. of ra'tyyat), sub- hnzir-javrM, quickness of retort. 

jects. matfilib (Ar. pi. of mdtlab), 

mtil Jchvurdan, to devour (swal- matters. 

low up) property. muzdyaqeh nist, it does not 

a'zn (Ar. pi. of '?), members, matter. 

limbs. mamdlik (Ar. pi. of mamlikat), 

kliatteh, a county. provinces. 

c.:l1 e (Ar. pi. of ft7 f ), districts, ta'lif, composition (compilation). 
ma'mur, built, made up of. 


Lesson 26. 

Exercise 51. 

, I/' 
^ ^ " 

Translation 52. 

Among (from) Ardashir's sayings is this also : 
"It is becoming for kings not to use sword and spear 
while (to) stick and baton (chub} suffice for the work". 
Ardashir, just as he is renowned for (az) the conduct 
of an army, holds a high place and a very-lofty rank 
also in the government of the country (kishvar) and 
the state legislation (vaz 1 i qavanin i mulM). It is said 
(they say) that by means of informers he was aware 
of the affairs (news) of all the provinces and even 

Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 193 

(hatta) of (his) subjects' houses: and they say that, 
besides a capacious intellect, he had conspicuous ability 
(fdzl i bahir). The Karnameti ("Annals") and the 
Adabu'l'Aish ("Rules of Conduct") are among his com- 
positions. In the Annals is written an account of (his) 
journeys and wars, and in the second book the habits 
of life and the rules (adab) of (polite) intercourse : and 
these two books were so esteemed (mil'tabar) among 
the peoples of Persia, that Anushiravan commanded 
that they should send reliable copies of (from) that 
work (naviskteh) to all-parts (atraf) of his dominions, 
in order that men might acquire good manners. It is 
well-known that Ardashir, in spite of these great 
qualities, was bigoted in the religion of Zoroaster 
(Zardusht), and not only used to make efforts (an 
effort) to exalt (in exaltation of) the banners and 
carry out the precepts of that faith (mdshab), but even 
(balkih) compelled men by torture and punishment to 
accept that religion; and in this manner he shewed 
forth (was making evident) the requirement of his 
religious-law (sharfat). In the days of slackness and of 
disturbance of the realm, Zoroaster's religious-law also 
having become (remained neglected) obsolete, the 
community had become divided up in (bar) a thousand 
different ways, and it is an established-fact (muhdqqaq) 
that many of the ancient rulers shewed an inclination 
towards the faith of the Greeks : and hence it is 
possible that this conduct of Ardashir may have been 
because of (his) zeal (ta'dssub) for wise-measures of- 
State (masalih i mulM), and the desire that men, in faith 
as in all-other matters, should be agreed and in-har- 
mony (muttafiq). 

It is unnecessary to subjoin any more Conver- 
sations, as the Student should now be able to converse 
with some ease about the subject matter of the Stories 
and Exercises for Translation and about other matters 
of practical utility. This he will find a very useful 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 18 

194 Lesson 27. 

Twenty-seventh Lesson. 

. Certain Persian Idioms. 

213. The Persian language is distinguished foi 
the very large number of idiomatic expressions oi 
which it makes use. In this respect it resembles English 
Many such idioms have already been introduced ii 
the exercises and Conversations as well as in Lessoi 
XXVI. We now proceed to mention a number oi 
others which are for the most part connected witl 
the peculiar use of certain verbs. 

214. Khvurdan (JJj>-), 'to eat' or 'drink', is 
used to denote suffering, etc. Its use with a noun often 
prevents the necessity of using the Passive Voice o 
another verb. E. g. zdlilim khyurdan (to eat a wound) 
'to be wounded': takan Ichyurdan (to eat a push), 'to 
be pushed', 'to receive a push' : gul khyurdan (to ea 
deceit), 'to be deceived'. Other idioms are: zamin 
khyiirdan, 'to fall to the ground', 'to be knocked down' 
glidvti khyiirdan, 'to grieve' ; qfsus Jchmirdan, 'to regret' 
qdsam Tthyurdan, 'to take an oath', 'to swear' ; an cliiz 
bi-ddrd i man nd-mi-khyurad, 'that thing is of no use 
to me' ; gulfdeli bi-shikar Jchyurd, 'the bullet hit the 
game' ; bi-Jctir i vai mi-kliyurad, 'it comes in useful foi 
him' ; muhr bala-y-i pak shudeli khynrdeh bud, 'the ses 
had been impressed on the part obliterated'. 

215. Didan, tin (<>*>- j-*o) ; 'to see', is used in 
somewhat similar manner: as, ddrd didan, 'to suffe 
pain'; mdslahat (salah*) didan, 'to deem advisable' 
tadaruk didan, 'to make preparations'; san didan, ' 
review (troops)'. 

216. Farmftdan (farmay) (^), 'to coi 
mand', is in courtesy used of any action, not only 
a superior but of an equal, in place of kardan, namudat 
etc. E. g., mulahizeli farmudan, 'to peruse'; amr farmudar 
'to command' ; bi-farmaid, 'say, speak ; enter ; sit down' 
etc. : iltifdt li-farmaid (lutf bi-farmaid), 'please'. 

217. Avdrdan, avar, ar (f\-jj\ jjjjf), 'to bring', 
is used in various phrases; e. g., (bi-) Tthatir (yad] avdr- 
dan, 'to recall to memory', 'call to mind' ; bi-Mr (bi-ja, 

Certain Persian Idioms. 195 

bi-amal) avdrdan, 'to perform, execute, carry out'; hujum 
avdrdan bar, 'to make an attack upon'. 

218. KasJiidan, 'to draw' ( j-u^5") ; zdhmat Jtashtdan, 
Ho take trouble', 'to suffer inconvenience'; dlam Jcash- 
idan, 'to suffer pain' ; intizar Ttasliidan, 'to expect', 'look 
out for'; ddst kashman az, 'to withdraw from (any 
business)'; Idshkar kashitdan bar, 'to lead an army against', 
'march against'. 

219. JBdstan, band (o^-^j), 'to bind', is used in 
certain phrases, but some idioms in which it occurs 
in classical works have now become obsolete: e. g., 
khiyal bdstan (now Mrdan), 'to suppose', 'fancy' 'ima- 
gine'; liar bdstan (now bi-itmam rasanidari), 'to accom- 
plish a task'; na'l bar asb bdstan (now dsb-ra na'l Jcdr- 
dari) 'to shoe a horse'; hlleh bdstan (now hileh Mrdan) 
'to devise a trick'; etc. Besides these we have: 
surat bdstan, 'to take shape', 'come about' (of a pur- 
pose or plan) ; Jcdmar bi- (or barayi) Ttar'i bdstan, 'to gird 
up one's loins for (a task)'; miyan (or Mmar) bi- (or 
barayi) muqdtileh bar bdstan, 'to gird up one's loins for 
the contest (battle)' ; l ahd bdstan, 'to make a covenant'; 
shart bastan (Jcardan), 'to make a bet', 'lay a wager'. 

220. Amadan, ay (t-ti-Ju), 'to come', is some- 
times used in the sense of 'to become', taking the 
place of sMdan: as, dideh mi-ayad (nn-shavad), 'it is 
seen', 'it is evident'; padid amadan, 'to be evident', 'to 
be found'; bar u ghalib amadan, 'to overcome him'; 
dgar an dmr dar ndgar i shuma pasdnd ayad, 'if that 
matter commend itself to you' ; bi-zanu dar amadan, 'to 
kneel down': bi-Khatir amadan, 'to come to mind' (also 
bi-yad amadan); Ichwish amadid, 'welcome!' (said when a 
guest is going away!); gir ndmi-ayad, 'it cannot be got'. 

221. Girt/tan, gir G/-<^>/), 'to seize', 'to take' : 
dunbali ura giriftan, 'to follow him'; (bi-an sukhan, or) 
an sukhanra gush giriftan (or dadan) 'to give ear to 
(listen to) that statement'; suragh-i ura giriftan (or 
suragh giriftan ura), 'to seek out, follow him up'; but 
az u suragh giriftan, 'to ask him to direct one to some- 
one's house' ; Mshti giriftan, 'to wrestle' ; guftan girift 
(also aghaz namud, or bana namud bi-guftari), 'he began 



Lesson 27. 

to say, speak'; qardr gir'iftan, 'to get fixed', to be con- 
ceived' (of a child); ta'mid, ta'Um, giriftan, l to receive 
baptism, teaching'. 

222. Burdan, bar (j-.- j^y!), 'to bear away', 'earn 
off: gaman burdan (kdrdan, dashtan) 'to fancy', (saic 
from courtesy of oneself, rudely of anyone else); ran) 
Mrdan, 'to be vexed'; an kitab-ra ism burdan, 'to men- 
tion (quote) that book'; az miyan burdan, 'to put out 
of the way' (often = 'to kill'); bi-sdr biirdan, 'to spenc" 
(time)', intransitively, 'to abide', 'sojourn', 'live'; tosh- 
rif burdan, 'to go away' (said in courtesy); pai burdan, 
'to follow up (bi-chizi) a thing', 'to understand'; hdmlel 
burdan, 'to attack (barf. 

222 a. Uftadan (uff) (^l-jjl^i), 'to fall', 'happen': 
muvafiq uftadan, 'to turn out well, successfully'; uqc 
uftadan, 'to be late', 'to fall back'; az aqab i shdkh{ 
uftadan, 'to follow a person'; ittifaq uftadan, 'to occur', 
'happen'; jildu uftadan, 'to precede', 'take the lead', 'gc 
in front'; pish uftadan az, to surpass', 'outstrip'; (bi-) 
rah uftadan, 'to set out on a journey'. 

223. Namudan, namay (^Ij-jj^j), 'to shew' 
'to seem', 'to do', besides its frequent use with a noun, 
adjective or participle to form a compound verl 
( 124), has also some idiomatic uses: jdngi sab rut 
(rukh) namud, 'a fierce battle took place'; mdra shao 
ruy (rukh} namud, 'I was glad'; ijtinab namfidan 00, M 
avoid', 'refrain from'; bar tdraf (hinareh) namudan, 
set aside'. 

224. Justan, juy (c$j-^r-^)> '^ seek': sibqatjusta) 
bar, 'to be beforehand with', 'to anticipate (one in)'; 
kinareh justan az, 'to avoid', 'fight shy of. 

225. Zddan, zdn (jj- jj j), 'to strike', 'beat', 'hit': 
bang zddan, 'to shout aloud' ; faryad zddan, 'to cry out', 
'make a lamentable noise' ; hdrf zddan, 'to speak' ; tufdn^ 
bar u zddan, 'to shoot at him'; eanu zddan, ,'to kneel': 
zdng zddan, 'to ring a bell'; laf zddan, 'to boast'; gu 
zddan, 'to deceive'; bar-ham (bi-hdm) zddan, 'to throi 
into confusion'; khatmeh zddan, 'to pitch a tent' (i. e. 
to erect it, the exact opposite of the English 'to 

Certain Persian Idioms. 197 

strike one's tent'); ura taziyaneh (chub] zddan, 'to basti- 
nado (flog) him'; sill (old tapancheh} bar ruyasTi zddan, 
'to give him a box on the ear'; tapancheh zddan, 'to 
fire a pistol'; talagrdf zddan, 'to send off a telegram'; 
tt'ihmat zddan, 'to accuse falsely' ; jam c zddan, 'to add up 
(figures)'; dam zddan, 'to breathe', 'to cavil': hads zddan, 
'to conjecture'. 

226. Dashtan, ddr (jb-^b), 'to have',, 'to hold': 
dn-ra lazim dashtan, 'to require, have need of, that'; 
In dmr-ra marnz dashtan (= drz kardan}, 'to represent 
this matter humbly'; tashrif dashtan, 'to be at home', 
'to be present' (polite style). 

227. Andakhtan, andaz (jl-C l-^^-l XI), 'to cast', 

'throw': rah anda/chtan, 'to let (one) go', 'to set (him) 

on his way'; ta'viq (ta } khtr) andakhtan, 'to postpone 

(a thing)' ; ndzar andakhtan (afkdndari) bi, bar, 'to cast a 
glance upon'. 

228. Other common expressions are the following : 

Hang rtkhtan, 'to feign', 'pretend'. 

taghy/ir dddan j 

tabdil kdrdan to change, alter (trans). 

mubdddal sdkhtan ] 

dvaz namudan (lidrdari), to change, exchange. 

ura daldlat kardan, to guide him. 

an sukhan-ra daldlat kardan i to prove that state- 

muddllal namudan \ ment. 

to'stV (dsar) Mrdan (dashtan} bar, to make (leave) 
an impression on. 

drz kdrdan, to state (politely), to say, to represent 

auqdtash tdlkh shud, he was angry, he was put out. 

baz istddan az, to desist from. 

qat c i ndgar kdrdan az (bar}, to glance briefly at, 
pass on from. 

ddst slmstan az, to wash one's hands of (a thing). 

aibi (bdki) nd-darad, it does not matter; it is 
pretty good. 

(bi-} ddr rdftan, to run away, escape. 

bar an and kih, they will have it that, they 
assert that. 

198 Lesson 27. 

gail bar in hdstand, they assert this (that . . .), 
they acknowledge. 

tdj-ra la mr az ddst dad, he lost both his crown 
and his life. 

fursat glwnimat sfiamtirdan (dantstan) to take advan- 
tage of the opportunity. 

sdfaratan Jchyush guzdsU? did your journey turn 
out well? 

ura qarar dadan, to appoint him, station him (at 
a place). 

ba u qarar dadan, to make an agreement with him. 

drz i bdndeh-ra bi-rasid, listen to what I wish to say. 

(pas or) aqab nishdstan, to retreat (said of troops). 

(pas or) uqab nishandan, to repulse (an army). 

dtash (tishnagi) fa furu nishandan, to quench a fire 

riza bi-in dad Jcih, he consented to this, that. 

zabdn gushudan, to open one's mouth, begin to 
speak (pdite). 

dahan gushudan (bazkardari), to open one's mouth (rude). 

(dar) Jchyab budan, to be asleep. 

(bi-) Ichyab rdftan (tashrif burdan), to go to sleep. 

stiKhan hanuz bar zahanasli bud kih, while he was 
yet speaking. 

Twmuz az hdrf zddan farigh nd-shudeh bud Jcih, he had 
hardly finished speaking when . . . 

an suMan-ra bar zaban i Wivud hdrgiz jari nd-mi- 
sazam, I never permit myself to use that expression. 

chdshm duklitan bar, to fix one's eyes on. 

rdkht azTchmid birun kdrdan, to put off one's garments. 

siiJchan randan (= hdrf zddan], to speak. 

futuhat ura ddst^ dad, he gained some victories. 

an shdkhs in cliiz-ra ash i dar fiamjush sakhteh ast, 
that fellow has made a hash of this matter. 

hdrakat kdrdan, to set out, start on a journey. 

f azim i Tdhran budan, to be bound for Tehran. 

taydUud yaftan, to be born. 

Jcdm randan, to flourish, prosper. 

hukm randan, to rule, govern. 

ura barayi Itasi c aqd bastand, they betrothed her to 
some one. 

Certain Persian Idioms. 


Gul i gutib (now gid i s&rleh} a masMUr (Ar. pi. of mashMr;, 

eminent persons. 

saUh dumstan (dm\ to see fit. 

mutavallid, born. 

Jcaiffyyat, state of affairs. 

rod'n*, design: statement. 

t 2 dtfm namudan, to venture. 

Jaztratu 'VArab, Arabia, Meso- 
potamia. Lment. 

maqdrr i ayrdah, seat ot govern- 

jur'at, daring, a daring deed, 

an old 
world is so 

badr, the full moon. 

zartr blind 

''ajtizeh (for Ar. 'a/ife), 

hag- (here t 

ca il e( lj 

/arf/fcfr, deceived = enamoured. 
macjbidtin, persons accepted (by 

Q. O( JN ' 

Mnamai = turn mi-Jcunam. 

tartqat, religion. [confessor). . 

% I religious guide (father- M ^% ^"/(rfr, enamoured. 

In this and some other Stories the words in brackets are 
in explanation of the more difficult phrases which precede 

them in the text. 

Exercise o3. 

200 Lesson 27. 

Translation 54. 

Sapor is one of (az) the eminent (pi.) of rulers. 
Regarding his descent and bringing up many fables 
are related. They say that his mother was a daughter 
of Ardavan (Artabanus), and they relate that she wish- 
ed to poison Ardashir in revenge for (of) her father. 
Ardashir, having obtained information of this design, 
handed over the young woman to a minister (vazlr) 
that he might put her to death, but the minister did 
not see fit to slay her. When her son was born, having 
named him Sapor he busied himself, as was right 
(kama ydnbaghi), in taking care of him (bi-ta'dhhiid i 
hal i u). After a time, when Ardashir shewed regret 
at not having an heir, the minister explained the 
state-of-affairs. The king, being delighted with this 
statement, desired to know whether Sapor was (is) 
really his offspring or not. He commanded that, 
having brought Sapor along with some children of 
the same age as he was (hamsal i u) into his presence, 
they should engage in a gaine-with-balls (guybazi). 
During the game a ball fell near the king's throne. 
Not one of the boys ventured to fetch it except Sapor, 
who boldly coming forward (qddam i jaladat pish niha- 
cleh) carried off the ball. The king, glancing towards 
the minister, knew that that-very-one (fiaman) was (is) 
the prince. Finally, the first war that Sapor under- 
took (Jtard) was with Zaizan, one of the chiefs of the 
Arabs. "While Sapor was in KhurasEn, taking advan- 
tage of the opportunity, Zaizan, having seized upon 
Arabia, fortified the fortress of Khazar and made it 
his seat of government. When Sapor became aware 
of this daring-deed and marched an army in that 
direction, Zaizan' s daughter, having become enamoured 
of Sapor, through a promise of (becoming) a princess 
of the king's hdram, plotted treachery against (ba) her 
father and brought his life and rule to destruction 
(md'raz i lidlak). The treachery of this vile-deed (fchiba- 
sat) having [become (amadeh) forbidding] hindered 
Sapor from keeping (ifa-y-i bi-) his agreement, instead 
of (that that he should seat) seating the damsel on 
the throne and (in) the palace (kskh), he handed her 

Parsing. 201 

over to the executioner that he might cause her to- 
be-dragged to the plank [for laying dead bodies upon 
to be washed] and the grave (khak) and award (rasa- 
nad) to her the recompense (ka'ifar) of the deed, as 
was her due (saza). 

Twenty- eighth Lesson. 


229. The best method of Parsing may be a 
matter of opinion to some extent; but in Persian all 
that is really necessary is to give such particulars as 
are given in the subjoined parsing of the first few 
sentences of Story XV., which story is appended to 
this lesson. As the question of gender does not affect 
grammatical relations in Persian (except indeed some- 
times with Arabic nouns and adjectives, 154), it is 
unnecessary to mention gender at all, except perhaps 
with such Arabic words. The singulars of any Arabic 
broken plurals that may occur should be mentioned, 
and the parts of all Irregular Verbs (Infinitive and 
I Root). 

230. (Story XF., first few sentences parsed). 

shdkhs; noun, nominat. sing. (Ar. PI. 


ashkhds) subj. of bud. 

i; affix, denoting indefinite article. 

bud: 3 rd Sing. Pret. Indie. Act. of Intrans. Verb 
budan, bash (biiv), agr. with its subj. shakhs. 

htiehsaz; comp d< Adj. (hileli, trick, and saz, rt. of 
falMan, saz, to make), positive degree; part predicate 
of sentence, qualifying slidkhs. 

i; izafeh, joining two adjectives. 

daghabaz; comp d - Adj. (dagha^ deceit, and \ltaz of 
bukhtan), posit, degree; part predicate of sentence, 
qual. shakJts. 

riig: noun, obj. sing, (governed by dar 



*: affix, denoting indefinite article. 
az; preposition. 

Mianeh] noun, obj. sing., governed by prep. az. 
birfm; adv., qualifying amad. 

202 Lesson 28. 

amad; 3 rd - Sing. pret. Indie. Act. intrans. of anui- 
dan (ay}, agreeing with u understood (referring to 

vet] conj. 

gu/t; 3 rd - Sing. pret. Indie. Act. trans, of guftan 
(guy}, agreeing with u understood. 

kill] conj. 

dgar; conj. 

Khuddvdnd; noun, nom. Sing., subject of 'inayat 

i; izafeh (prep., gov. 'alam). 

'alam; noun, obj. Sing. (Ar. pi. 'alarnm, regular), 
gov. by izafeh. 

amruz; adv. (in -\-rug), qualifying 'inayat kunad. 

yak; numeral (cardinal) Adj., qualifying dshrafi. 

dshrafi; noun, obj. Sing., gov. by (or direct object 
of) 'inayat kunad. 

bi-' } prep. 

man; Pers. Pronoun, obj. Sing., gov. by l>i- (or 
indirect object of ditto}. 

'inayat; noun in composition with Mnad (Ar. pi. 
'inayat, regular). 

' inayat kunad; Compound Verb, trans., 3 rd Sing. 
Pres. Subj. Act. of l inayat kdrdan; agreeing with its 
subject Khudavdnd (svibj. after dgar denoting uncertainty). 

Mnad; 3 rd Sing. Pres. Subj. Act. trans, of kardan 
(kun) etc. (as above). 

do; numeral (Cardinal) Adj., qual: qarun. 

qiran; noun, obj. Sing., -gov. by (part of direct 
object of) khairat mi kunam. 

i; izafeh, prep. 

an; demonst: Adj., obj., sing., gov. by ra 
anra (or part of direct object of klwirat ml kunam). 

ra; Postposition. 
dar; prep. 

rah; noun, obj. Sing., (gov. by dar). 
i; izafeh (prep.). 

M; Pers. Pron., obj. Sing., gov. by izafeh. 
khairat, noun (Ar. PI. of kha'ireh, regular), in com- 
position with mi-Tfimam. 

Parsing. 203 

Wiairat mi-kunam ; Compound Verb., trans., 1 st Sing. 
Pres. Indie. Act., (in future sense), agreeing with man 

mi-kunam] 1 st Sing. Pres. Indie. Act. trans, of 
kdrdan (kuri), etc. (as above). 

Exercise 55. 

Translation 56. 


In short, after that Shapur (Sapor) (had) con- 
quered many of the towns of Mesopotamia (JcwreK), 
he marched against Nisibis (Nisibiri): and this strong- 
hold (qdl'eh) is situated between the Tigris (DtjleJi) and 
the Euphrates (Furaf), and the Empire of Eome and 
Persia were always at strife (niea 1 dashtand] about 
it. Sapor, after subduing Armenia, captured it. And, 
according to the historians of Persia, when the siege 
of that fortress was prolonged, Sapor in despair 
( l ajie shudeli) commanded his army with- one -accord to 
ask help and assistance from the Creator (Hdzrat-i 
Sdrt). They say (that), while they were engaged in 

1 Short for Jcufr i ni'mat (to prevent the repetition of tho 
ni'mat], 'ingratitude.' 

204 Lesson 29. 

humiliation and supplication, a wall of (from) the 
fortress fell. After the capture of Nisibis he marched 
towards the Byzantine dominions (mamalik i Rum), 
and in that country numerous victories were gained 
by him (fira ddst dad). He took the Emperor of Byzan- 
tium (Qaisar i Hum} captive and appointed another 
person (mard) to that important office (amr). The first 
act of the new Emperor was to conduct Sapor to 
Antioch (AntaktyyeJi), which in those times was the 
capital of the (Caesars) Emperors of Byzantium, and 
to hand over that city to be plundered (bi lad i tdkht 
va tardj dad): and he returned with immense booty 
and many slaves (sardri). But a serious reverse (sdda- 
meh) came upon his army through (ag) one of the 
nobles of Byzantium. The historians of Persia have 
not recorded the defeats that befel his armies at the 
end (avakhir) of his reign. According to their state- 
ment, Sapor, having in prosperity flourished for 
31 years, built numerous cities after the war with 
the Byzantines (Rum): two of that number (jnmleh] he 
built- and -called (band nalidd) by his own name; one 
Nishabiir in Khurasan, which is still among (az) the 
important cities, and the other Shapur near Kamrfm 
in Fars. 

Twenty-ninth Lesson. 

Notes on Polite Conversation. 

231. The Persians are naturally a most cour- 
teous people, and the rules of etiquette (nislidst vabar- 
Miast) are numerous and are most rigorously observed 
among them. It does not lie within the scope of the 
present work to treat of these, except in so far as 
they concern the language used in polite intercourse ; 
but the student, if he visits Persia, should carefully 
notice the conduct of native gentry in these matters, 
and early acquire the rules observed in connexion, 
e. g., with the qatyan, the reception of guests, etc. We 
have already ( 48) pointed out the fact that the 
speaker should occasionally use certain expressions of 
humility regarding himself and of respect for the 
person with whom he is conversing. These words 

Notes on Polite Conversation. 205 

(which may be termed Submissives and Honorifics), 
when they are nouns, often take the place of the 
Personal Pronouns both in speaking and writing. 
Their use is abundantly illustrated in the Conver- 
sations and in the Letters contained in the Appendix. 
The use of the Personal Pronoun of the First 
Person Singular (man) should not be indulged in too 
freely ; it is better (when a pronoun or its equivalent 
is really needed at all) to employ one of the Sub- 
missives instead (Vide Conversation XXV). It will, 
however, be noticed, that, in some of the Tales given 
in the present book, certain persons use man of them- 
selves even when speaking to a king. One reason for 
this is that in writing the older style permits the use 
of man, to, etc., where in conversation it would not 
now be allowable to employ them. Another reason is 
that, in addressing a king, to speak of oneself 
as bdnde'h, haqir, etc. would not indicate sufficient 

232. A speaker should often preface a remark 
with the words drz ml-shavad (drz mi-lmnavn) bi-khid- 
mat i (sarJcar i) shuma, or bi-kMdmat i janab i l ali drz 
mi-sliavad (mi-kunam). Politeness requires the person 
addressed to interject in an undertone the words nn- 
farmaid, which implies that he deems the verb jar- 
iniidan more suitable to the dignity of the speaker. 
In referring to the auditor's remarks a speaker must 
use farmudan; as, chinun Mk aVan farmudid, "as you 
have just said". Similarly from courtesy extensive use 
is made of compound verbs one element of which is 
this same verb farmudan: as, ay a in kitab-ra mulahigek 
(mutala'eh) farmudeh id? "Have you read this book?" 
But the speaker must never use this verb of himself, 
nor, of course, must he employ tashrif avdrdan (btirdan, 
dashtari) regarding himself. In giving an order, even 
the Shah of Persia would not say to the lowest of 
his attendants, Man tura hukm Mrdam, "I commanded 
you", nor would he use the equivalents dmr namudan, 
farman dadan, as Europeans often do. He would say 
giijtam, though in speaking to a third person he might 
use words implying command, e. g. Man nra M an 

Lesson 29. 

kar ma'nmr sakhtam, "I commanded him to do that.' 
The use of Mkm kdrdan and its equivalents in giving 
orders conveys to Persian ears an impression of the 
speaker's arrogance or of his ignorance. 

233. In enquiring whether a person has com- 
prehended what one has said to him, the use of the 
word fahmidid, "Did (= do) you understand?" is not 
permitted by courtesy. The proper ^word to employ is 
nu'dtafit (literally "attentive"); as, Aya arz i bdndeh-ra 
multafit shiidid? "Do you understand what I say?" The 
expression (aya) yaftid? is also sometimes used in the 
same sense. 

234. "When a visitor wishes to depart, courtesy 
requires him to ask permission to do so before rising 
from his seat. This he does by saying Murdkhkhas 
mi-farmaid? or Murdkhkhas am? The proper reply to 
this is Bi-in zudi tashrif mi-barid? or, to a man of 
great importance, Bi-panah i Khuda. The guest, when 
actually going, says, Khaiti zdhmat dadam or Bi-nihayat 
muzahim shtldam, to which the host replies, Khaili 
kkmish amadid, in sha'a'llah zud bar i digar tashrif mi- 
avarid. The guest answers lltifat i shuma (janab i ( dU) 
ziyad: Khuda hafiz. The host answers Khuda hafiz i 
shuma, and accompanies him to the door, unless he 
sends a son instead. The visitor often declines this 
attention, but the host insists on it, saying hdtta'l 6ab, 
"as far as the door." The proper reply to this is 
Tasqtitu 'ladab baina?lahbabj "Ceremonies fall down 
between friends," i. e. "No ceremony between 

Other matters of importance will be learnt from 
the Conversations and from attention to the usage 
of educated Persians. Attention to such matters is 
absolutely necessary, unless the student wish to gain 
a reputation for ungentlemanly conduct. 


Mann, a weight (7y 2 or 15 Ibs). mazdrratashan, the injury which 
pnk, clean (= completely). they inflict. 

zdghan, a kite (bird). 

Notes on Polite Conversation. 

Exercise 57. 

** 3 j \^> C^i^>- 


o CJtau 1 ^- OJJ 

208 Lesson 30. 


Thirtieth Lesson. 

Some Persian Proverbs. 

235. The Persians, like most other nations, 
have a large number of proverbs, some of which are 
very expressive. Our limits prevent us from giving 
more than a few of the most important of these. But 
the student who wishes to pursue the subject further 
will find it well treated of in a volume entitled 
Jju:jtXL. Not a few of the proverbs there given, 
however, are now obsolete, as the volume was com- 
posed some centuries ago : lout the following and many 
others are still in constant use. 

European Equivalent. Persian. 

(1) Out of sight, out of 

The darkest hour is 
just before the dawn. 

(3) "What the heart thinks 

the tongue speaks. j^^.' 

(4) A widow's mite. eSjr"" ^^ ^^-JJ- 5 j' (0 

(5) If G-od be for us, who j^ jiTc I JA! jl J\ (o) 

can be against us? ^^1 

(6) Let bygones be by- 5 J>>- $ J** $ ("0 


(7) Take your chance jl_u* J-J j / <j.l (v) 

when you can. 

(8) He is as well known /j_^ ^-JLl jf j\ (A) 

as the Devil him- '^1 

self. (II est connu 
comme le loup 

Some Persian Proverbs. 209 

(9) Out of the frying-pan 

into the fire. 

(10) He's a skinflint: he is _^ r" JLZ-J jl JT (N ) 


(11) As well be in for a ^ ^Jijf ^j| ^ JT (>\) 

sheep as a lamb. * . ,-M ' 

aj^> -\*f <>- j~. cy> 

(12) Cut your coat accord- ^,1, ^jf Sjixl Ijl (>Y) 

ing to your cloth. *f j\j* 

(13) He has caught a Tar- <$j Jl^,. ^^ o"^*-^ (^) 


(14) With the most brazen ^_^ ^ )Jt Ij-dC*. ^*.j, (vi) 


(15) He hasn't got a leg j;^. o^ l^j^ L (>*) 

to stand upon. 

(16) Where there's a will ^j ^y^r* 3\~j. jUj; (\*\) 

there's away. Little t - n ^ [; 

strokes fell great 
oaks. (Petit a petit 
1'oiseau fait son nid). 

(17) No rose without a ^ + I j*] ^ fi f^f (\ v) 


(18) Carry coals to New- ^ ^j^T ^S^ jL*L (>A) 
castle. ' ' 

(19) Make hay while the jiy Jl; c I *^" j>" IT (N^) 

sun shines. c _ , 

(20) Honesty is the best flj^-j *j^ >z~~ \j jU I" (v ) 


(21) Slow and steady wins -,y j*Ui jj j ^^y ^ji, I" (r > ) 

the race. 

(22) Self-praise is no com- ^ jjj"" j_^- tJ.>" (vr) 

mendation. ^^j ^i^" 

(23) Words once spoken j^ jLOl f 4^ (rr) 

cannot be recalled. ,"i?V- ^ 

JJj*kj, j*> J >-."^ 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 14 

210 Lesson 30. 

(24) Virtue is its own j^,^ j^ <;l. Jj v iy (Y i) 


(25) You can't draw blood o,U _u ^ J>5 \\ / (to) 

/> 11 - f * * -J \ i 

irom a cabbage. . ; 

(26) To kill two birds with dL jJT j<. ^jj> u^> <>- (v l) 

one stone. " ' 

(27) He is caught in his j$\ ^ ^^^ -ci^ jf^L (rv) 

own trap. 

(28) Spare the rod and ,^J aj~ cJ^. jl v^r ( v A ) 

spoil the child. 

(29) The nearer to Church ^.^ \j^^- ^ ),* (^^) 

the farther from ^Jj _ ,. ' 


(30) You can't see the wood -I ^c-l jl-u^ (v ) 

/. ,, u - u~^ \ / 

for the trees. _ 

(31) Never look a gift horse jloSO:' ^j_p. die' 
in the mouth. 

(32) Business is business. 

(Kaka is a vulgar 
word in Shiraz for 
a brother. Elsewhere 
it means only a 
negro, which mean- 
ing it often has in 
Shiraz also). 

(33) When Greek meets <j Ij.jy. ^i^>. <_*_,>. (tt 

Greek, then comes a- Li 

the tug of war. Set 
a thief to catch a 

(34) No use striving against a*!^. * \\ 


^jj or" jl 

(35) Though the mills of ^| J^i- _/^ lui (to) 
God grind slowly, 
yet they grind ex- 
ceeding small. 

Some Persian Proverbs. 211 

(36) They that live in glass ^ JL \j *L.t. j. iL (ri) 

houses shouldn't . * j 

throw stones. 

(37) Too many cooks spoil ^ j^.[ yLjS^jj ^VL (rv) 

the broth. What's " 

everyone's business 
is nobody's business. 

(38) He is in his last gasp. 

(n n'y a plus d'huile 
dans la lampe). 

(39) He has hit the right 

nail on the head. 

(40) He doesn't know a 

hawk from a hand- 

(41) Death is the brother ^-1 ^ j^l^. v ly. (i>) 

of sleep. 

(42) Let the cobbler stick ^.^ c - VJ .' Jr. ^ jK'(ir) 

to his last. cni^" 

(43) One touch of nature ^Ij a |j Jj^ Jj (tr) 

makes the whole 
world kin. (Es muss 
von Herzen gehen, 
was auf Herzen 
wirken will.) 

(44) He is a greedy fellow, 40 4*.^* Lj jjb ^j (i l) 

he wants whatever j^\ -^> 

he sees. 

(45) He is in doubt what *}j^ j) -^5C J^ Jj (i) 

to do. " ( -J[ ^L 

(46) No use crying over x^ <>. ^ jfj^j. dl^-j (11) 

spilt milk. " 

(47) When the steed is ^ jL ;J 

stolen shut the sta- 
ble door. 

(48) Walls have ears. j 

(49) The pot calling the f 

kettle black. " \ ^ " '- ^ " 

- -^ / 


212 Lesson 30. 

(50) One can't make war .ulC: c~~ l>- 
with rose water. 

(51) Every man is inno- c 

cent till his guilt is 
proved. (First catch 
your hare.) 

(52) A slight loss is a great ^ 

one to a poor man. 

(53) Better late than ne- ^i 

ver. (Festina lente.) 

(54) His room is better 

than his company. 

* i/ I 5 / 

(55) Fortune is fickle. jJLj: j\j <iu. <^* V J v *. 

(56) That is a very diffi- dtjl"^-tj c~~\ *iljllj (o\ 

cult task. 

(57) You can't make a silk _^L Jj J\ J li-jj (' 

purse out of a sow's , i t. , 

-vi) i^_y. * < 


(58) Nitere,parvepuer,qui- ^ ,-' 

cunque nitere cupis. 

(59) Can two walk to- c I **,,-: 

gether except they "i| 

be agreed? 

(60) A penny laid by for L. j^j ^1^. j| a^-.yj (^ ) 

a rainy day. 

(61) There are wheels with- -^\ t^Jg ' c-lT x3 (^0 

in wheels. 

(62) Gentle means are best. ^ 

(63) Silence is golden, jb c-j J .c-jj.' I" ^^ (it) 

Speak when you're 
spoken to. 

(64) He put in his oar ^jjT U^,- 3L.jJ ^r- (^i) 

where he wasn't 

(65) Diamond cut diamond. jcSCL- Ij ^1- ^1- ("\) 

Some Persian Proverbs. 213 

(66) Potatoes and point. 

The miser would 
skin a flint. 

(67) To buy a pig in a j.[^ ^^ ^ ^ (^ v ) 

poke. (La nuit tous 
les chats sont gris.) 

(68) Segnius irritant ami- jj^o ^'U j] j-u^. (u) 

nes demissa per 
aurem, quam quae 
sunt oculis subiecta 
fidelibus . . . 

(69) Turn and turn about : L:. j U.T (lO 

turn about is fair 

(70) One word begets an- jjjT ^ o > o >- (v ) 


(71) One can't believe a <? *f ij(^ oj,Ta* (VN) 

single word he says. 

(72) He is fond of the >^>^^^>f,j^ (VY) 
sound of his own ' ' i' . 


(73) As iron sharpeneth 

iron, so doth the 
countenance of a 
man his friend. 

(74) Two heads are better 4.U-V. c *C jl l-u, (v i) 

than one. 

(75) One must die when ^ jj" L.I j^,. ljo., (v) 

one's time comes. ' jL^ " 

(76) Patience and perse- cUjlT -hA* -o (v*\) 

. -* ^_ -c v / 

verance won a wile 
for his Reverence. 

(77) One good turn de- jj|j ^ ^ r , ^j, ^>U, (vv) 

serves another. 

(78) A lucky man may do * JJf ^jb jfl ^IU (VA) 

as he likes. ^\ ^ ^.^ 

M9) He has let the cat out 
of the bag. All the 
fat's in the fire. 

214 Lesson 30. 

(80) That's a case of the ^ J 'Zl Jtil .^L. jl lib (A ) 
wolf and the lamb. 

(81) His cup is full. (It's O jj^ j^j^Jp (AN) 

all up with him.) 

(82) The fathers have eaten lib yVjl ^ j>. lib Jb (AT) 

sour grapes, and the ^ ^ 

children's teeth are 
set on edge. 

(83) He's been let blood ^J 

(done out of money). 

(84) Qui s'excuse s'accuse. j^jT ^ allfj /A. jJ* (At) 

(85) His sands are just c^f>f j~> oof J'^f (AO) 

run out. 

Exercise 58. 

^ O 1 ^- Li 40 jju 

Arabic Phrases in Constant Use in Persian. 215 

Appendix A. 

Arabic Phrases in Constant Use in Persian. 

And God is most wise (= and God 

knows best what is the truth) 

God is most mighty ........ 

To God be praise ...... ^juCl or 

If it please God ....... ^fuLtjl or ^ 

"Whatever God may please . ..... 

God bless ..... . ...... 

I ask pardon of God (= God forbid j <.\'.:'s^ 
that I should think so) j 

In the name of God ........ Cj1 r -. 

/ / 

In the name of God the Mer- ) .,-? / -.-f .?;-? 

ciful, the Gracious j f*V ^ ' '* 'H 

There is no might and there is \ ^r?v-ii 
? , ^ n > <UiN U 

no power but in God \ *' 

or o^L or 

'Ali (exclamations) 
My God (in prayer) (ilahi) . . . . v 
Commander of the faithful ( 1 AU is so 
called by the Shi'ehs; the Sunnis give 

all Khalifehs the title) 
The Truthful: title of Abu Bakr . . 
Lord of (Divinely sent) messengers : 

title of Muhammad 
Seal (= last) of Prophets: title of 


We take refuge in God from it ... 
Friend of God: title of Abraham. . . 
(He who) does not die: immortal . . , 
(That which) is not cut short .... 

Uncultivated (ground) 

In person, in essence <^, or 

On this supposition . 
Upon him (her, them I 
two, them) be peace } 

216 Appendix A. 

Peace be upon thee (greeting) 
Peace be upon you 
Upon you be' peace (reply) 
May God be pleased with him 
God's mercy be upon him (her) 
God bless and preserve him . 
May his prosperity continue 

May his glory be glorious and He is j 
most high (= God most high and | (j 
most glorious 

In this our day .......... 

Founded upon that ..... (jT^.b =) 

What he owns = his property .... 

The person referred to ....... 4-Mjlill 

The defendant .......... 

In truth, really, indeed ....... 

In fact ............. 

Indeed ............. 

What cannot be expressed, ineffable . . 
In fine, in short .......... 

The moral: in short . . . (_JJLJ^U. =) 
In what follows, in future ...... 

What is between ......... 

Continuously, continually ...... 

As formerly, as in what precedes . . . 

As far as possible ......... 

As is right (comme il faut) ...... 

In short, finally .......... 

The result, in short ........ 

The object = in fine ........ 

Totheend=etcaetera(etc.) (>TM or 

Arabic Calendar, Arabic Months. 217 

Appendix B. 

Arabic Calendar. 

Since the Arabic conquest of Persia the Arabic 
(Muhammadan) Calendar has been in use in the 
country for all ordinary purposes. It is a lunar Calen- 
dar, the months containing 30 and 29 days alter- 
nately. The year consists of 354 days, 9 hours; and 
its reckoning begins from the Hijreli (in Persian Hijrat] 
or departure of Muhammad from Mecca to reside in 
Medina, A. D. 622 (18 th July, new Style). The year 
being so much shorter than the Christian, it is not 
possible to give any English equivalent for the 
various months, as they begin about 11 days earlier 
each year. Ramazdn in the present year (A. D. 1901) 
began on 12 th Dec. To find the Christian date exactly 
corresponding to any Muhammadan date, it is ne- 
cessary to express the Muhammadan date in years 
and decimals of a year, to multiply these figures by 
970225, and to the product to add 621-54 (Forbes). 
The result will be right to a day. The Muhammadan 
year 1319 began on 20 th April, 1901. 

Arabic Months. 

1. Muharram *Jz \ 

2. Safar JL* v 

3. Babi'ul avval J-^'^o r 

4. Eabi'ussani 

5. Jumadiyu'lavval ( 

6. Jumadiyu'ssani (cS^^I) jb'l^jt*- "\ 

7. Eajab ^*j V 

8. Sha'ban jU- A 

9. Ramazan jUnj ^ 

10. Shavval Jlj^ N . 

11. Zu'l Qa'deh o-uaMjS NN 

12. Zu'l Hijjeh >^\^ \\ 

The Christian (Syrian) year is not much used in 
Persia, but the Arabic forms of the names of the 
months are : 

218 Appendix B. 

7. June Jh.j* V 1 - December 4 

8. July j J/ A 2. January j'lTj/lT v 

9. August JT A 3. February JU r 

10. September Jj,\ > . 4. March jbl i 

11. October JjlJ.^" N S 5. April JLJ o 

12. November j ITj. JLT > v 6. May jLl 1 

The old Persian Year. 

Since the reform of the old Persian Calendar in 
1079 by Malik Shah Jalaluddm, this year begins on 
the day of the sun entering Aries, the Vernal Equi- 
nox. The year consists of 12 months of 30 days each, 
five being added to Isfandarmuz to bring the number 
up to 365, and a leap year (sal i kabiseh} being reckoned 
every fourth year with an additional day. This system 
of reckoning is now little used, except that its New 
Year's Day (Nauruz) is still the great day for go- 
vernors entering on their office, and is a festival. The 
names of the months are: 

7. Mihr ^ V ! Farvardin 

8. Aban jtT A 2. Ard! Bihis! 

9. Azur (j'jf) Jit <\ 3. Khyurdad 

10. Day gi \ . 4. Tir ^ i 

11. Bahman ^^ N \ 5. Murdad jb> o 

12. Ispandarmuzj^jloi^,! N v 6. Shahrivar j^.^- "I 

The Tatar Cycle. (Sanavat i Turkt.) 

A Tatar Cycle of 12 years is sometimes used in 
historical works, e. g. in the Jahan-gusha-yi Nadiri. The 
years are .named after certain animals, the words 
being still used in that sense in Central Asiatic Turk- 
ish. The present year 1901 is the second of a new 
Cycle, and is hence "the year of the Ox". The names 
with their translation are as follows: 

Year of the Mouse (jkf-7) 


Ox V 

Leopard (^l) l r 

The Siyaq Method of Beckoning. 219 

Year of the Hare (jliiJO jU2>" i 

Fish (Crocodile) (^ J) J\, 

Serpent ( j^) j>L "V 

Horse (^) O T V 

r> 7) n S^ j! A 


The year (J.|, Z) is a solar one, beginning and 
ending in Spring, 21 st March, Vernal Equinox, and 
is divided into twelve "Mansions", the twelve 

signs of the Zodiac. Each entire cycle is called a 
muchal. (Shaw's "Grammar of the Language of Eastern 
Turkistan'I). The secondary forms given in brackets 
are more usual in Persian works. 

Days of the Week. 

Thursday <_uif- * Sunday 

Friday (^T) ^ "^ Monda y 

Saturday c^, y Tuesday 


Appendix C. 

The Siyaq Method of Reckoning. 

These figures are used in mercantile transactions. 
The figures denote the number of dinars (vide App. D). 
It will be seen that the figures are often hastily 
written Arabic words for numbers, e. g. the signs 
for 10; 20; 100; 1,000, 10,000, are evidently the Ara- 
bic numbers ^IP, J-.y^, li, ^)l and the Turkish jU/ 
(ten thousand) written cursively. The numbers after 
10,000 are multiples of that number and are read 
"twenty tumam", etc. The units are corruptions of the 
ordinary Arabic numerals. 

220 Appendix D. 

J __ M ^b *_^ ^n ^ ^ 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. '/ 2 <* 

x*-* x* r"^ * x ~* f^* r^ r~* r** 

10. '20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80 90. 

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 



19. 21. 22. 23. 35. 62. 99. 

iV <n <* (& i is *l^ '^ 

100. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600. 700. 

800. 900. 1,000. 1.100. 1,200. 1,300. 

*_ -1 fl Hi (U ^J y ^ M_. ^ x *(_- ~lP 

2,000. 3,000. 4,000. 5,000. 6,000. 7,000. 

8,000. 9,000. 10,000. 20,000. 30,000. 40.000. 

50,000. 60,000. 70,000. 80.000. 90,000. 100,000 (ten fli 

(eleven) (twelve) (thirteen) (fifteen) (twenty) (a hundred) 

(tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans) 
110,000. 120,000. 130,000. 150,000. 200,000. 1,000.000. 

Appendix D. 

Money, "Weights and Measures. 

1 dinar (An imaginary 2 muhamvuadis 4 shahis 

coin). = 1 dbbasi. 

5 dinars = 1 gliaz (an 5 dbbasis = 20 shahis = 

imaginary coin). 1,000 dinars = 1 Qiran. 

10 ghaz or 50 dinars = 10 qirans = 10,000 dinars 

1 shahi. = 1 tuman. 

2 shahis = 1 muhammadi 

Weights, Measures of Length. 221 

Europeans in Persia generally keep their accounts 
in qirans (krans) and shahis, or in tumans, qirans and 
shahis, though the Banks and merchants express the 
number ofghaz instead of using shahis : thus. "krs. 249/95" 
means "twenty four tumans, nine qirans and ninety- 
fine ghaz : reckoning 20 shahis or 100 ghaz to the qiran. 
The number of shahis to the qiran, however, varies 
from time to time. The jg 1-0-0 is now worth a little 
over 5 tumans (about 52 or 53 krans), but varies in 
value from day to day. The qiran is often called a 
riyal (the Spanish real), often also it is called a hazar, 
being equal to 1,000 dinars. 


In Persia liquids and various kinds of grain are 
iveighed and not measured. 

Nukhud (a chick-pea). 

24 nukhud = 1 misqal (about '/g of an ounce 

90 misqcd = 1 vaqqeh (about 14 oz avoirdupois). 

8 vaqqeh = 1 mann i Tabrizi or Tabriz maund 
(7/ to 7'/ Ibs.). 

2 mann i Tabrizi = 1 mann i Shahi (14/ 8 to 15 Ibs.). 

4 mann i Tabrizi = 1 mann i Eai (about 29 or 
30 Ibs.). 

8 mann i Shahi => 1 mann i Hashimi (abt. 116 Ibs.). 

50 mann i Shahi = 1 kharvar or donkey-load (abt. 
725 Ibs.). 

Measures of Length. 

Muyi sliutur (camel's hair in breadth). 

Jau (grain of barley). 

Angusht (breadth of a finger). 

Bahar, length of a thumb-joint, abt. l'/4 inch. 

2 bahar = 1 girih (knot) = abt. 2'/ inches. 

16 girih = 1 gaz (far'), about 40 inches : (rough- 
ly a yard) : also called in Turkish an arshin. 

Vajab, a span : from tip of thumb to tip of little 

Dost, zira', araj, a cubit (fr. elbow to tip of 
middle finger). 

222 Appendix E. 

1 qadam, a pace (about 20 inches = 2 gas). 

Saghal, a fathom, from the tip of the middle 
finger of one" hand to that of the other, the arms 
being extended. 

KatteJi, about B'/j feet. 

1 farsakh (far sang, parasang) = 12,000 qadam or 
6,000 gaz, about 3/ or 3V* English miles. (On their 
new road from Resht to Tehran, the Russians calcu- 
late that 8 versts make one farsakh. The R-ussian 
Verst is 0*663 of an English mile.) 

(Principally from "Wollaston.) 

Appendix E. 

1. From Enzelli (Amali) to Tehran (Tahran). 

Landing at Enzelli, the traveller goes by boat 
(4 or 5 hours' journey) up the estuary to Pireh Bazar, 
whence he drives to Resht (about 6 miles). Thence 
a capital coaching road, recently finished by the 
Russians, runs to Tehran, By postchaise he can drive 
to Tehran in 48 hours; using the same horses all the 
way he will require nearly 7 days. 

From Resht (Rasht) to Quhdum, 4farsakhs; 16 miles. 

Quhdum Rustamabad, 4 18Y a 

Rustamabad Manjil, 4 17'/ 2 

Manjil Pa-yi-chinar, 4 13 

Pa-yi-chinar Yuzbashichai, 4 1 /* 

Yuzbashichal Aqbaba, 5 

Aqbaba ,, Qazvin, 4 

Qazvin Kavandeh, 4 

Kavandeh Qaishlaq, 4 

Qaishlaq Yangi Imam, 4 

Yangi Imam Hisarak, 4 

Hisarak Shahabad, 4 

Shahabad Tahran, 4 

European hotels are to be found at Resht and 
at Tehran. On the road between these places there 
are post resthouses at the stations named above. Cara- 
vansarais may also be found. 

Itineraries. 223 

2. From Tahran to Isfahan. 

From Tahran to Kahrizak about 4 farsakhs 

,, Kahrizak Hasanabad 4 

Hasanabad Qal'eh yi Muh. 





JTi.J-1 -Li-JJLdJJ. 

Kushk i Nusrat 





















































(or to Soh, 5 farsakhs) 




















(From Isfahan to Julfa is about 2 


3. From Bnshire (Abu Shahr) to Isfahan. 




Burazj un about 




Burazj un 


Kunar Takhteh 





Kunar Takhteh 









Miyan Kutal 





Miyan Kutal 


Khaneh Zanyun 





Khaneh Zanyun 












































Khan i Khureh 





Khan i Khureh 






























Maqsud Begi 





Maqsud Begi 























Isfahan (or Julfa) 





Appendix E. 






Sar i Khyarm 

Pul i 'Amarat 







Mai Amir 

Qal'eh-yi Tul 

Ala' Khurshid 









4. From Isfahan to Ahvaz; (new route). 

From Isfahan to Bistagun about 30 Engi. Miles 

,, Dopulun 
Sar i Khvarm 

Pul i 'Amarat 




Mai Amir 

Qal'eh-yi Tul 

A'la' Khurshid 






(For this Itinerary I am indebted to Taylor 
Esq., in charge of the road now being made from 
Isfahan to Ahvaz). 

Persian Letters. 


Appendix F. 

Persian Letters. 
Nr. 1. 

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 



Appendix F. 
Nr. 2. 


Persian Letters. 
Nr. 3. 



Appendix F. 

Nr. 4. 

Persian Letters. 



Nr. 5. 


>>i/>^ -t^^x 

230 Appendix F. 

Nr. 6. 

Persian Letters. 

Nr. 7. 


*+*/J& * 

feto,^ - 




Appendix F. 

Nr. 8. 


Persian Letters. 

Nr. 9. 




Appendix F. 

Nr. 10. 

Persian Letters. 


Nr. 11. 




I * 


Appendix F. 
Nr. 12. 

* L 

' ^ > 

Persian Letters. 


Nr. 13. 

* '^ 


Appendix F. 
Nr. 14. 

J*, ,w ^ 



Persian Letters. 
Nr. 15. 


rv - ; 

'\ , 


/ . - 








Appendix F. 
Nr. 16. 


Persian Letters. 


Nr. 17. 



Persian Conv.-Grammar. 



Appendix F. 

Nr. 18. 


y-7 i> u ^" J f * A y ^J J 

<^ >" -T> Ci^ , J- . , ^*/A^, 

** " * F v 

Persian Letters. 
Nr. 19. 



* , 



Appendix F. 
Nr. 20. 



Persian Letters. 


Nr. 21. 


Appendix F. 
Nr. 22. 




Persian Letters. 


Nr. 23. 
A Persian Telegram. 

4, ^ jl 




Appendix F. 

Nr. 24. 




English-Persian Vocabulary. 

Abandon (to), tark kardan, 
guzashtan (guzar), va guzash- 

Abase (to), past sakhtan, khvar g: 

Abate (to), kam k:, takhfif n: 

Abatement, takhfif: (in price) 

Abbreviate (to), ikhtisar k: mukh- 
tasar n: 

Abbreviation, ikhtisar. 

Abdicate (to), az taj isti'fa k:, n: 

Abdication, isti'fa az taj va takht. 

Abdomen, shikam (dil vulgar). 

Abet (to), madad k:, kumak k: 

Abhor (to), nifrat kardan az. 

Abhorrence nifrat, karahiyyat. 

Abide (to), mttndan, bi-sar burdan, 
manzil k:, tavaqquf n: 

Ability, qabiliyyat, liyaqat, majal : 

Abject, pasthnl, khvar, zaUl. 

Abjure (to), bar gashteh shudan 
az, murtadd sh: az. 

Able, qadir, tavana; lrak,zarang. 

Able (to be), tavanistan, qadir 

Ablution, (of hands) vuz u, (whole 
body), ghusl. 

Abode, manzil, khfineh, maskan. 

Abolish (to), mansukh k:, mau- 
quf k: 

Abominable, makrtth. 

Abominate (to), nifrat k: az. 

Abomination, cMz i makruh. 

Abortive, bi-faideh, bi-Kamar. 

Abound (to), faracan b: 

About (concerning), bar sar, dar 
bareh, dar khmUs; (around), 
girdagird, daur; (nearly) naz- 
dik, qarib; taqriban, takhm'inan. 

Above, bar bate, r\(, fauq az. 

Above-mentioned, mazkur, maz- 

biir, mushsrun ilaih (Uaiha). 
Abridge (to), ikhtisar n: k: 
Abridgement, ikhtisar. 
Abroad (to go), safar k: 
Abscess, dunbal, gaundaM (vulg.). 
Absence, (ghaibat), ghiyab. 
Absent, ghaib, ghair-i hazir. 
Absolute, mukhtar, mutlaq, bfl is- 


Absolutely, mutlaqan. 
Absolution, maghfirat, amurzish, 

Absolve (to), afv k: bakhsMdan, 

amurzidan (of God). 
Abstain (to), ijtinab n: az,kanareh 

justan az, parhiz k: az. 
Abstinence, ijtinab, parhizkari. 
Abstruse, daqiq, mughlaq. 
Absurd, bihildeh, U-ma'ni, ghair 

i ma'qul. 

Absurdity, bihudagi, butlan. 
Abundance, faraoani, kiqrat. 
Abundant, ba-ki*rat, faravan. 
Abuse (to), fuhsh dadan, ditsh- 

nam dadan. 
Abuse, fuhsh (verbal). 
Abyss, lujjeh, qa'r, varteh. 
Acacia, gul i abrtsihami. 
Academy, madraseh, daru'lulilm, 


Accede (to), riza bar dadan. 
Accent (Gram:), zttr, (pronun- 
ciation), talaffuz. 
Accept (to), qabttl k:, patiruftan. 
Acceptable, pasandideh, maqbttl, 


Access, dukhul, taqarrub. 
Accession (to throne), takht- 

nishtrit, jultts. [ittifaq. 

Accident, hadiseh, vagt'eh, 


Accidentally Admit. 

Accidentally, ittifaqan, sahvan. 
Accompany (to), hamrah raftan, 

hamrahi k: n: - 
Accomplish (to), bi-anjam rasani- 

dan, tamam k: 

Accord (with one ), bi-ittifaq. 
According (to), bar liasb, muvajiq, 

mutabiq, bar vifq, bans bar. 
Accordingly, pas, lihazfi, bana 

bar in. 

Accountant, muhasib. 
Accountbook, daftar i hisab. 
Account (to), pandashtan (-dar), 

ingashtar (-gar). 
Account (bill), hisab; (narrative), 

qisseh, hikayat, bayan, naql. 
Accoutrements, silah (pi. asla- 

heh), yaraq. 
Accumulate (to), jam' k:, fara- 

Jiam avardan, anbar k: andukh- 

tan (anduz). 

Accumulation, majmu'ah,majma c . 
Accuracy, diqqat, durustl. 
Accurate, durust, sahih, rast. 
Accurately, bi-durusti, saMhan. 
Accursed, mal'un, la'in. 
Accusation, shikayat, tuhmat 

Accuse (to), az (bar) shikayat k:, 

avardan, ra bi nisbat 

dadan; (falsely) tuhmat zadan. 
Accuser, mudda-l. 
Accustom (to), amukhtan, tftnu- 

zanidan; (oneself) l adat girif- 


Ache, dard, vaj'. 
Ache (to), dard k: 
Acid, turush; (noun) ttzab. 
Acidity, turushi. [i'tiraf k: 

Acknowledge (to), iqrsr n: 
Acknowledgement, iqrar, i'tiraf. 
Acorn, balut. [dshna. 

Acquaintance, ashnai; (person) 
Acquainted (with, to be), shi- 

nakhtan (shinss"), sshnsi dash- 
tan b& (person) : muttali' budan, 

ittila' dashtan az (thing). 
Acquiesce (to), qabul k: rizu 

dadan bi. 
Acquire (to), hasil k:, tahstl n: 

bi-chang (tasarruf) avardan: 

(learn) ynd (fara) giriftan. 

Acquisition, tahsil. 

Acquit (to), ibrh kardan, rihs k : 

Acre, jarib. 

Acrobat, bazigar, Itlti. 

Across, an taraf i, an su-y-i. 

Act, kar, 'amal, fi'l. 

Act (to), 'amal (kar) k:, n: 

A,ction (deed) 'amal; (battle), 

jang, ma'rakeh; (at law) mura- 


Active, chalak, zarang. 
Activity, chalakt, zarangi. 
Actually, fi'lan, fllfi'l fllvaqi 1 . 
Acute (severe), sakht, shadid: 

(clever) zarang. 

Adapt (to), muvafiq sakhtan, g: 
Add (to), jam' zadan (figures 

up) : afzudan bar, ilhaq n : bar. 
Addition, izafeh; (arithmetic), 

Address (of letter), 'invan ( l un- 

Address (to) mukhatab sakhtan, 

dashtan (speaking). 
Adequate, kaft, muvafiq, qabtt. 
Adhere (to), diasUdan (bi, bar), 

mulsaq shudan. 
Adherent, tarafdar, tabi'. 
Adhesion, lusuq. 
Adieu, khuda hafiz : vida 1 . 
Adjacent, muttasil. 
Adjective, ism i sifat. 
Adjoin (to), muttasil budan. 
Adjourn (to), ta'khir andakhtan, 

ta'Viq andakhtan (andaz). 
Adjournment, daf u'lvaqt, ta'mq. 
Adjudicate, faisal k: 
Administer (to), idareh k: 
Administration, idareh, hukil- 

Administrator, mukhtar, hukm- 

ran: (of a will), vast. 
Admirable, laiq i ta'ajjub, pasan- 

dideh, 'ajib. 

Admiral, amiru'Jbahr, daryci-begi. 
Admiration, ta'ajjub. 
Admire (to), pasandidan, man- 

zur dashtan. 
Admission (entrance), dukhul; 

(confession), iqrar, i'tiraf. 
Admit (to), (let in), andar avar- 
dan, (confess), i'tiraf n: 

Admonish Algebra. 


Admonish (to), -ra nasihat k: 

tanbih n: 
Admonition, nasihat, pand: 

Adopt (child), tdbanni k: pisar 

Adoption (of child), tdbanni, 

pisar klwandagi. 
Adoration, 'ibadat, parastish. 
Adore, (to), ibadat n: parastish k: 

parastidan, sujdeh k: sugud n: 
Adorer, 'abid, parastish kunan- 

deh: (lover), 'ashiq, muhilib. 
Adorn (to), arasteh k: muzayyan n: 
Adornment, zinat, ttrayish. 
Adroit, chalakdast. 
Adroitness, chalakdasti. 
Adult, baligh. 

Adulterate (to), makhlut s: 
Adulterer, zani, zinakar. 
Adultery, zina, zinakari. 
Advance (to),pish raftan: (trans.) 

pish avardan. 

Advancement, taraqqi, sar-afrazi. 
Advantage, faideh, naf, man- 

fa'at, sUd. 

Advantageous, mufid. 
Adventure, ma-jara. 
Adverb, zarf. 
Adversary, mukhasim. 
Adverse, mukhtilif, munftqiz. 
Adversity, bad bakhti, bala, wiw- 

Advertise (to), i'lan d: t k: ish- 

tihnr d: 

Advertisement, Vlnn, ishtihur. 
Advice, nasthat, pand. 
Advisable, munasib, shuyisteh. 
Advise (to), nasihat k:, n: 
Advocate, vakil. 
Adze, tisheh. 

AflFable, mfliraban, karim. 
Affair, amr, mu'amaleh, 'amal. 
Affect (pretend, to), bahftneh k:, 

(to produce effect), osar (ta'~ 

sir k:, n:, dashtan. 
Affection, muhabbat, ulfat, e ishq. 
Affectionate, muhibb; muhabba- 

inneh, mitshfiq. 
Affiance (to), namzad s: 
Affinity, nisbat, vabastagi. 
Affirmation, tasdiq, ijab; ifbat. 

Affirmative (answer), tjabt. 
Afflict (to), azurdeh s: ranjani- 

Afflicted, parishttn-hal, dilgir, 

Affliction, musibat, gham, alam, 


Afraid, tarsan, khaif. 
Afresh, az sar i nau, mujaddadan. 
After, ba'd az, pas, a'qab, pai, 


Afternoon, ba'd az zuhr, 'asr. 
Afterwards, ba'd az an, minba'd. 
Again, baz, digar, bar i digar, 


Against, bi-zidd, bar (bi-) khilaf. 
Age, 'umr, sinn: (old age) piri 

(time) zaman. 

Aged, pir, kvhansal, salkhvurdeh. 
Agent, vakU, gumaahteh, karkun. 
Agile, chalak, zarang, dhust. 
Agio, sar/. 
Agitate (distress, to),parishans: 

ashufteh s: (to put in motion), 

junbanidan, tahrik n: 
Ago, qabl, pish az in. 
Agony, dard i sakht, ta'attum: 

(of death) naz ( , jan kandani. 
Agree (to), rdzi shudan, qabul k: 

qarar dadan. 
Agreeable, pasandideh, dilpasand, 


Agreed, muttahid. 
Agreement, ittifaq, qarar. 
Agriculture, zira'at, kisht kari, 


Ague, tab va larz. 
Aid, madad, kumak, imdad, isti c - 


Aigrette, jiqeh. 
Aim, nishan. 
Aim (to), did kardan, qaracul 


Air, hava: (tune), nava, ahang. 
Alarm, Oshuftagi, tahayyur, tars. 
Alarm (to), tarsanidan. 
Alarming, haulnak, mi*hib. 
Alas! afsHs, haif, ah. 
Alchemy, kimiya. 
Alcohol, e araq. 
Alembic, 'anbiq. 
Algebra, al jabr. 


Alien Annoy. 

Alien, gliarib, ajnabi; (adj.), 

ba'id (az). 

Alight, pain amadan, nishastan. 
Alike, barabar, misl, yaksan, 


Alive, zindeh, (zandeK). 
All, hameh, tamam, jatrii', tamami. 
Allay, task'in dctdan. 
Allege (to), bar an budan kih . . . 
Allegiance, itct'at, farmanburduri. 
Allegory, tam.4l. 
Alleviate (to), takhftf dadan, 

taskin n: 

Alleviation, takliflf, tasUn. 
Alley, kucheh: (with trees) Tchiya- 


Alliance, mu'ohadeh. 
Allow (to), guzardan, guzashtan 

(guzar], izn (ijazeh} dadan. 
Allowable, rava, hatrd, mujaz. 
Alloy, amizish, b&r. 
Allude (to), JeinSyeh k: az. 
Allusion, innayeh, ishareh, 'ibarat 


Ally, mu'shid, madadkar, mu'avin. 

Almanac, taqvtm. 

Almighty, qadir i mutlaq. 

Almond, badam. 

Almost, taqriban, takhminan, 


Alms, khairat, sadaqat (volun- 
tary): zakat (commanded by 


Aloft, beds, faraz, fara, 
Alone, tanha, far A. 
Along with, ba } hamrnh,bi-ittif(lq. 
Aloud, bi-aeaz i buland. 
Alphabet, huruf i hijtt, alif be. 
Already, hanuz, tn h&l, qabl az in. 
Also, niz, ham, aizan. 
Altar, qurbangrih, mazbah. 
Alter (to), taghytr d&dan, tabdil 

k:, avaz k: 

Alteration, tagliytr, tabdil. 
Alternately, naubdi bi-naubeh. 
Although, agarchih, harchand kih, 

bs (vujud i m) kih. 
Altitude, buland'i, irtifct 1 . 
Altogether, bflkutt, kuttiyyatan, 

Always, hamisheh, hamvareh, pai- 


Amass, jam' kardan, andukJitan 

Amaze (to), hairan s: muta- 

hayyir k: 
Amazement, hairat, ta'ajjub, ta- 

Ambassador, ilcht, saftr (pi. 


Amber, kahruba. 
Ambiguous, mubliam, mughlaq. 
Ambition, istikbar. 
Amble (to), yurgheh raftan. 
Ambuscade, kamtngah. 
Amend (to), islah (tashih') A;:, 

durust k:. 

Amethyst, yaqut i kJiamri. 
Ammunition, barut, asbab ijang. 
Among, miyan, darmiyan, mabain. 
Amount, mablagh, jumleh. 
Amputate (to), buridan. 
Amulet, ta'viz, tilism. 
Amuse (to), tafarruj n: 
Amusement, tafarruj. 
Analogy, tamsil. 
Ancestors, ajdsd, nba (pis. of 

jadd and 06). 
Anchor, langar. 
Anchor (to), langar andakhtan 


Anchorite, zrihid. 
Ancient, qadtrn, qadimi. 
Ancients (the), mutaqaddamtn. 
And, va, o. 

Anecdote, qisseh, hikayat. 
Angel, firishteh, malak (pi. ma- 


Angelic, malaki. 
Anger, ghazab, khashm, ghaiz. 
Angle, gusheh (zaviyeh), kury. 
Angry, glMzabnclk, khashmnsk, 

Animal, j&nivar, haivan. 
Ankle, quzak t pa, ka ( b. 
Annalist, vaqi'eh nig&r, (vaqa? 


Annals, tavarikh (pi. of tsrikli] 
Annihilate (to), nist (o nabud) k: 

ma'dum s: 

Annotation, hashiyeh. 
Announce (to), khabar dndan, 

ittilci' d: az. 
Annoy (to), ranj&nidan. 

Annoyance Artificial. 


Annoyance, ranjish, izn, zalimat. 
Annual, saliy&neh, sanavi. 
Annul, mansukh s:, k:, naskh n: 
Anoint, mash k: 
Another, digar, ghair. 
Answer, javttb, pasukh. 
Answer (to), javab dadan. 
Ant, murcheh: (white), muryftneh. 
Antelope, tihu. 

Anterior, pishin, sabiq, muqaddam. 
Antichrist, Dajjnl. 
Anticipate (to), sibqat justan 

bar: (to look forward to), 

intizjar kashidan. 
Antique, anttqeh. 
Anxiety, andisheh. 
Anxious, andishehnak. 
Any, hich. 

Apart, juda, 'ala'hiddeh, mufassal. 
Aperient, mushil, (karkun). 
Apologise (to), ma'zarat khvSstan 


Apology, ma'qarat, ( uzr. 
Apoplexy, sakteh. 
Apostacy, irtidad. 
Apostate, mttrtadd. 
Apostle, rasul, havuri,(o$ Christ). 
Apostleship, rasslat. 
Apparent, znhir, huvaidft, ashkar. 
Apparently, zahiran. 
Appear, namudan (namny), zahir 

shudan, padid amadan (ay). 
Appearance, sUrat, shikl; zuhur. 
Appendix, zamimeh. 
Appetite, ishtiha, mail. 
Apple, sib: (of eye) mardumak 

i chashm. 
Appoint (to), mu'ayyan k:, gu- 

mnshtan (gumfir), muqarrar k:, 

mansub k: [sab. 

Appointment, ma'muriyyat, man- 
Apprentice, shSgird. 
Approach, qudum, taqarrub. 
Approach (to), nazdik amadan 


Appropriate, munttsib, shayisteh. 
Approve (to), pasandidan. 
Apricot, zardfllu. 
April, april, amil, nisttn. 
Apron, futeh, pishband. 
Aqueduct, (underground), qanut; 
juy (jub, vulg.). 

Arab, 'Arab. 

Arabia, 'Arabistan. 

Arabian, 'Ardbi. 

Arch (of bridge), chashmeli : tSq. 

Archa,ngel,firishteh (malak) i mu- 

Archbishop, raisu'l asSqifeh (pi. 

of usquf), 
Archer, ttrandsz. 
Archives, daftar. 
Ardour, ghairat. 
Arduous, mushkil, sa'b, sakht. 
Argue (to), mubshiseh (muna- 

zareh), namudan, bah$ kardan. 
Argument, bahs, mubshiseh. 
Arise, bar khustan (khiz), pa 


Arithmetic, histlb. 
Ark (Noah's), kashti-yi-Nuh. 
Arm, bszu. 
Arm (to), musallah s:, siltih pusli- 

Arms (weapons), aslaheh (pi. of 


Armoury, silfth-khsneh. 
Army, fauj, sipflh, qushun, Iosh- 

Around, girdBgird, daur. 
Arrange (to), tartib dddan, mu- 

rattab s: 

Arrangement, intizam, tartib. 
Array, saff-arai. 
Arrest (to), giriftftr s:, dastgir 8: 
Arrival, vurud. 

Arrive (to), rastdan, varid shu- 

Arrogance, takabbur, ghurftr. 
Arrogant, mutakabbir, maghrftr. 
Arrow, ttr, sahm (pi. siham). 
Arsenal, qurkhaneh, jabbehkhilneh. 
Art, fann (pi. funun), hvrfat 

(pi. hiraf), hunar. 
Artery, shnhrag, shiryan. 
Artful, Mlehbaz, daghtibaz, mak- 

Article (thing), cMz: (definite 

Article), harf: ma'rifat. 
Articulation, talaffuz. 
Artifice, Mleh, makr, firib. 
Artificers, ahl i sanlli' (pi. of 

Artificial, saklitagi, .ja'tt. 


Artillery Attentively. 

Artillery, tub-khaneh. 

Artist, naqqash. 

As, chun, chunankih. 

Ascend, balft rafton; su'ud n:, 

bar amadan (ay). 
Ascertain (to), tahqiq k: ittUa e 

yaftan (ySb). 
Ascetic, zahid. 
Asceticism, riyazat, zulid. 
Ascribe (to), tausif k:, nisbat 

dadan bi. 

Ash (tree), saban i gunjishk. 
Ashamed, sharmandeh, sharmsar, 


Ashes, khakistar. 
Aside, bar taraf: bar yak su. 
Ask, pursidan, su'al kardan: 

kht:astan (khvah), talab n:, ta- 

laMdan, darkhyast k: 
Asleep, dar kJiyab. 
Asp, af'tf '. 

Asparagus, mftrchubeh. 
Aspect, surat, vajh. 
Ass, khar, ulagh: himUr. 
Assassin, qatil. 
Assassination, qatl. 
Assault, hamleh; jurish; hujum. 
Assault (to), hamleh A:, hugum 

Svardan; yurish k: (in war); 

bar sar (i fulari) rikhtan. 
Assemble (to, trans:) faraham 

avardan, jam' kardan; (a court, 

meeting) mun'aqid s: (intr.) 

jam' sh : farsham amadan (ay) ; 

(a meeting) mun'aqid shudan 


Assembly, majlis, mahfd, anjuman. 
Assent (to), rizs dadan bi-, 

qabul k: 
Assert, baran budan Tcih, b& ta'kid 

guftan (guy). 
Assist, madad (kumak) k:, im- 

dad n:, i'anat n: 
Assistance, madad, kumak, i'anat, 


Assistant, madadkar, mu'avin. 
Associate, rafiq, sliarik, hamdam: 
Associate (to, with), suhbat k. 

bs, mu'&sharat k: ba, uns 

dsshtan ba. 

Association, sharskat; suhbat. 
Assuage, ctramidan, takhfif k: 

Assume (suppose), pandashtan 
(-dar), ingashtan (-gar) ; (take 
up), bar khvud giriftan (gtr). 

Assurance (commercial), bimeli : 
(confidence), itminan. 

Assuredly, yaqtnan, haqiqatan. 

Astonish (to), mutahayyir (hai- 
ran) s: 

Astonished, hairan, mutahayyir, 
hairat zadeh, sarasimeh. 

Astonishment, hairat, tahayyur. 

Astray, gumrah, sargardan. 

Astrologer, munajjim. 

Astrology, 'ilm i nujum. 

Astronomer, rassad, ahl i hai'at. 

Astronomy, 'ilm i hai'at. 

Asylum (refuge), panahgah, pa- 
nah, bast. 

At, dar, nazd, bi. 

Athlete, pahlavan, kushttgar. 

Atmosphere, hava. 

Atom, zarreh. 

Atone (to), kaffareh kardan. 

Atonement, kaffareh. 

Atrocity, fasad, satam, zulm. 

Attach (to) , chasbanidan, va 

Attachment, muhabbat, ulfat. 

Attack, hujum, hamleh. 

Attack (to), hamkh bur dan, k: 

Attain (to), hasilk: bi-darajeli-yi 

Attainable, muyassar: (to be ), 
gir amadan (ay). 

Attainment, tdhsil, iqtina. 

Attempt, kushish, sa't, jidd va 
jahd, ijtihad. 

Attempt (to), kusliish k: sa't n: 
jidd va jahd n: 

Attend (to), mutavajjih budan, 
gush dadan (giriftan) ; (be pre- 
sent),hazirshudan] (wait upon), 
khidmat k:, (the sick), paras- 
tart n: 

Attendance, khidmat: (of the 
sick), parastari. 

Attendant, khadim, naukar, pish- 

Attention, tavajjuh, iltifat. 

Attentive, mutavajjih, multafit, 

Attentively, bi(ba)diqqat. 

Attest Banquet. 


Attest (to), sliahadat dadan bi 


Attract (to), kasMdan, jazb n: 
Attraction, kashish, ja$b. 
Attribute, sifat, vasf. 
Attribute (to), kaai ra bi chizi 

nisbat dadan, mansub k: 
Auction, harrHj, mazad. 
Audacious, ba-ju/r'at, dilir, dil&var. 
Audible, masmu', shinidani. 
Audience (the), hszirin (pi. of 

Augment (to), afzudan (afzsy) 

bar, ziyad k: 
Augmentation, afzuni. 
Aunt (paternal), 'ammeh; mater- 
nal (khaleh). 
August, humftyun, sultttni, a'zam : 

(August, month), agust, ab. 
Auspicious, nlk - akhtar , nik- 

Austere, durusfit, sakht, tnu- 


Authentic, sahih, musallam. 
Authenticate (to), ifbstn: sabit 


Authenticity, sihhat vahaqqiyyat. 
Author, musannif: (compiler) 

mu'allif: (cause) asbub, mu- 

harrik. [amr. 

Authority, igtidar, ikhtiyar,lmkm, 
Autocracy, istiqlal. 
Autocrat, hftkim i 'ala'l istiqlal, 


Autograph, dast-kliatt. 
Autumn, paiz. 
Auxiliary, mu'nvin, madad kftr: 

(verb) fi'l i rabiteli. 
Avalanche, shapeh, bahman. 
Avarice, Mrs, tama', bukhl. 
Avaricious, tama'kar, bakhil, 

Avenge (to), intiqam giriftan 


Avenue, khiyGbtln. 
Average (on an), rttyi ham 


Aversion, kirahat, nifrat. 
Avert (to), raf (daf) k:, radd k : 
Avocation, shuglil, .pisheh, kasb. 
Avoid (to), ijtinab n : az, ihtirazk: 

as), parMz k:, durijitstdn (jtty). 

Awake, bid&r. 

Awaken (trans.) bidar k:, (intr.) 

Md&r sh: 

Aware, agali, multafit, muttali'. 
Away, dur, ba'id. 
Awe, haibat, nihib, haul. 
Awful, bauAnak, muMb. 
Awning, sayaban. 
Axe, tabar. 
Axiom, badiheli. 
Azure, nilrang, lajavardi. 
Baby, tifl, bachcheh. 
Babyhood, tufuliyyat. 
Bachelor, 'azab, 'arusi na kardeh. 
Back, pusht: (adv.) baz, pas, 

e aqab. 

Backwards, pas, bi-'aqab. 
Bacon, gusht i guraz, (i bulbul !). 
Bad, bad, sharir; kharsb. 
Badness, badi; kharabi; sharr. 
Bag, kiseJi; javsl; mafrash, khur- 

Baggage, asbab; (of army), 

Bake, pukhtan (pat). 

Baker, nttn-paz, khabbaz, nanvtly. 

Balance (scales), tarazil, mizan, 


Balcony, mahtabi. 
Bald, kal 

Bale (of goods), basteh. 
Ball (toV), guy, tup, kwrreh: 

(cannon) gululeh; (dance), 

MihmSni yi bal, rags. 
Bamboo, nai-yi Hindi. 
Band (music), mttzikfin (pi): 

(company) dasteh : (tie), band, 


Bandage, rifadeh, band. 
Banish (to), nafl-yi balad kar- 
dan; jala-yi vaan n: 
Banishment, jalai, naff. 
Bank (of river), kan&r, lab, sahil 

(pi. savnhit) : (for money), 


Banker, rats i bank. 
Banknote, askings. 
Bankrupt, var-shikasteh: (to be) 


Bankruptcy, var-shikastagt. 
Banner, 'atom, darafsh, livff. 
Banquet, siyflfat, milimBrit. 


Baptism Behalf. 

Baptism, ta'mid. 

Baptist (St. John the), Sazrat 

TahyS' yi ta'mid diliandeh. 
Baptize (to), ta'mid dadan: (to 

be -d), ta'mid girif tan, yaftan. 
Bar (of wood), tir, drift, chub- 
bast: (hindrance) mumana'at. 
Barbarian, barbarous, vahshi. 
Barbarity, vahshiyyat; (act), 


Barber, dallak. 

Bare, barahineh, lukTit, 'uryan. 
Barefaced, bi-haya, bi-sliarm. 
Barefoot, baraliineh-pa. 
Bargain, mu'ahadeh, mu'amaleh. 
Bark (of tree), pust: (of dog) 

'afaf, 'au'au. 

Bark (to), 'af'af k:, 'au'au k: 
Barley, jau. 
Barn, anbar. 
Barracks, sarbaz-khaneh. 
Barrel, pip: (of gun), luldi. 
Barren (soil), bi-bar, bi-miveh: 

(woman) 'aqir, ndzad. 
Barricade, sadd i rah, sangar. 
Base, kamin, past, dani, khrar, 

furumayeh, dun, zalil, haqir, 


Base (foundation), bunyad, asas. 
Baseness, zittat, khvari, pasti. 
Bashful, ba-haya, sharmsttr, khijil. 
Bashfulness, haya, sharmsari, 


Basin, lagan, taslit. 
Basis, bunyad, asas. 
Basket, sabad, zanbil. 
Bastard, haramz&deh. 
Bastinado, chub va falaqeh. 
Bastinado (to), chub zadan: (to 

be) chub kJivurdan. 
Bat (animal), shappareh. 
Bath, hammam: ghusl. 
Bathe (to), ghusl kardan. 
Battle, Jang, karzar, muqataleh. 
Battlefield, ma'rakeh, masSfgaJi. 
Battlement, ktmgureh. 
Bawl (to), bang zadan. 
Bay, khalij: (colour) kahar, 


Bayonet, naizeh. 
Be (to), budan (basli, buv) ; (with 

passive voice), sliudan. 

Beach, sahil, lab i darya, kanar. 

Beacon, manarat, nishan. 

Bead, dugmeh, muhreh. 

Beak, minqar. 

Beam (wood), tir; (of sun), 

partau, shu'a'. 

Beam (to), duruklishidan, tabidan. 
Bean, lubiya. 
Bear, khirs. 
Bear (to) , burdan (6ar), bar dssfi- 

tan (dar); (suffer), tahammul 

namudan; (bring forth), zai- 

dan, vaz' i hand n: 
Beard, rish. 

Bearer, hammal, bsrkash. 
Beast, haivan, janivar, bahimeli 

(pi. bahairri). 
Beat (to), zadan (zari), (conquer) 

glialib Smadan bar; glialabeli 

Beautiful, khvuthgil, klivubsurat, 

jamil, qashang, maqbul. 
Beauty, khvubsurati, husn, jamal. 
Because, zira (At'ft), bans bar in 

kih, clrirU kih. 
Beckon, ishareh kardan. 
Become (to), shudan (shzv), gar- 

didan, gashtan (gard), (befit), 

dar khvur (shayisteli) budan. 
Becoming, sazavar, sliayistth. 
Bed, takht: (of river) rudkhaneh. 
Bedding, bistar, rakht i khvab. 
Bedroom, khvabgah. 
Bee, zunbur i i asal. 
Beef, gusht i gav. 
Beehive, kund i 'asal. 
Beeswax, mum. 
Beetroot, chuqundur. 
Befall, faqi' shudan, ittifaq uftS- 

dan (uff). 
Before, pish, qabl; jilau; muqabil, 

ru bi-ru. 
Beg, kJwdstan (klipah), dar khvast 

k: gadai k: 
Beggar, gada. 
Begin (to), shuru' ft:, bana namu- 

danbi, aghazk:, giriftan (gir). 
Beginner, mubtadi. 
Beginning, ibtidM, shuru', badv, 

Behalf (on), bi-khstir, barayi, dar 

bahr i. 

Behave Blockade 


Behave (to), raftttr &:, suluk n: 
Behaviour, rafttlr, suluk. 
Behead (to), gardan zadan, sar 

Behind, pas, e aqab, duribal (vulg.), 

Behold, inak, htln: (to behold), 

didan (&*), tamaslia k :, nigaris- 

tan (nigar) bar, mushfthideh n: 
Being (existence), vujud, hasti: 

(creature) makhluq. 
Belief, imftn, dqideh; i'tiqad. 
Believe, imtin fivardan bi (bar} ; 

tasdiq &:, bavar k:, giravidan. 
Believer, imandtir. 
Bell, zang, jaras. 
Bellows, minfakh, damzan. 
Belly, shikam batn: (dil, vulg.). 
Belong (to), until i budan. 
Beloved, mahbub, ma'shuq, dust 


Below, zir, pain, furu, taht. 
Belt, kamarband. 
Bench, nisMman. 
Bend (to) (trans.) pichflntdan: 

(intr.) kham shudan; ptchidan. 
Beneath, zir, p&in. 
Benediction, barakat, tabrik. 
Benefactor, vaU-ni'mtit, ihsftn- 

Beneficial, mufid. 
Benefit, faideh; ihstln; man fa' at, 

Bent (noun), righbat, mail: (adj.) 


Bequest (religious), vaqf. 
Bereave (to), mahrum s: 
Berry, daneh, habbeh. 
Beseech, istid'a n:, iltimus k:, 

multamis, b : 
Beside, dar pahlu-y-i. 
Besides, 'alaceh bar: ghair az, 

Besiege, tnuhttsareh n:, mahsur 


Best, bihtarin, alisan, afzal. 
Bestow, bakhsMdan, 'inttyat far- 

mudan, arzunl dashtan, l ata k : 
Bet (to), shart k: (bastan). 
Betray (to), khiyttnatk:, taslim k: 
Betroth (to), namzadk:, mansttbn: 
Better, bihtar, khvubtar. 
Persian Conv.- Grammar. 

Between, (dar) miyan, bain. 
Beware (to), bar hazar budan az, 

ihtiyat namudan az. 
Beyond, nn taraf, ma vara-yi: 

(more than), ziyadeh. 
Bible, kitdb i muqaddas. 
Bier, ttibut. 
Big, buzurp. 
Bigness, buzurgt. 
Bigoted, muta'assib. 
Bigotry, ta'assub. 
Bile, zalireh. 
Bill, hisnb. 

Billet, raqimeli, ruq'eh. 
Billow, mauj, (pi. amv&j). 
Bind (to), bastan (band) ; (books), 

jild kardan. 
Bird, parandeh. 
Birth, tavallud. 
Birthday, ruz i tavattitd. 
Bishop, tisquf, (pi. asffqifeh). 
Bit, pdreh, rizeh, tikkeh (vulg.); 

luqtneh: (of bridle), dahineh. 
Bite (to), gaz'idan. 
Bitter, talkh. 
Bitterness, talkhi. 
Bitumen, naft. 
Black, siyah. 
Blacksmith, ahingar. 
Blame, sarzanish, mu'flkhazeh : 

(fault), 'aib (pi. 'uyub). 
Blame (to), malflmat k:, sarza- 

nish n: 
Blanket, lahaf, patu, (for horse) 

Blaspheme (to), kufr guftan 

Blasphemer, kafir (pi. kuffar). 

Blaze, sukhtan (siiz). 

Bleed (to, trans.), khiin giriftan : 

(intr.) khJJn nmadan. 
Blemish, 'aib, jurm. 
Bless (to), (of God's blessing), 

barakat dadan: (of men), bara- 

kat khrfistan bar, du'n yi kliair 

kardan barayi. 
Blessed, mubffrik. 
Blessing, barakat. 
Blind, nabinn, kur: blindness, 

TcTtri, ntibinat. 
Block (to), masdud s: 
Blockade, muhtisareh. 



Blockade Breath. 

Blockade (to), muhasareh k: 

Blood, kliun. 

Bloodmoney, khiin-baha, diyat. 

Bloodshed, Tclmnrm. 

Bloodthirsty, khunklwar. 

Blossom, gul. 

Blossom (to), shikuftan. 

Blot, dttgh, lakkeh. 

Blot out (to), mahv k: pak k: 

Blotting-paper, ksghaz i nb-kash. 

Blow, zarb. 

Blow (to), damidan: vazidan: (a 
flower), shikuftan. 

Blue, nUrang, a'H. 

Blunder, islitibah, ghalat. 

Blunt, kund. 

Boar, khug. 

Board, takhteh. 

Boast, fakhr, gizttf, Ifif. 

Boast, fakhr bar dan, laf zadan, 
giznf (guftari). 

Boat, zauraq, karaji. 

Body, tan,jasad: (dead), mayyit, 

Boil (tumour), duribal. 

Boil (to), (intr.) jushidan, jusli 
nmadan (trans.) jush&nidan, 
jusli k: (to cook) ab-paz k: 

Bold, diUr, dilGvar, sliuj&'. 

Boldness, dilM, dilaoari, sliujci'at. 

Bolster, btilisli, balin, pushti. 

Bolt, cldft, kuland, tarnlik. 

Bomb, khunp&reh. 

Bombard (to), tub andaklitan. 

Bond, rcibiteli, 'alaqeli: (docu- 
ment), tamassuk. 

Bondage, asM, 'ubudiyyat. 

Bone, itstukhvttn. 

Book, Ttitcib (pi. kutub), saMfeh 
(pi. sah&if), sifr. 

Bookbinder, sahhaf, jildgar. 

Bookseller, kitabfurush. 

Boot, Tcafsh, urusi, chakmdi (top- 

Bootmaker, kafsh-duz. 

Booty, yaglimci, ghanimat. 

Border, hashiyeh, kanfir, hadd 
(pi. hudud). 

Bore (to) , suftan, sunbidan, 
sitrttkh k: 

Born, zaideh slmdeli, maulud, 

Born (to be), tavallud ynftan, 
maulud sir. 

Borrow (to), (an article to be 
returned), 'ariyeh ('Briyatari) 
giriftan; (money), qarz giriftan. 

Bosom, sineh, aghush; baghal 

Both, har do. 

Bottle, sMslieh, butri. 

Bottom (of sea), tali. 

Bough, sltakli. 

Bound (limit), hadd (pi. hudud), 
Kaglir (pi. xugiwr), sarhadd. 

Bouquet, dasteli, guldasteh. 

Bow, kaman; (rainbow), qaus, 
qaus i quzah. 

Bow (to), salatn kardan, ta^zim 
k: (to a great man): ta'nruf 
k: (to a friend). 

Bowels, rudeli, ahshff (pi. of 
hasha), am' a (pi. of mi'if). 

Bowl, kaseh, jam. 

Box, sanduq, sanduqchefi; (small) 
quit, qab: (on the ear), Sill. 

Box (to), musht zadan. 

Boy, pisar, kudak. 

Brace (pair), juft. 

Bracelet, dastband. 

Braces, shalvar-band. 

Brackish, shur. [meh). 

Brahman, Barahman (pi. barahi- 

Braid, qaitnn. 

Brain, maghz, damagh. 

Branch, shctkh; (of river), shu'bat. 

Brand, dugh. 

Brandish, afshandan. 

Brass, birinj. 

Brave, diUr, dilavar, shuja'. 

Bravo ! afarin, vffh vah ; bah, bah, 

Bray, 'ar'ar kardan. 

Brazier, misgar (coppersmith). 

Breach, rikhneh, shikfif. 

Bread, nan. 

Breadth, pahinai, 'arz. 

Break (to), (trans.) shikastan (shi- 
kan\ pureh k: (intr.), shika- 
stan, pareh shudan: (string), 
gusistan (gusikhtan, gusilidan). 

Breakfast, nashta. 

Breast, sineh, bar: (woman's), 

Breath, dam, nafas. 

Breathe Butterfly. 


Breathe (to), dam zadan, dami- 
dan, nafas kashidan. 

Breeches, shalvnr. 

Breechloader, tah-pur. 

Breed, nasl, niznd. 

Breeze, bttd i narm, nasim. 

Brevity, ikhtisttr. 

Bribe, rushveh. 

Bribe (to), rushveh dftdaw. (to 
be-d rushveh khrurdan. 

Brick (burnt), ajur: (sundried), 

Bride, 'arils. 

Bridegroom, darnnd. 

Bridge, pul. 

Bridle, jilau, dahineh. 

Brigand, rttlizan, duzd. 

Brigandage, rahzani. 

Bright, raushan; lami', tflbun, 

Brightness, raushani, raushantti, 

Brimstone, gugird, kibrit. 

Bring (to), n cardan (mar, ttr); 
(-forth), zmdan: (-up), par- 
vardan, tarbiyyatn: (-back) bar 
gardanidan ; (-forward), pish 
near dan, hazir hardan, thzftr n:. 

Broad, pahin, vasi f , farttkh (wide). 

Broker, dalM. 

Bronze, chttdan. 

Brooch, gul i yakheh, gul i sineh. 

Brook, jUy (jub vulg.) 

Broom, jflrub. 

Broth, Ub(i)gu8lit, slinrvfl. 

Brother, baradar; akhavi. 

Brother-in-law, (husband's), ba- 
rudarzan; (wife's) barftdar i 

Brotherhood, birttdari, ukhiiwat. 

Brown, bur, gandum-gun: (of a 
horse), qarah - kahar (dark- 
brown); bur (light-brown). 

Browse (to), charidan. 

Bruise (to), kuftan, knMdan (kftb). 

Brush, jflrub, pttk-kun, safkun. 

Brush (to), jnrub, kardan (a 
room); pftk kardan (clothes). 

Brushwood, buteh. 

Brutal, vahsM, zalim, bi-muruvvat. 

Brutality, vahshiyyat, zulm, bi- 

Bucket, dalv; sail. 

Buckle, sagak. 

Buckler, sipar. 

Bud, shikufeh, ghunclich. 

Buffoon, luti. 

Bug, stis: ganeh, malleh. 

Bugle, shaifur, shaipur. 

Build (to), bana kardan, snkhtan 

Builder, bani; banna, mi'mftr (the 

actual workman). 
Building. i imarat: ta'mir. 
Bull, gnvi nar. 
Bullet, gululeli. 
Bullock, gttv, 
Bulwarks, hisftr. 
Bunch, khuslwli; dasteh (of flow- 
Bundle, basteh (a package) : 

buqcheh (e. g. of clothes for 

the wash). 
Burden, bar. 
Bureau, idareh, divftn, daftar- 

Burial, dafn. 
Buried, madfun. 
Burn (to), sukhtan (suz) (trans. 

andintr.): suzanidan (trans.). 
Burning-glass, 'ainak i fltasli-gir. 
Burnish (to), mujallfl sfiklitan 

(sftz), zidudan, saigal kardan. 
Burrow, sttrnkh, naqb. 
Burst (to, intr.) tarakidan, cliff k 

Bury (to), dafn kardan, khffk 

sipwdan (sipnr), madfun sfikh- 


Bush (a), buteh: bisheh, jangal. 
Business, knr, kar va &<7r, amal 

(pi. a'mal), shughl, amr (pi. 

umJir), giriftfiri] mu'ftmaleh. 
Bust, mujassameh. 
Busy, mashgtil. 
But, lakin (likin), valnkin (valikin) 

ammff, vali: (but on the con- 
trary) balkih. 
Butcher, gassab. 
Butt (target), hadaf, nishtfneh. 
Butt (to), sar zadan(zan). 
Butter, kareh; (clarified), rnit- 


Butterfly, shahparak, parvffneh. 


Button Case. 

Button, dugmeh. 

Buy (to), kharidan, ishtira n: 

Buyer, mu-shtari. ' 

By, az, U. 

Cabbage, Jcalam. 

Cabin (in ship), utaq. 

Cage, qafas, qafas. 

Cake, nan i sMrin. 

Calamity, afat, musibat (pi. ma- 
saib} balii, sadameh, badbakliti. 

Calculate, hisab k: shamurdan 

Calculation, hisab, muhasabeh. 

Calendar, taqrtm. 

Calf, gusaleh. 

Calico, cMt, qalamkar. 

Call, (to), khvandan, sida (soda) 
zcidan, talab k: (n; dashtan), 
(call on, visit) barayi didan 
amadan: (to name), namtdan, 
musamma' s: nam niliadanfnih). 

Calm (adj.), aram, asudeh: (we&- 
ther), mulayim: (noun): arami. 

Calm (to), aramidan. 

Calomel, jiveh. 

Calumniate, tuhmat zadan. 

Calumny, tuhmat, glubat, buhtan. 

Camel, shutur. 

Camelion, buqalamun. 

Camomile, babuneh. 

Camp, lashkarguh, urdu. 

Camp (to) , dt adur (khaimeli) zadan. 

Camphor, kafiir. 

Canal, nahr, juy : (underground) 

Cancel (to), mahv k: naskh n: 

Candid, sadiq, mukhlis. 

Candle, sham 11 . 

Candlestick, sliam'dan. 

Candour, ikhlas, sidq. 

Cane, nai: l asa. 

Cannibal, mardum-khvar. 

Cannon, tub, tup. 

Cannon-hall, gululeh-yi-tup. 

Canon, qanun, qa'ideli. 

Canopus, suhail. 

Canopy, shadurvan, sayaban. 

Canter (to), yiirtmeh raftan. 

Canvas, karbas. 

Cap kulali : (of rifle), kuluh i tu- 

Capability, qaltiliyyat. 
Capable, qabil. 
Capacious, l ariz, vasi- ; ttffir. 
Capacity (size), andazeh, gun- 
jaish: (ability), hausileli, qabi- 

Cape, ra's, sar. 

Capital (city), dar u'ssaltanat, 

Pa-yi takht: (stock in trade), 

ra'&u'lmnl, sarmttyeh. 

Captain, rais, nakhuda (of ship). 

Captive, asir, mahbits, dastgir, 


Captivity, asm, hobs, quid. 
Capture (to), asir (giriftar, dast- 

gir) s.:, rnaftuh s: 
Car, kaliskeh. 
Caravan, k fin an, qttfileh. 
Caravansarai, kartcinsara'. 
Carbine, tufang, qarabineh. 
Carbineer, tufangcM. 
Carcass, murdar, lasli. 
Card (playing), ganjifeh: (visit- 

ing) kart. 
Care, fikr, tavcyjuh; andislteh: 

kliabar, ihtiyat: 

Care (to), parva dnshtan: (take 
care of), Kigali dSshtan, hifz k : 
Careful, khabarddr, ba-hazar. 
Careless, bi-kliabar, glmfil. 
Carelessness, ghiflat, bi-ihtiyffti. 
Caress (to), navazish k : , na- 

Cargo, bar. 
Carnage, khiinrizi. 
Carnal, nafsarii; jismani. 
Carnation, mikliak. 
Carpenter, najjcir. 
Carpet, qatt, qalicheh : (prayer- 

carpet) sajjadeh. 
Carpet (to), farsh n: 
Carriage, kaliskeh. 
Carrier, hammal. 
Carrion, murdar. 
Carrot, zardak. 

Carry (to), burdan (bar); (out), 
bi-'amal fbi-ja) c cardan: vafa 
k : (promise). 
Cartridge, fislumg. 
Carve, tarasMdan. 
Cascade, ab-sltsr. 
Case (boxj, sanduq; qTM, qffb, 

Cash Cheat. 


-dan: (state), halat, hal, chigu- 

nagi : (in case) dar surat : 

(grammar), halat. 
Cash, naqd. 

Cashier (to), vna'zul kardan. 
Casket, quti. 
Cast, andakhtan (andaz), afkan- 

Castle, qal'eh, hisn, ark (citadel) ; 

qasr (palace). 

Castrate (to) akhteh (khasi) k: 
Cat, gurbeh. 

Catalogue, siyaheh, fihrist. 
Cataract, nb-shar; (in eye) fib 

(i murmrid). 
Catch (hasp), chift. 
Catch (to), giriftan (gir): (an 

infectious disease from one), 

bu-yi urn giriftan. 
Caterpillar, ktrm i sad-pa. 
Catholic (Koman), katulik, pa- 

pavi: (universal), jami 1 . 
Cattle, mavasM. 
Cauldron, dig. 

Cauliflower, kalam i faranyi. 
Causal / x i N /..,, . .j_ 
Causative! (verb), /W m^&iw. 

Cause, sabab, mujib, jiliat, ba'is, 

Cause (to), sabab i (an) bildan. 

Caution (to), khabar dadan. 

Cavalry, savureh, (niztttri). 

Caviar, tukltm i mahi. 

Cavil (to), i'tirUz k: 

Cease (to), va istadan, buz istn- 
dan (of), furigh shudan. 

Cedar, sarv i nzttd; (red) kuj. 

Cede, (to) taslim n: havtileh k: 

Ceiling saqf. 

Celebrate (festival), nigffh dash- 
tan, [dar. 

Celebrated, masliliur, ma'ruf, nam- 

Celebrity, (fame), shuhrat. 

Celerity, zudi, sur'at. 

Celery, karafs. 

Celestial, asmant, samftvt, minaii. 

Celibacy, 'uzbat, iajarrud. 

Cell sauma'eli, takyeli, maqsJireh. 

Cellar, zirzamin. 

Cement, sarish. 

Cemetery, qabrisian, gjiristan. 

Censure, sarzanisli, malamat. 

Censure (to), maldmat k: sdrza- 
nish n: 

Census, ismnavM, sar-slmmGri. 

Centipede, hazar-pa. 

Centre, mdrkaz; vasat; miyaneJt. 

Centurion, yuzbashi. 

Centviry, mi'ali, (qarn?). 

Ceremony, rasm (pi. Ar. rusuiri) ; 

Certain yaqin. muhaqqaq; (a 
certain person), fulan shakhs, 

Certainly, albatteli, f'lhaqfqeh, 

Certainty, yaqin, tayaqqun. 

Certificate (School), tas 
(diploma), ijazeh-nameh ; (re- 
commendation) sifarishns-meh. 

Chan , sabus: (joking) mizuh, 

Chain, zanjir, silstteli : (of moun- 
tains), silsileh (rishteh)-yikHhh(f. 

Chair, sandaM. 

Chalk, gil i safid. 

Chamber, utaq, hujreli. 

Change, tdbdil, taghyir: (small 
money) pul i khurdeh. 

Change (to), badal k: 'avaz k: 
tabdU n:, k: taghyir dadan: 
(money), khurdeh k: 

Chapel, HMdat-gah, 'ibctdat-kha- 

Chapter, bub, fast. 

Character (written), khatt- (qua- 
lity), khaslat; kaifiyyat, chi- 
gunagt] (good) abrtl, shuhrat. 

Charcoal, zughtil. 

Charge, hamleh, ynrish: (accu- 
sation) ' shikayat: (custody), 
amunat, havaleh. 

Charge (to), (entrust), sipurdan, 
havaleh k: (a gun) pur k: 

Charge d' Affaires, naib i sifffrat. 

Charm, tilism, ta'viz (on paper). 

Chase, shikar. 

Chaste, pakdaman, 'aftf, tahir, 

Chastity, 'iffat, 'asmat. 

Chatter (to), pur guftan. 

Cheap, arzan, kamhalia. 

Cheapness, arzffni. qalluh n: 

Cheat (to), firiftan (/>), to- 


Cheek Clothe. 

Cheek rukli, rukhsareh, surat. 

Cheerful, khvush va khurram, 
khushvaqt, shad.- 

Cheertulness, masarrat, shfidi, 
surur, sliadmctni. 

Cheese, panir. 

Chemise, qamis. 

Cheque, burst. 

Cherry (black), alubalu (red); 

Chess, shatranj. 

Chest (box), sandiiq; (breast) 

Chestnut, shsh baliit: (colour) 

Chew (to), javidan. 

Chicken, jujelt. 

Chief, muqaddam; (noun); rais, 
pishi-a: (of nomads) ttkhant. 

Chiefly, glialiban, aghlab. 

Child, bachcheJi, tifl (pi. Ar. 

Childbirth, vaz 1 i Jiaml. 

Childhood, tufuliyyat. 

Chimney, dudkash. 

Chin, chaneh, zanakh. 

China, Cliin. 

Chintz (European), chit (Per- 
sian); qcdamkar. 

Chisel, ushkinelt. 

Choke, khafeh kardan. 

Cholera, vabtt. 

Choose, bar-guzidan (guzm), ikh- 
tiyffr k:, intiJdiab n: 

Chorus, band~gardan. 

Christ, Masih. 

Christian, mat/Hit, 'Isavt. 

Christianity, din i maslhi. 

Christmas, l aid i milad (i Masih). 

Chronicles, tavfirikli (pi. Ar. of 

Chronicler, muvarrikfi. 

Church (assembly),fca7i*a: (build- 
ing) 'ibadat-gah, 'ibadat khatieh. 

Cigar, sigar: (-case), qabisigar. 

Circle, daireh. 

Circular, gird, mudavvar. 

Circulate (to), intisliar dadan 
(trans) : intishar yaftan (intr.) : 
(money) ratiij daslitan. 

Circumcise (to), khitneli n: 
makhtun s: 

Circumcision, khitneli. 

Circumstances, surat, umur, liul. 

Cistern, hauz: ab-anbar. 

Citadel, ark, qal'eli. 

Citizen, sludiri. 

City, shahr. 

Civil, mu'addab, adib, ba-adab. 

Civility, adab. 

Civilisation, madaniyyat. 

Claim, da'va', iddi'fl. 

Claimant, mudda'i. 

Clamour, faryud, sliuluk. 

Clap hands (to), chapelt, zadan. 

Clasp, sagak, chap o rast, nar o 

Class, tabaqeh: qabil. 

Claw, chang, diangal. 

Clay, gil. 

Clean, pcik; pnkizeh, suf. 

Cleanse (to), puk kardan. 

Clear (evident), zahir, fisltkar, 
fazih : (bright) raushan : (trans- 
parent) slwffaf. 

Clear (to), bar chidan (table 
cloth etc.). 

Clearly, ashkara, tazihan. 

Cleave (to), shikaftan (to split) ; 
paivastan (to adhere). 

Clergjrman, kashish. 

Clerk, mirza. 

Clever, zirak, zarang, chabuk, ba- 

Clevernes?, zirakt, zarangi,firasat. 

Climate, ab va hava. 

Climb (to), baJa raftan, bar 

Clinch (to), parchln k: (a nail). 

Cloak, balapUsh, (ib-dast, 'aba, 

Clock, sa'at i majlisi. 

Clockmaker, sa'at-saz. 

Clod, kulukli. 

Close, naedlk, qarib: (narrow) 

Close (to), bastan (band)] mas- 
dud s: 

Closet, klialvat khaneli: (privy), 
sar i ab, khala. 

Cloth, parcfieh: (woollen), ma- 

Clothe (to), pushanldan, mulab- 
bas s: 

Clothes Completely. 


Clothes, rakht, libas, pusltak. 

Cloud, abr. 

Cloudy (overcast), girifteh, abr- 


Clove, mikhak. 
Clover, shabdar. 
Club, 'asa, gurz, clmmaq. 
Coach, kaliskeli, fyfiri). 
Coachman, kaliskeh-chi. 
Coal, zuglial i sang. 
Coalmine, ma'dan i zuglial. 
Coarse, kuluft, qatur; durusht. 
Coast, kanar, sahil (Ar. pi. sa- 

Coat, sardari, qaba: (great coat) 


Cobbler, pineh-duz. 
Cobweb, tar i 'ankabut. 
Cock, khurus: (of a rifle), dang, 

Cock (to, a gun), pashneh-yi tu- 

fang-ra bala kashidan. 
Cocoa-nut, nargil: (ndlgir, vulg.). 
Coffee, qaliueh. 
Coffin, sanduq, tabTit. 
Coin, sikkeh. 

Coin (to), sikkeh kardan. 
Cold, sard (adj.): sardi, sarma 

(noun): (to catch cold), c/ta- 

Mdeh shudan, sarma khviirdan 
Colic, dard i dil. 
Collar (of coat), yaklieh, yaqeh. 
Collect (to), jam,' k: faraham 


Collection, majmu'elt, majma'. 
College, madraseh. 
Collyrium, surmeh. 
Colour, rang, laun (Ar. pi. al- 


Coloured, rangin, mulavvan. 
Colt, kurreh. 
Column, sutun: (in book), jad- 


Comb, shaneli. 
Comb (to), shnneh kardan. 
Combat, mujadaleh, muqataleh, 

Come (to), amadan (<7/),(-topass), 

bi-vuqu' paivastan, vuqi' sli: 
Comet, siiureli-yi dunbaleh-dar. 
Comfort, tasdlli, dil-asai : asayiali. 
Comfort (to), tasalli dadan. 

Comforter, tasull! dihandeh. 

Command, hukm, amr, farnwn, 
farmaish : vasiyyeh. 

Command (to), hukm k: amr n: 
farman d: farmudan (farmay}. 

Commander (in-chief), sardar, 
amir-nizam, sipali-salar ; lasli- 

Commence, Una n: ,8hurTi' k: 
aghaz n: giriftan. 

Commentary, tafsir, shark. 

Commentator, mufassir. 

Commerce, tijarat. 

Commercial, tijaratt. 

Commit (entrust), sipurdan (si- 
par), amanatk: (do), murtakib 
i (bar)-shudan. 

Common, 'amm; 'ammeh: (-peo- 
ple), 'avvamu'n nas. 

Commonly 'umuman. 

Communion, rifaqat, muravadat; 
mubasharat: (Holy C-), shirqat 
i muqaddas, 'Aslia-y-iltdbbarii. 

Companion, raflq (pi. Ar. ru- 
faqa), sharik, liamrah. 

Company (band), dasteli, /aty. 

Comparative (degree), halat i 

Comparatively, nisbat bi-; bi'n- 

Compare (to), muqabalelt k: 

Comparison, muqabaleh; tamfil, 

Compass, parkar : (mariner's), 

Compassion, riqqat, shafaqat. 

Compassionate, mushfiq. 

Compel (to), ijbar s:, ibram n: 
majbttr n: 

Compensate (to), 'avaz dadan. 

Compensation, 'avaz. 

Compilation, ta'lif. 

Compile (to), ta'ltf k : 

Compiler mu'allif. 

Complaint (illness), maraz: (ac- 
cusation), shikityat: (to lodge 
a-), shikayat nvardan, Tc: (<w, 

Complement, tatimmeii. 

Complete, kamil, tamm, tamo in, 
kuUi. [tan. 

Completely, tamitman, kulliyya- 


Complete Contagion. 

Complete (to), bi-itmam rasant- 


Completion, itmam, takmil. 
Compliments, salam, tasMmat. 
Compose (to), (a book), tasnif 

A:, n: (arrange) tartib da dan, 

murattab s: 
Composed (made up of), mu- 


Composer, musannif (author). 
Composition (book), tasntf. 
Comprehend (to) , fahmidan, 

idrak n: 

Comprehension, fahm, idrak. 
Comprised (to be), shamil i bar. 
Compulsion, ijbar, ibram. 
Compute (to), hisab k :, shamurdan. 
Comrade, rafiq. 
Conceal, pusMdan; panhan &:, 

dashtan; makhft s: 
Conceive (to), musamar n: dar 

rahim qarar giriftan. 
Concerning dar lab, dar bareh, 

dar haqq, dar TclmsTts. 
Conciliation, musahheli. 
Concise, mukhtasar. 
Conclude, bi-anjam rasanidan, 

tamam k: 

Concord, muvafaqat, ittiliad. 
Condemn (to), fatva 1 dadan bar. 
Condescension, tavazu'. 
Condition, ~hal, halatj (stipula- 
tion), shart (Ar. pi. shuriit, 

Conduct (behaviour), raftar, 

suluk, 'amal: (management), 

riyasat; (guidance) hidayat, 

rahbari, ralmamal. 
Conduct (to lead), rahnamai k: 
Confederacy, sazish; mu'ahadeli. 
Confess (to), iqrar n :, i'tiraf k : 
Confide (to, in), i'tiqad k :, i'timad 

n: bar. 

Confidence, i'tiqad, i'timad. 
Confidential (ly), mahramaneJi. 
Confines, hadd (Ar. pi. hudud), 

sarhadd, sugliur (Ar. pl.j, aqsc?. 
Confirm (to) sabit k:, isbat, n: 

taqviyyat n:. 
Confirmation, isbat, taqviyyat: 

(religious ceremony), taqabbul 

i 'olid. 

Confiscate (to), zabt k: 
Conformity (in), bar vifq, bar 

tibq, muvafiq, mutabiq. 
Confound (to), bar ham zadan 


Confusion, partshani, sargardfini. 
Confute (to), radd n: mujab s: 
Congratulate (to), tabrik n: 

tahniyyat k: 
Congratulation, mubarikbadi, taJi- 

Congregate (to), jam i shudan 

(intr.): jam' k: (trans.). 
Congregation, jama'at. 
Conjecture (to), hads zadan. 
Conj ecture, qiyas, mazanneli, hads. 
Conjugate (to), sarf k. 
CoDJugation, tasrif. 
Conjunction (grammar), f atf. 
Conjurer, jadiigar, sahhar, saMr. 
Connexion, vasl, ittisal, 'alaqeli, 

Connive (to, at), chaslim-pusM 

n:, iglimaz k: (az). 
Conquer (to), maftuh s:, zafar 

yaftan, ghalabeh yaftan, glialib 


Conqueror, muzaffar, ghalib. 
Conscience, zamir, insaf. 
Consecrate (to), taqdis n: 
Consecutive, mutavali ; mutava- 

tir: pai dar pai. 
Consent, riza. 
Consent (to), rizn dadan, qabul 

Consequence, natijeh (Ar. pi. 

Consider (to), fikr (tafakkur, 

ta'ammul) k: (dar). 
Consist (to, of), shamil bar bu- 


Consolation, tasalM. 
Conspicuous, bahir, mashhi/r. 
Conspiracy, sazish, vifaq. 
Construct, bana n :, sakhtan (saz'). 
Consul, qunsal. 
Consulate, qumal-khaneli. 
Consult (to), mashvarat k: ba: 

mashvarat khvastan as. 
Consultation, mashvarat, musha- 

Contagion, sarayat. 

Contagious Crier. 


Contagious, sttri, musri. 
Contain (to), gunj&ish dashtan. 
Contemplation, tasawur, tafak- 

kur, ta'ammul. 
Contemporary, mu'asir, hamza- 


Contempt, iliunat, tahqir. 
Contemptible, khyftr, past, qdlil, 

Contented, rnzi, khyuslihal, khyush- 


Context, qarineh, (Ar. pi. qarnin). 
Continually, hamvareh, paivasteh. 
Continue (to), baqi mandan. 
Contraband (goods), mamnu i at. 
Contradict (to), radd k:, bar zidd 


Contrary, zidd, kltilttf, bar 'aks. 
Controversy, bahy, mubahiseh. 
Convenient, munasib, sliayisteli. 
Convent, dair: (of darvishes), 

Conversation, guftuyv, suhbat, 

Converse (to), guftitgu, Jc:, suhbat 


Convert, naumurid, jadid. 
Convey (to), avardan (ttvar, ttr), 


Convict (to), mulzam s:. 
Cook, asltpaz. 
Cook (to), puJchtan (paz). 
Cool, Jchunuk. 
Copper, mis. 
Copy, naql, nuskheh: (exercise). 


Cord, risman. 

Corkscrew, pich, sMsheh-gushtt. 
Corn, ghalleh. 
Corner, gwsheh, kunj. 
Corpse, lush. 
Correct, durust, sahih. 
Correct (to), islah n\, tasMh k: 
Correspondence, murasaleli. 
Corrupt, fusid, kharfib. 
Corrupt (to), khamb k: ifsnd n: 
Corruption, fasfld: fanil. 
Cost, qaimat (qimaf) makhttrij 

Cost (to), areidan. 
Cottage, kappar (vulg. cliappar) 


Cotton, panbeli. 

Cough, surfeh. 

Cough (to), surfeh k : 

Council, sliura', majlis. 

Counsel, mashvarat. 

Counsellor, tmishir. 

Count (to), shamurdan (sham&r), 

hisab k: 

Countenance, ruy, surat, clnhrelt. 
Counterfeit, sakhtdgi: qullabi. 
Counterpane, lah&f. 
Countless, bishamar. 
Country (not town), bulfikitt, 

diliat: (region), mulk, kishvar, 

bilad, diyar, mamlikat. 
Couple, juft. 
Courage, diKri, sliujii'at. 
Courageous, dittr. shuja'. 
Courier (foot), qasid: (mounted) 

Court, dargnh ; mahkameh: (-yard), 

sahn, haynt. 

Courteous, bfl-adab, adtb. 
Courtesy, adab (Ar. pi. ndffb), 

Cousin, 'ammTi (-'amiri)-eadeh, klifil- 

Covenant, 'olid (pi. Ar. 'uhrid), 

Cover, pllsliisli, sarpnsh : ghiltff: 

jild (of book). 

Cover (to), pUshidan; pushanUan. 
Covet (to), tama' k: 
Cow, gttv, gtto i madeh. 
Coward, bidil, kamdil. 
Cowardice, kamditi, biditt. 
Crab, kharchang. 
Cradle, gahvareh. 
Crawl (to), khazidan, ghazidan. 
Cream, sar i shir. 
Create (to), ufaridan, khalq n : 
Creation, afar^nisl^paidtlish, khil- 


Creator, ftfarinandeh,khnliq, Bari. 
Creature, makhlftq (Ar. pi. wn- 

khlnqat), khaliqeh (Ar. pi. kha 

liiiq of men). 
Creditor, talab-kffr. 
Creed, qsnJln i 
Creep, khazldan. 
Crescent, hilffl. 
Crier, jarclit. 


Crime Deduct. 

Crime, jannyeh. 

Criminal, gunalikar, mufsid. 

Crimson, qirmizi. - 

Cripple, shal, cliulaq. 

Crooked, kaj, a'vaj. 

Crop (of field), h&sil, mahsul: 

(of bird), haiisaleh. 
Cross, sdlib. 
Crow, kalagh. 
Crow (to), bang zadan. 
Crowd, anbnh, izdiham, guruh. 
Crown, taj: (of head), farq. 
Crucify (to), maslub s:, salib k: 
Cruel, zalim, bi-rahm, sakht-dil. 
Cruelty, zulm, bi-rahmi, sakht- 


Crumb, khurdeh, rizeh. 
Crush (to), khvurd (narm) : 
Cry, bung, faryad; ghariv. 
Cry (to, aloud), bang zadan, far- 
yad bar a cardan: (weep), gir- 

yeh k: giristan. 
Crystal, bulur. 
Cucumber, kldyar. 
Cultivate, zira'at k: 
Cultivated, ma'mur, abad. 
Cultivation, zira l at, falahat. 
Culture, tarbiyyat. 
Cup, piyaleh, finjan. 
Cupboard, ganjeh, dulabcheh. 
Cure, sliifa, 'ilaj, mu'alajeh. 
Cure (to), mu'alajeh n:, sldfak: 
Curl, ffisy, zulf. 
Currants, kishmish. 
Current (adj.), jari ; rnij, mu- 

ravvaj: (noun), sail. 
Curse, la'nat. 

Curse (to), la'nat Tc:, la'n k: 
Cursed, mal'un, la'tn. 
Curtain, pardeh, hijnb. 
Cushion, balisli, baUn. 
Custom, rasm (Ar. pi. rusilni), 

'adat: (tax), baj, gumruk. 
Customhouse, gtimruh-khaneh. 
Cut (to), tarftsMdan, buridan, 

qat' k: 
Cypress, sarv i azad. 

Dagger, kJianJar. 

Daily, harruzeh, rtlzmefi; riiz bi- 

Damage, ziyan, zarar, nuqsan. 

Damage (to), zarar rasftnidan. 

Damp, tar. 

Damsel, dukhtar. 

Dance, raqs. 

Dance, raqs k:, raqsidan. 

Danger, ktiatar. 

Dangerous, khatarnak, pur-kha- 


Dare (to), zahreh k:, jur'at k: 
Dark, tiirik, tirdi, muzlim. 
Darkness, tttriki, tiragi, zulmat. 
Darling, jan, l aziz, mahbub. 
Date, tarikh: (fruit), khurma. 
Dated, mu'arrakh. 
Daughter, dukhtar. 
Dawn, saptdeh-yi subh. 
Day, rnz, yaum (Ar. pi. ayyam). 
Daybreak, fajr. 
Dazzle, khlreh k: 
Deacon, sJiammas. 
Dead, murddi. 
Deadly, mulilik. 
Deaf, kar: (he is deaf, gush i 

u sangin asf). 
Dear (price), giran: (valuable) 

giran-baha: (beloved), 'az'iz. 
Dearness, girant. 
Death, maut, marg. 
Debt, qarz. 
Debtor, bidih-kur, qarzdar, ma- 


Decay, fana. 
Decay (to), kastan (kah\ kahidan; 

Deceit, fartb, makr, gltadr, dagha, 

ytil (vulg.). 
Deceitful, faribandeh, makkar, 

Deceive (to), farlfian (farib), gTd 

zadan (vulg.) 
Decide (to), tasmim (musam- 

mam) k: 
Declare (to), i'l&m n:, isbat k: } 

bar an budan. 
Decorate (to), arasteh n : ,muzay- 

yan k :, einat d : 
Decoration, zinat, arayisli: nishnn 


Decree, farman, fates'. 
Decree (to), farman d: fatca' d: 
Dedicate (to), taqdts n: 
Deduct (to), A;at k: 

Deed Devour. 


Deed, kar, 'amal (Ar. pi. a'mal) ; 

(written), dastaviz, qabakh. 
Deem, danistan, pandashtan, in- 

gashtan (-gar). 
Deep, 'amiq. 
Deer, aliu. 
Defeat, shikast. 
Defeat (to), shikast dadan. 
Defence, hifazat, hifz, panah, 

Defend (to), hifz k:, rnahfuz k: 

(-dashtan), hifazat n. 
Defendant, mudda l a' 'dlaih. 
Defer (to), ta'itq andakhtan, 

ta'khlr k : 

Defile, tang-rah, gardan. 
Defile (to), aludeli s:, najis k: 

napak n: 

Defraud (to), fariftan, farib d: 
Degree, darajeh, martabeh. 
Delay, tavaqquf, dirang, dafcu'l- 

Delay (to), (trans.), ta'vtq an- 

dakhtan, ta'khir k: (intr.), 'aqab 

uftadan, dir amadan. 
Delicious, laziz,, purlazzat. 
Delight, lazzat; surTir, khvushi, 

Deliver (to, up), taslim k; (save), 

rihanidan, riltai dadan, najfit 


Deliverance, rihtd, najcit. 
Deluge, tufan. 
Demand, talab, iddi'a, iqtiza. 
Demand (to), talab n:, iddi'a, k: 
Demon, div, jinn, shaitcln (Ar. 

pi. shayatin}; gliul. 
Den, ghar, maghareh. 
Denial, inkar. 
Dense, ka* : if. 
Dentist, dandan-snz. 
Deny (to), inkar k : . 
Depart (to), ravaneh slnidan. 
Departure (death), rihlat. 
Depose (to), ma'zul k: (give evi- 
dence), shahadat dadan. 
Deposit, amanat. 
Deposit (to), amanat k:, sipur- 

dan (sipar). 
Depraved, fasid, kharab, bad- 

akhlaq. [dan. 

Deprive (to), mahrum gardani- 

Depth, 'umq: tah (bottom of 


Deputy, nrdb, qaim-maqam. 
Derision, istihza, maskhareh, ta- 

Descend (to), pain amadan, fa- 

rnd amadan, faru raftan, na- 

zil shudan. 
Descendants, nasl, aulad (Ar. 

pi. of valad}. 

Descent (origin), nizad, nasab. 
Describe (to), bayan, k: tausifn: 
Description, bayan, tausif. 
Desert, biyaban, dasht, sahra. 
Desert (to), va guz ashtan, iark k: 
Deserve (to), laiq i (an)budan, 

mustahaqq bTidan (of a good 

thing): mustaujib budan (of 


Deserving, laiq, sazftciir, mus- 
tahaqq: mustaujib; qubil. 
Design, irttdeh, maqsud, mwTul, 

Desire, ftrzll, Khvcihish, mail, righ- 

Desire (to), khyilstan (khrfih , 

mushttlq budan. 
Desirous, mushtaq, arzuniand, 


Desist (to), buz istadan (az). 
Despair, na-umidi, ya's. 
Despair (to), nil-umid shudan, 

ma'yus sh: 

Despatch (letter), navislittli. 
Despatch (to), firistadan, irsflln: 
Despise (to), haqir shamurdan, 

tahqir n: 

Despotic, bi'l istiqlal. 
Destiny, qadar, qaza, qismat, 

Destroy (to), nisi va niilndl /::, 

ma'dum sakhtan, murihadim s: 

kharab k: 

Destruction, lialakat. 
Detain (to), baz dashtan. 
Detest (to), kirahat dasfiian az, 

nifrat k: 

Detestable, makrtih, karih. 
Detriment, zarar, ziyfin, t/.s<7. 
Devil, shaitnn (Ar. Pl.s/ayff//), 

Devour (to), khi-urdan, baMcMft. 


Devout Do. 

Devout, muttaqi, dindtir. 

Dew, shabnam. 

Dialogue, guftugn, mukalameh. 

Diameter, qutr. 

Diamond, almas. 

Diary, ruznnmeh, (safarna- 


Dictionary, lughat. 
Die (to), murdan (mir), faut sh :, 

vafat yaftan. 

Difference, tafavut, farq: ikhtilaf. 
Different, mutafarriq, mukhtalif, 
Difficult, mushkil, dushvar, sakht, 

sa'b. [su^Tibat. 

Difficulty, ishknl, duslivnri, sakhti, 
Dig (to), kandan, kavidan. 
Digest (to), hazm, Tc:, tahlU k:. 
Digestion, hazm, tahHl. 
Dignity, 'izzat, sha'n, jah, sar- 

afrazi; mansab. 
Diligence, diqqat, tavajjuh, ihti- 

mam, sargarmi. 
Diligent, mutavajjih, ba-diqqat, 

Diminish (trans.) (to), Team kar- 

dan: (intr.), kaMdan (kasta-ri), 

kam shudan. 

Dine (to), sham khyurdan. 
Dining-roorn, sufreh-khaneh. 
Dinner, slittm. 
Diploma, ijazeh-nttmeh. 
Direction, taraf, sit, sarnt, jamb: 

(guidance), rtthnamcii, rahbari: 

(religious), liidttyat: (on letter), 

Directly, al'an, ilhal, fauran, 


Director, mudaHbir, ra'is: (spi- 
ritual), murshid. 
Dirt, chirk, lajan, kasafat. 
Dirty, chirkin, chirk, kasif. 
Disagreeable, nfi-pasand, nu-maq- 

Disappear (to), ghaib sh:, na- 

padid gardidan. 
Disappoint (to), mahrvm s: 
Disappointment, mahrumiyyat. 
Discernment, tamyiz, fatcinat, ba- 

Discharge (to), ikhraj n :, ma'zill 

k: (a duty), adn k:, vafa k: 

(a gun), khnli k:. 

Disciple, shugird, murid, talmiz 

(pi. Ar. talamiz). 
Discipline, nizam, intiz&m. 
Discord, ikhtilaf, shiqflq, fitneh. 
Discover (to), daryaft k:, pai- 

da k:. 
Disease, maraz (Ar. PI. am- 

raz\ Mmari, nnkhvushi. 
Diseased, mariz, nakhvush. 
Disgrace, ritsvat, H-hurmaU, bad- 

Disgrace (to), rusva k: bi-hur- 

mat s: 

Disgust, nifrat, karnhat, bizari. 
Disgust (to), bizar s:. 
Disgusting, nifrat-angiz, makruh. 
Dish, zarf (Ar. pi. zurwf), tabaq, 


Dismiss (to), ma'zill k:. 
Dismount (to), furud Htmadan, 

pain amadan. 
Disobedience, na-farmttni, 'innd, 

Disobedient, nafarmanburdiir, 


Disperse (to), parakandeh s:. 
Displeased, azurddi, ranjideh. 
Dispute, nizci', mubahiseh, bahs. 
Dispute (to), niza' k:, bahs k: 
Dissemble (to), riycikari k:, rang 


Distance, masafat, fasikh; dilri. 
Distant, dur, ba'id. 
Distinctly, ashkara, vazihan, za- 

Distinguish (to), imtiyaz (tamiz, 

tamyiz) dadan ; tashkMs dadan. 
Distinguished, mumtaz. 
Distress, diltangt, gham. 
Distribute (to), taqsim (qismat)k: 
District, nahiyeh, buluk. 
Disturb (to), ashltftan (asltfib), 

maghshush s: 

Disturbance, h-arj o marj, slmlulc. 
Disturbed, ashufteh: mukaddar. 
Ditch, khandaq. 
Ditto, aizan. 

Dive (to), glmteh khvurdan. 
Divide (to), taqslm k:, n: 
Divine, ilcihi. 
Divorce, talaq. 
Do (to), kardan (kuri). 

Doctor Elegant. 

Doctor (physician), tablb, hakim 

(Ar. pis. atibba and hukama}. 
Doctrine, ta'lim (Ar. pi. ta'alim, 

Dog, sag. 

Dogma, 'aqideh (Ar. pi. 'aqaid). 
DolJ, 'arusak. 
Dome, gurbaz, gurbad. 
Donkey, khar, ulagh. 
Door, dar. 

Double, muza'af, do mitqabil. 
Doubt, shakk (Ar. pi. shukuk), 

Dough, khamir. 
Dove, kabutar, qumri. 
Down, pain, furu(d), zir. 
Dragoman, tarjuman, mutarjim. 
Dragon, azdalici, azdarlia. 
Draper, bazzaz. 
Draught, jur'eli. 
Draw (to), kashidan. 
Drawer (of table), khflneh-y-i 


Drawers, shahflr, z'ir-jfimeh. 
Drawing, tasitr. 
Drawing-room, utfiq i did va 


Dread, tars, khauf. 
Dreadful, haulnak, hail, muMb. 
Dream, khvab, ru'ya. 
Dream (to), khvtzb (ru'yfl) didan. 
Dress, rakht, lil>as, pushak. 
Dress (to), pusMdan. 
Drill, mashq i sarbllz. 
Drill (to), mashq kardan. 
Drink (to), khyurdan, ashanridan, 


Drip (to), diikidan (chakidati). 
Drive (to), randan. 
Drop, qatreh. 
Dropsy, istisqfl. 
Dross, durd, filiz. 
Drown, gharq n: 
Drug, dava. 
Drum, tabl. 
Drunk, mast. 
Drunkard, sharffb-khvur. 
Drunkenness, masti. 
Dry, kliushk. 
Dry (to), (intr.) khushkidan: 

(trans.) khushkfintdan. 
Duck, Urdak. 

Dumb, gung, lal. 

Dung, pahin, zibl. 

During, mfi dami kih. 

Dust, gard, ghubttr. 

Duty, takttf. 

Dwell, mttndan, sakin budan, &t- 

sar burdan, nishastan. 
Dye, rang. 

Dye (to), rang zadan. 
Dynasty, silsileh. 

Each, liar yak, har yaki. 
Eagle, 'uqtib, nasr, qareh qush. 
Ear, gush: (of corn), khusheh. 
Early, zud, subh i zild. 
Earring, gushvfireh. 
Earth, zamin: kliak. 
Earthly, zamtni, dunyavi, arzi. 
Earthquake, zilzileh, (zalzalsli). 
Ease, ftsttnt, sulitllat (repose) 

ttram, ttraish, ruhat. 
Easily, bi-asani. 
East, mashriq, sharq. 
Easter, 'id i Fash. 
Eastern, mashriqi, sharqi. 
Easy, nsan, sahl. 
Eat (to), khvurdan, tanavul far- 


Echo, sarla-y-i ktilt. 
Eclipse (of sun), inkisaf: (of 

moon) inkhisttf. 

Economical, kam-kharj, sarfeh-jn. 
Ecstasy, vajd. 
Edge (of sword), dam : (of lake) 

lab, kinareh. 
Edifice, 'imnrat. 
Edify (to), ma'mur n: 
Editor, muhtamim. 
Educate (to), tarbiyyat k: 
Education, tarbiyyat. 
Efface (to), malio k: 
Effect, a*ar, ta'tfr. 
Effort, kushish, sa'i, jidd r jahd. 
Egg, tukhm (i murgh}. 
Egoism, kJwud-parasti. 
Either or, khrflh va khrah, 


Elbow, mirfaq (Ar. pi. marnfiq). 
Elders, mashaikh (pi. of shaikh >. 
Elect (to), barguzidan, intikhnb n: 
Electricity, barqiyyat, alaktrhiteh. 
Elegant, naeuk, qashang. 


Elements Esteem. 

Elements, i unsur (Ar. pi. 'anft- 

sir, 'anasir.}. 
Elementary, ibtidtri. 
Elephant, fil. 
Elevate, afrokhtan, afrrtslitan, 

buland k: 

Elevation, bulandi, rif'at. 
Eloquence, fasfihat, balngliat. 
Eloquent, fasih (Ar. pi. fusaha}, 

baligli (bulagha). 
Embark, dar (bar} kashti nislias- 


Embassy, sifarat. 
Embers, cikligar. 
Embrace, baghal giriftan, dar a- 

ghusli kashidan. 
Emerald, zumurrud. 
Eminent, mashhiir (pi. Ar. ma- 


Emperor, imparfitur, Qaisar. 
Empress, imparatrts. 
Emphasis, ta'kid. 
Empire, saltanat. 
Empty, khali, tuM. 
Empty (to), khali k : 
Employment, kfirobar, sliughl, 

'amal (pi. Ar. a'mal). 
Enamel, mina. 
Enamoured, bi-'ishy (muhabbaf) 

Encamp (to), khaimeh (chadur, 

urdii) zadan. 

Enchanter, jttdugar, sahir. 
Enchanting (charming), dil-attz, 


Enchantment, jadugari, sihr. 
Enclose (to), ihateh k: (in letter), 

malfuf n: laffan firistadan. 
Enclosure, hayat, ihateh : (in 

letter), malfrtf. 
End, so? 1 , akhir (Ar. pi. avfikhir], 

anjatn, intHitf, nilmyat. 
End (to), anjamidan (intr.) : bi- 

anjam rasantdan (trans.). 
Endeavour, kifshislt, sa'i, jidd va 

jahd, ijtihad. 
Endeavour (to), kushtdan, kushish 

(sa'i etc.) k : 
Endless, bi-payan, M-intHia, bi- 


Endurance, taqat, tahammul. 
Endure (to), tahammul n : 

Enemy, dusliman, khasm (Ar. pi. 

khusum, khusman). 
Engaged, mashghul. 
Engagement, masltgliuliyyat, isl 

tighal; giriftflri. 
Engine, masliin. 
Engineer, muhandis. 
English, ingUsi. 
Enigma, mu'amma. 
Enjoy (to), tamattu' bur dan (az). 
Enjoyment, tamattu', tafarruj. 
Enlarge, vus'at dadan. 
Enlist (troops), (to\jam'nvari n : 
Enmitjr, dmhmani, 'adttoat, mu- 


Enough, bos, kaft 
Enquire (to), pursidan, taftisli 

(tafahhus) n : 
Enquiry, su'al, pursisli, taftish, 


Enraged, khashmnak, ghazabnak. 
Enter (to), dar umadan, dakltil 


Entire, kamil, tamam, tamm. 
Entirely, tamaman, kulliyyatan. 
Entreat (to), iltimas k: (nazdi): 

istid'a n: (az). 
Entiy, dukhul. 
Envelope, pakat, lifafeh. 
Envious, hasud, rashkin. 
Environs, navnlri (pi. of nahiyyety 

atrnf (pi. of. taraf). 
Envy, hasad, rashk. 
Equal, barabar, mustn't. 
Erect (to), barpnk:, afraslitan 

bann n: 

Err (to), ishtibflh k : : gumrali sh 
Error, ishtibah, sahv : ghdlat. 
Escape, rastagari, rihai, najat. 
Escape (to), rihai yaftan, rasta 

gar shudan. 
Especially, kliusTtsan, makhsusan 
Essence, jauliar; 'ain; zat: 'araq 
Establish (to), sabit k:, i*bat n: 

bar qarar n: (a school) jar 

sakJttan, ijra n: 
Established, miiqarrar, bar qarar 

payadar, mu'ayyan. 
Estate, nisab. 
Esteem (to), muhtaram dashtan, 

mukarram dashtan; (deem), sha- 

murdan, danistan, inga'shtan. 

Et caetera Extremely. 


Et caetera (etc.), va ghaireh, 

Eternal, sarmadi, samadi, jaci- 

dam, jarid: (without begin- 
ning), azati; (without end) 


Eternally, ta abadu'labad. 
Eternity (without beginning), 

azal, azaliyyat; (without end) 

abad, abadiyyat, baqa, khuld. 
Ethics, aklilaq. 
Etiquette, takallufat, adab, mu- 

darat, nishast va barkhast. 
Etymology, islitiqaq. 
Eucharist, 'Ash<i-yi Eabbani. 
Eunuch, khyajeh (-yi sura], agha. 
Europe, Farangistan , Urup, 


European, Farangi. 
Evangelical, injitt. 
Evangelist, Injil-navis. 
Even, barabar : (conj.) ham. 
Evening, sham. 
Event, vaqi'eh (Ar. pi. vaqai'), 

hadiseh (Ar. pi. havadi*}, m<l- 

Ever, liargiz; (always), hamisheh, 

harvaqt, hamvareh (auqat) ; (for 

ever) ta bi-dbad (u'labad). 
Everlasting, jamd, javidum, aba- 

di, sarmacK. 

Every, har, har yak, Jiar kudttm. 
Everywhere, har ja, hameh ju. 
Evidence, slialiadat, gavclM. 
Evident, etthir, aslikar, padid. 
Evidently, zclhiran, ashkara. 
Evil (adj.), bad, bad-akhlaq, klia- 

rab: (noun), badi, kharfibi : bdlil. 
Ewer, aftttbeh. 

Exaggerate (to), mub&lagheh k: . 
Exaggeration, mubulaglieh. 
Exalt (to), i'ld n : , afrakhtan ; 

sarafras n: 

Exaltation, Ma, sar-afrazi. 
Examination, taftish, tafahhus: 

(of candidates), imtihan: (to 

pass an ) dar imtihan pasand 

Examine (to), taftish (tafahhus) 

k: imtihan kardan. 
Example, masal (Ar. pi. amsal) : 


Exceedingly, bi-nihayat, bi- 

nihayat, bi-glitiyat. 
Excel, sibqat burdan (bar). 
Excellence, fazilat. 
Excellency, janub i 'aU. 
Excellent, afzal, a'la', ahsan. 
Except, magar, juz, gliair az. 
Exception, istisnn. 
Exchange, badal, 'avaz: (money) 

Exchange (to), 'avaz k:, muln- 

daleh n: 
Excite (to), bar angikhtan, tah- 

rik n: 

Excitement, harj o marj. 
Excuse, 'uqr, i'tizar; ma'zirat. 
Excused, ma'zurl 
Executioner, 'jallad, nrir-ghazab. 
Exercise, mashq. 
Exile, naft-yi balad. 
Existence, hasti, mijud. 
Existent, maujud. 
Expect (to), intizar kasMdan, 

muntazir (mutarassid) bndan, 

tavaqqu' dashtan. 
Expectation, tavaqqu', intt'zifr. 
Expel, birun k:, ikhrajn: rrmdan. 
Expend (to), kharj k:, sarf n: 
Expense, kharj, makharij. 
Experience, tajribeh, khibrat. 
Experienced, kffr-nzmiJdeh, ktlr- 

dideh, amfikhteh, pukhteh. 
Expiation, kaffareh. 
Explain (to), bayan, k:, shark n: 
Explanation, bayan, tafsil, sharh: 

(of a dream) ta'bir. 
Explicit, mubin. 
Export (to), bi-khnrij burdan 

Exposition, izhttr. 
Expressly, mdklisilsan, khusTJftan. 


Expulsion, ikhrtfj. 
Extend, daraz k: ; vus'at dddan. 
Extent, vus'at; andazeh. 
Exterior, kharij, birflnt. 
Exterminate, istisffl k : az bikh 

bar kandan. 
Extinguish, nishandan, itfn dil- 

dan, khaniiish k: (kushtan). 
Extraordinary, fauqu'Vadat. 
Extremely, bt-nihayat, bi-ghayat. 


Eye Filth. 

Eye, chashm: (of needle) surakh. 
Eyebrow, abrii. 
Eyelash, muzeh, muzgnn. 
Eyelid, pilk. 

Fable, qisseli, afsdneh, hikftyat. 
Face, ruy, chihreh, surat. 
Facing, muqabil, ru bi-ru-yi. 
Fact, haqtqat: (in fact), fi'lha- 


Factory, karkhnneh. 
Fade (to), pazmurdan* 
Faint, kamzur, za'if. 
Faint (to), ghash k:, bt-hush 

Fairy, part. 
Faith, tman: (religion) mazjiab, 

dtn (pi, Ar.adyari): (fidelity), 

vaf&, sadnqat. 

Faithful, vaffidar, ba-vafa, amin. 
Faithless, bi-vafa, namak-haram. 
Falcon, baz, gush: shahin. 
Fall, sue/tit. [dan. 

Fall (to), uftadan, zanrin khvur- 
False, durugh, kazib (Ar. pi. ka- 

qabeli); (coin), qalb, qallaM, 


Falsehood, durugh, durughi, kizb, 
Fame, avazeli, shuhrat. 
Family, 'iyal, klianvadeh, khana- 

drm; aulad (pi. of vcdad) atfal 

(pi. of tifl), 'iyal va atfttl. 
Famine, qalit, qahti, girrmi. 
Famous, mashhrir (pi. mashaMr}, 


Fan, bad bi-zan. 
Fanatical, muta'assib. 
Fanaticism, ta'assub, 'asabiyyeli. 
Fancy, gamttn, vahm (pi. auhttni), 

tavahhum, khiyal. 
Fancy (to), gaman burdcin (kar- 

dnri), khiyal k: 
Far, dur, ba'id. 
Farewell, vidrt', khuda-hfifzt. 
Farrier, na'l-band. 
Farsighted , dur-bin, pish-bin, 

Fashion, (custom), 'adat, rasm 

(pi. Ar. rusuni). 
Fast, tund-rau, zud: (firm) muh- 

kam: (noun), ruzeh, mum. 
Fast (to), ruzeh giriftan. 

Fat, farbih: (noun) pih. 

Fatal, muhlik. 

Fate, qadr, qaza, qismat. 

Father, pidar, valid. 

Fatigue, kltastagi. 

Fault, 'aib (Ar. pi. e uyub) qusur, 

naqs, taqstr. 
Favour, lutf, tarafgiri. 
Favorite, marghub. 
Fear, tars, khauf, bini, bak, vah- 

shat, haibat. 
Feast, ziyafat, bazm, mihmlini: 

(festival), 'id ('aid}. 
Feather, par. 
February, shabat, farvari. 
Feeble, za'if, kam-zur. 
Feed (to), khvuranidan, char ant- 
dan: (intr., to graze), charidan. 
Feel (to), ihs&s kardan. 
Feeling, hiss (Ar. pi. ahsas). 
Felt (cloth), namad. 
Female, madeh. 
Feminine, mu'annas. 
Ferocious, vahsht, darandeh. 
Ferry, guzar-gah. 
Fertile, burumand, barvar. 
Fertility, burumandi. 
Festival, l id ('aid). 
Fetlock, pay. 
Fetters, pa-band, kundeh. 
Fever, tab. 

Few, kam, andak, qalil. 
Fidelity, vafa, vafadari. 
Field, mazra'eh (Ar. pi. mazari'}, 

kishtzar, milk, (Ar. pi. amlak] : 

(of battle), ma'rakeh, maidan: 


Fierce, tund: darandeh. 
Fiery, atashin. 
Fig, anjir. 
Fight, niza', munaza'eh: jang, 

Fight (to), niza' k:jang k:, jang- 


Figurative, majazi. 
Figure, 'adad, raqam (Ar. pis. 

a'dad, arqam) : shikl, siirat, 

File, suhnn. 

Fill (to), pur k: mamluvv s: 
Filth, kasafat, chirk, najasat, 

/(yaw, napaki. 

Filthy Forthwith. 


Filthy, kasif, chirk, chirkin, najis, 


Finally, akhiru'lamr, alqisseh. 
Find (to), yaftan, darydft k:, 

paida k:. 
Fine, nazuk, b&rik: (noun), jur- 


Finger, angusht. 
Finish (to), anjttm&nldan, bi-an- 

jam rasamdan, tamam k: bi-it- 

mam rasnnidan. 
Fire, atash. 

Fireplace, ujaq, bukh&ri. 
Firewood, Mzum, Mmeh. 
Fireworks, atashbazi. 
Firm (noun), sharakat, (adj.), 

ustuvar, muhkam. 
First, awal, nakhust. 
First-born, nakhust-zttdeh. 
Firstfruits, naubar. 
Fish, miflii. 

Fish (to), said i malii k: 
Fisherman, mahiyir. 
Fist, musht. 

Fit, munasib, shttyisteh, sazavar. 
Fit (to), farakhyur (munasib) bu- 


Fix (to), sabt k:,nasb k:, ta'yin n: 
Fixed, mu'ayyan. 
Flag, bairUq, 'alam, ra'yat, liva. 
Flame, zabnneh, shu'leh. 
Flat, musnvi, barnbar, hamvar. 
Flattery, tamalluq-gm, chaplusi. 
Flatterer, clitiplus, tamalluq-gHy. 
Flavour, mazeh, zauq. 
Flay (to), pust kandan. 
Flea, kahk. 

Fleece, pashm. 
Fleeting, fnni, na-pnyadnr. 
Flesh, gilsht. 
Flight, firar. 
Fling (to), andakhtan (andaz), 


Flint, sang i chaqmaq. 
Flock, rameh, galleh. 
Flog (to), taziyffneh zadan. 
Flood, til fan: sailub; sail. 
Flour, ard. 

Flourish, kam randan. 
Flow (to), jari shudan. 
Flower, gul 

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 

Flower-pot, guldan. 

Flute, nai. 

Fly, magas. 

Fly (to), paridan, parvuz k: 

Foal, kurreh. 

Foam, kaf. 

Fodder, l alif. 

Fog, mih. 

Fold (for cattle), aghil, hazireh. 

Fold (to), tah k: 

Follow (to), pairavi k: mutaba- 

'at n: 'aqab uftndan. 
Follower, mutabi 1 . 
Folly, himaqat, ablahi. 
Food, ghizff, khvurak, gut, ta'am. 
Fool, ahmaq, ableh, 
Foot, pay. 
Footstep, qadam (Ar. pi. aqdam) ; 

(mark) asar (Ar. pi. Gsar). 
Footstool, pay-andaz. 
For, barayi, az bahri, bi-jihat i: 

In-khatir i. 

Forbid (to), man' k: qadaghank: 
Force (to), majbur s:, ijbar n: 
Ford, guzargah, ma'bar. 
Forehead, pishani, jabtn. 
Foreign, gharib (Ar. pi. ghurabri), 

bigtineh, ajndbi: khttrijt : (for- 

eign affairs) umUr i khfiryeh. 
Foreigner, gharib, ajndbi. 
Forerunner, pislirau. 
Foresight, basnrat, ptsh-bini. 
Forest, jangal. 
Forgery, ja'l, sskhtag'i. 
Forget (to), fartlmiish k: 
Forgetfulness, faramusM,nisyan. 
Forgive, 'afv k :, bakhsMdan : (of 

God) amurzidan. 
Forgiveness, (Divine), amureish, 

Fork, changttl. 

Form, shikl, sJlrat, hafat; haikal. 
Former, pishin, snbiq. 
Formerly, sabiq bar in, pishtar, 

pish az in. 

Formidable, muhib, haulnalc. 
Fornication, zina, zinakari. 
Forsake, tark k: 
Fort, qal'eh (pi. qal'ajitt, 


Forth, birun. 
Forthwith, /auran, fi'lfaur. 



Fortify Gather. 

Fortify (to), mustahkam n: mah- 

sun s: 

Fortunate, nik-bakht, kamran. 
Fortune (fate), bakht, nasib: 

(wealth), daulat. 
Foul, napak, najis ; fasid, shani 1 , 

Found (to), ta'sis n: asas niha- 


Foundation, bunyad, asas. 
Fountain, chashmeli,, ma,nba' ,yan- 

bu' (Ar. pi. yanabi'}. 
Fowl, murgh. 
Fox, rubah. 
Fragment, pttreh, rizeh, tikJceh 


Frame, chahar-chubeh. 
Fraternal (ly). baradaraneh. 
Fraud, farib, makr, dagha. 
Free, azad. 
Free (to), azad s:, riha k:, vil k: 


Freedom, azadi. 
Freemason, faramushi. 
Freeze (to), (intr.) yakh shudan 

(trans.) yakh bastan. 
Freight, bar, haml. 
French, FrUnseh-i. 
Frenzy junun, divanagi. 
Frequently, barha, aksar i auqat. 
Fresh, tazeh. 
Friday, (ruzi i} jum'-eh. 
Friend, dust, yar, mukhlis. 
Friendless, bi-kas. 
Friendly, dustaneh. 
Friendship, dusti. 
Fright, khauf, haul, haibat. 
Frighten (to), tarsanidan. 
Frightful, haulnak, haibat-angiz, 


Frock, fistan. 
Frog, qurbagheh, vazak. 
From, az. 

Front, pish, ru bi-ru-yi, jilau. 
Frontiers, hudud (Ar. pi. of 

hadd), sarhadd. 
Frost, sarma: (hoar-frost), sar- 

Froth, kaf. 
Frown (to), ruy bar-ham kashi- 

dan, chin bi-ja-bin zadan. 
Frugal, khaneh-dar, kam-kharj. 

Fruit, miveh; fakiheh (Ar. pi. 

favalcili): (firstfruits) naubar. 
Fruiterer (greengrocer) baqqnl. 
Fruitful, barvar, burumand. 
Fruitless, bi-samar. 
Fry (to), biryan kardan. 
Fuel, Mzum, himeh. 
Fulfil (to), ada k:, vafa n: 
Full, pur, mamluvv: (brimfull), 


Fuller, gazur. 
Fully, tamaman. 
Fun, bazi, tafarruj: shwkht. 
Fundamental, astt. 
Funeral, janazeh. 
Funny, muzhik. 
Fur, kurk. 
Furlough, ruklisat, murakhkhasi. 
Furnace, kureh, tanur. 
Furniture, asbab, mubl (= meu- 


Fury, ghaiz, qahr. 
Fuse (to), gudakhtan (gudaz). 
Fusilier, tufang-cM. 
Futile, 'abas, M-faideh. 
Future, mustaqbil, ayandeh, atiy- 


Gain, manfa'at (Ar. pi. manafi'}, 
naf, sud: faideh. 

Gain (to), manfa'at etc. yaftan, 
naf k: 

Gall, zahreli. 

Gallant, dittr, shuja'. 

Gallop (to), davtdan: (trans.) 
davanidan, takhtan. 

Gallows, dar. 

Gamhle (to), gumar-bazi k : bakh- 

Gambling, qumUr-bazi. 

Game (sport), bazi: (prey), shi- 
kar, said, 

Gaol, zindan, hobs. 

Gap, shikaf. 

Garden, bagh, bagcheh. 

Gardener baghban. 

Garlic, sir. 

Garment, jameh, pushak, libas. 

Garnet, la'l. 

Gate, darb, dar, darvazeh. 

Gather (to), cludan (chin), jam' 

Gazelle Gourd. 


Gazelle, aim, ghazal. 

Gazette, ruznameh. 

Gelding, akhteh. 

Gem, jauhar, javahir (Ar. pi. of 
pi. javahirat). 

General (noun), sardar, sipeh- 
salttr: (adj.) 'Emm, 'umunti, 

Generation, pusht, tabaqeh, nasl. 

Generosity, jud, sakh&vat. 

Generous, sakM, ba-sakhaoat, et- 

Genius, firasat, zilin, zakavat. 

Gentiles, ummathtt. 

Gentle, mulaim, halim. 

Gentleman, najib (Ar. pi. nu- 

Gentleness, mulaimat, hilm. 

Gently, yavash, ahisteh. 

Genuine, saMh. 

Genuineness, sihhat. 

Genus, jins (Ar. pi. ajntts), 

Geography, takhtit i bilad, 'Urn i 

Geometrician muhandis. 

Geometry, 'Urn i handaseh. 

Get (to), yaftan (yab\ hasil It:, 
tahsil n:, bi-ham rasamdan. 

Ghost (apparition), khiyal: (the 
Holy Ghost) Btlhu 'I Qudus. 

Giddy, gij, sar-gardun. 

Gift (superior to inferior), bakh- 
shish, irinm, 'ata, 'atiyyeh (Ar. 
pi. atsyu): (inferior to su- 
perior), plshkash, nazr, hadvyeh 
(Ar. pi. hadayti) : (from an 
equal), ta'aruf: (brought back 
from a journey) saiighttt. 

Gilt, mutattn. 

Gimlet, barmeh. 

Ginger, zanjabU. 

Girdle, kamarband. 

Girl, dukhtar, sabiyyeli. 

Girth (of saddle), tang. 

Give (to), dadan (rft'/t), bakhsludan, 
'attlk:, 'in&yat k: annm dttsh- 

Giver, dihandeh, bukhshandeh. 

Glad, shad, shndman, masrur, 

Gladness, shndi, shftdmtini, ma- 

Glance, nigfth, nazar, lahzeh. 

Glance (to), nigaristan, nigah k:, 
nazar andakhtan (at, bar). 

Glass, shisheh: (tumbler) isttktln. 

Glean (to), khusJieh cMdan. 

Gleaner, khuslieh-chm. 

Glen, darreh, vadi. 

Glitter, darakhsh, tabish. 

Glitter (to), durukhshidan (da- 

Globe, jirm, kurreh: (lamp) habab. 

Gloom, zulmat, tiragi. 

Gloomy, muzlim, tireh. 

Glorify (to), tamjid n: 

Glorious, majid, jalil, zu'l jaliil. 

Glory, jalal. 

Glossary, lughat. 

Glove, dastkash. 

Glow (to), tabidan. 

Glow, tabish. 

Glue, sirish, sirishum. 

Glutton, shikam - parast, pur- 

Gluttony, shikam-parasti. 

Gnash (to), dandfln fishurdan. 

Gnashing, fishar i dandan. 

Gnat pasheh. 

Go (to), raftan(rav); tashrlf bur- 

Goal, manzil i mau'ud. 

Goat, buz. 

God, Khuda; izad. 

Godhead, uluhiyyat. 

Godliness, Klmdti-parasti, din- 
dart, taqva'. 

Godly, Khuda-parast : Khudti- 

Gold, tain, zar. 

Golden, talai, zarin. 

Goldsmith, zargar. 

Good, khyub, nik, nikii, bih, 

Good bye, Kliuda-hnfiz, alvida*. 

Goodness, khyubi, niki, riiktti. 

Goodnight, shab bi-khair. 

Goods, mal (Ar. pi. arrival), as- 
bab, mata i , ajnas (Ar. pi. of 
jins), ma yamlik. 

Goose, qnz. 

Gospel, Injtt (Ar. pi. Anajil); 

Gourd, kadu. 



Govern Guttural. 

Govern (to), hukumat n:, hukm 
randan, hukmrani n:, farman- 
ravai k : . 
Government, hukumat; hukmr&ni, 

farmanravai, riyasat. 
Governer, h&kim (Ar. pi. huk- 
kttm), vaii, farman-farma; 
Grace, faiz, fazl; fazilat (Ar. 

pi. fazail), lutf, Tear am. 
Graceful, latif; nazuk. 
Gracious, kartm (Ar. pi. kirani). 
Gradually, bi-tadrtj, rafteh rafteh, 


Grain, daneh; ghatta. 
Grammar, sarf va nahv. 
Granary, anbar. 
Grand, 'azim, a'zam. 
Grandchild, nabireh, pisar- (or 
dukhtar-) zadeh, naveh (vulg.). 
Grandees, akabir (Ar. pi. of ak- 

Grandfather, jadd (Ar. pi. aj- 


Grandmother, jaddeh. 
Grand vizier, sadr i a'zam. 
Grant (to), baklisMdan, 'ata n: 
(farmudan) : (to be granted 
in argument), musallam 

Grape, angur. 
Grasp (to), qabz k:, panjeh girif- 

tan (gir). 

Grass, giyali; 'alif. 
Grateful, haqq-shinas. 
Gratis, muft, majjanan. 
Gratitude, haqq-shinfisi. 
Grave, qabr (Ar. pi. qubur}, gur : 
(adj.) muhimm: (sedate), ba- 
vaqar, ba-tamMn. 
Gravel, sang-rizeh. 
Gravity, vaqar, tamkin. 
Gravy, ab-gusht. 
Gray, khakistari. 
Graze, charidan: (trans.) chara- 


Grease, pih, charbi. 
Greasy, cliarb. 
Great, buzurg ; 'azim, kabir: 


Greatness, buzurgi, 'azamat: (Di- 
vine) kibriysi. 

Greed, tama', hirs. 

Greedy, haris, tama'kar. 

Green, sabz: (unripe) na-ras. 

Greengrocer, baqqal. 

Greet (to), tdhiyyeh k:, saltim k: 

Greyhound, sag i t&zi. 

Grief, gliwm, malalat, ta'assuf, 

Grieve (to), gham, Tchvurdan, 

gham-gin (dil-tang) shudan. 
Grievous, sakht, shadid. 
Grind (to), saidan, sabidan. 
Groan, ah, ah i sard. 
Groan (to), all kashidan. 
Groom, mihtar. 
Ground, zamin, khttk. 
Groundless, btxtil, bi-daltt, bi- 

Grow (to), rustan (ruy), ruidan, 

namuvv k: afzudan. 
Growl (to), ghurridan. 
Grumble (to), hamhameJi k: 
Grunt (to), mikh-mikh k: 
Guarantee (to), zamin budan. 
Guard, kashik, qaravul, pas: (sen- 
tinel), pasban, kashikcM. 
Guard (to), nigahbani n:, hifz 

k:, mahfuz dashtan. 
Guardian, vast; muhsfiz, hamt. 
Guess qiyas, hads, mazanneh. 
Guess (to), qiyas n:, hads k: 
Guest, mihman. 

Guidance (religious) , Mdayat: 
( or secular) rahbari, rah- 
Guide, rshbar, rahnama, balad: 

(religious), hadi. 
Guide (to), rahra nislian d:, rah- 

namai k:j hidayat n:. 
Guilt, gunali, janayeh, qusur. 
Guiltless, bi-gunali, M-qusur. 
Guitar, 'ud; tar: sitsr. 
Gulf, khaUj. 

Gulley, darreh, tang-rah. 
Gum, samagh: (of teeth), liseh, 

gusht-i dand&n. 
Gun , tufang : (cannon) tub, 

tup : 

Gunner, tupclii. 
Gunpowder, b&rut. 
Gutter, ab-riz. 
Guttural, halqi. 

Habit Heartless. 


Habit, 'adat, rasm (Ar. pi. 'a&at, 

rusum); (dress) libels. 
Habitation, maskan (Ar. pi. ma- 

sctkiri), manzil (Ar. pi. man&zil). 
Habitual, 'umumt, musta'mal. 
Hail, tagarg. 

Hail, muy ; (locks of), zulf, gisu. 
Half, WMW, nisf. 
Hall, aivan, talnr, dalan. 
Hallow (to), muqaddas s:, taq- 

dis n:. 
Halo, huleh. 
Halt (lame), lang: (delay), ta- 

Halt (to) (be lame), lang budan: 

(delay), lang k:, tavaqquf n:. 
Halting-place, manzil (Ar. pi. 


Hammer, chakush. 
Hand, dast. 
Handcuffs, dast-band. 
Handful, musht. 
Handicraft, sana'at. 
Handkerchief, dast-mal. 
Handle, dasteh, qabzeh. 
Handmaid, kamz, kanizak. 
Handmill, dast-as, asiycl. 
Handsome, qashang, klivubsurat. 
Handwriting, khatt, dastkhatt. 
Hang (to), avtkhtan (nmz): &vt- 


Hapless, nachar, M-chareh. 
Happen (to), imqi' s/t:, ittifaq 

Happiness, klivusM, khurrami, 

shadi, sliadmanl, surHr. 
Happy, kJivush va khurram, klivush 

-vaqt, shad, shadmttn. 
Harbour, bandar (Ar. pi. bana- 


Hard, sakht, sa'b: ditslivav. 
Harden (to), sakht k:. 
Hardhearted, sangdil, sakhtdil. 
Hardheartedness, sangditt, saklit- 


Hardly, ba-ishkal, btt-dushvari. 
Hardness, sakhti: dushvari. 
Hardship, musibat (Ar. pi. ma- 

saib\ mashaqqat. 
Hare, khargush. 
Harem, haram, andarun. 
Harm, zarar, ziy&n. 

Harmful, muzirr. 
Harmonious, ham-ahang, muva- 

fiq, ba-ittihad, muttahid. 
Harmony, tiliang; ittifaq, ittihad. 
Harness, yarUq. 
Harp, chang, barbat. 
Harsh, durtisht, sakht. 
Harshness, durushti, sakhti. 
Harvest, hasad, hclsil, dirau. 
Haste, zviM, ta'jU, 'ajaleh, sur'at, 

Hasten, shitaftan (shitab), ta l jil 


Hasty, dastpticheh, zud, tund. 
Hat, kulah. 
Hatchet, tabar. 
Hate (to), nifrat dashtan az, 

dushman dashtan. 
Hatred, bughz, kineh, 'adavat, 


Haughtiness, ghurur, takabbur. 
Haughty, maghrur, mutakabbir. 
Haul (to), kashidan. 
Have (to), dashtan (dnr). 
Haven, bandargah. 
Hawk, qttsh. 
Hay, l alif i khushk. 
Hazard, khatreh. 
He, t<, vai. 
Head, sar. 

Headache, dard i sar, suda', tasdi'. 
Heading, 'unvan. 
Headlong, sar-nigun, mutahavvir, 

Headman (chief of village), 

Headstall, afsar. 
Headstrong, sarkash. 
Heal (to), shifa dadan, diaq k: 

mu'alajeh n:. 

Health, sihhat, tandttrusti. 
Healthy, idndurust, sahih o sola- 
mat, chaq. 

Heap, tudeh, kuppeh (vulg.). 
Heap up (to), jam' kardan, farfi- 

ham avardan. 

Hear (to), shinidan (shinav). 
Hearken (to), yttsh dadan (girif- 

tan), isgha n:, istima' k:. 
Heart, ail, qalb (Ar. pi. qufab), 

Heartless, bt-dtt, bi-muruvvat. 


Heat Horse. 

Heat, garma, harcirat. 

Heat (to), garm s:. 

Heathens, butpafastan, 'ibad i 

Heaven, asman, sama (Ar. pi. 

samavat], falak (Ar. pi. aflak) : 

(Paradise), fardaus, jannat, 


Heavenly, asmani, samcivi, samai. 
Heaviness, sangini. 
Heavy, sangin, saqil. 
Hebrew, 'Ibram, 'Ibri. 
Hedge-hog, khar-pusht. 
Heel, pashneh, 'aqb. 
Height, bulandi, irtifa 1 , rifat. 
Heir, varis (Ar. pi. varaseh). 
Hell, duzakh, jahannam. 
Helm, sukkan. 
Helmet, khud. 
Help, madad, kumak, yari, i'&nat, 

Help (to), madad (kumak) etc. 


Helper, madadkar, mu l &rin. 
Hem, daman. 
Hsemorrhoids, bavastr. 
Hen, murgh, makiyan. 
Hence, as in ja : ba'd az in : ban 

bar in, liliaza. 
Henna, hinna. 

Her, u (vide Personal Pronouns). 
Herb, rustani, nabat (Ar. pi. 


Herd, galleh, rameli. 
Here, mja, dar inja. 
Hereafter, ba'd az in: dar akhirat. 
Heresy, bid'at. 
Heretic, bid'ati. 
Heritage, mira?, irs. 
Hermit, zuhid. 

Hermitage, zaviyeh, sauma'eli. 
Hero, mard i dittr, dilavar, 


Heroism, shujtt'at, diliri. 
Hesitate, mutaraddid budan, 

taraddud n:. 
Hidden, panh&n,, mastur, 


Hide (skin), charm. 
Hide (to), panhan (makhfi etc.) 

kardan (dilshtari). 
Hideous, zislit, zisht-ruy. 

High, buland, rafi', murtafi' ; 

muta'al: (God Most High), 

khudayi ta e sla\ 
Highness, hazrat i v&la. 
Highway, shnhrtih, sliari'. 
Highwayman, rcthzan. 
Hijra, liijrat. 
Hill, tall, tappeh. 
Hilt, qabzeh. 
Hinder (to), man' k: m&ni' budan, 

va dashtan. 
Hindu, Hindu, Hindi (Ar. pi. 


Hindrance, mamana'at. 
Hint, ishareh, imG. 
Hire, kirayeh : muzd, ujrat. 
Hire (to), kirayeh giriftan. 
Hireling, muzdur. 
Historian, muvarrikh. 
History, ffirikh (Ar. pi. tavarikli). 
Hit (to), zadan (zan). 
Hog, khug, guraz, khinzir (Ar. 

pi. khanazir). 

Hold (to), nigah dcishtan: (con- 
tain) gunjaish dashtan. 
Hole, surakh. 
Holiday, ta'til. 

Holiness, taqaddm, guddusiyyat. 
Hollow, khali, tuhi. 
Holy, muqaddas: quddus (of God). 
Holy Spirit, Euhu'l qudus. 
Home, khfineh : (native land) 


Honest, mutadayyin, diyanat-d&r. 
Honesty, diyanat-dari. 
Honey, 'asal. 

Honour, cibru: hurmat, ihtiram. 
Honour (to), hurmat (ihtiram) k:, 

musharraf n:. 
Honourable, mu'tabar. 
Honoured, musharraf, sharafyab. 
Hoof, sum. 
Hook, qullab. 
Hope, umid, tavaqqu'. 
Hope (to), umid dashtan, umidvar 


Hopeless, na-umid, ma'yus. 
Horizon, ufuq (Ar. pi. &faq). 
Horn, shakh. 

Hornet, zanbur (Ar. pi. zanabir). 
Horror, haibat, haul. 
Horse, asb, mal (vulg.). 

Horseman Important. 


Horseman, savttr. 
Horse-shoe, na'l i asb. 
Hospitable, mihman-dust. 
Hospital, mariz-khaneh, sliifa- 


Hospitality, mihm&ndari. 
Host, mihmandar : (army) fauj 

(Ar. pi. afvaj). 
Hot, garm. 
Hour, sa'at. 
House, khaneh. 

Household,Maa<?n, ahl ikhaneh. 
How, chiguneh, chun, bi-clifli taur. 
Human, insttni. 
Humane, ba-muruwat. 
Humanity, muruvvat: insttniyyat 
Humble, farutan, mutavflzi 1 . 
Humiliation, zara'at. 
Humility, farutam, tavttzu'. 
Hunger, gurusnagi. 
Hungry, gurusneh. 
Hunt, shikar. 
Hurl (to), afkandan, andaklitan 


Hurrah, afarin, shabash. 
Hurry, ta'jil, 'ajaleli, shitab. 
Hurry (to), ta'jil k:, sliituftan. 
Hurt (to), ranjnnidan, zarar 

Hurtful, muzirr. 
Husband, sliauliar. 
Husbandman, alii i zirtt'at va 


Husbandry, zira'at, falahat. 
Husk, qishr, pUst. 
Hut, kappar. 
Hymn, surud i ruhani. 
Hypocrisy, riyfl, riyakart, niffiq. 
Hypocrite, riyakar, munafiq. 
Hypothesis, farz, qiyHs. 

I, man. 

Ice, yakli. 

Idea, khiytil, zann (Ar. pi. zunun), 
ra'i(Ar. pi. am and orffi), tasav- 
vur, fikr (Ar. pi. a/Mr). 

Idiom, istiltth : mah&vareh. 

Idle, bi-kttr, mu'attal: (lazy), 

Idleness, susti, tanbatt. 

Idol, but, sanam (Ar. pi. asnam). 

Idolater, butparast, 'ubid i asnam. 

Idolatry, butparasti, 'ibttdat i 


If, agar, hargah. 
Ignominy nisvai, 'fir, nang, bad- 

Ignorance, nadani, jahl, jahalat : 

(feigned) tajahul. 
Ignorant, nadan, jahil: M-khabar: 


Ill (sick), bimar, n&khvush, mariz. 
Illness, bimari, nnkhvusM, maraz 

(Ar. pi. amraz). 
Illusion, nairang, farib, tavahhum, 


Image, siirat, timsnl; but, sanam. 
Imaginary, mauhvm. 
Imagination, mukha'yaleh, tasac- 

Imagine (to), tasawur k:; gaman 

bur dan (kardan). 
Imitate (to), iqtidn n: taqUd k:. 
Imitation, iqtida, taqUd: taslibth. 
Immediately, fi'lfaur, fauran, 

al'an, dar hal. 
Immense, a'zam, bi-hadd, bi-an- 


Immersed, gharq, mustaghraq. 
Imminent, mushrif bar. 
Immodest, bi-hayn. 
Immodesty, bi-hayai. 
Immoral, bad-akhl&q, filsid, bad- 


Impatient, bi-sabr. 
Impecuniosity, bt-navai. 
Impediment, mumttna'at. 
Impel (to), ibrsm n: tahrik n:. 
Imperative (mood), amr. 
Imperfect, nuqis, nakilmil, nn ta- 

mnm: (tense), mazi-yiistimrari. 
Imperfection, naqs, qusTtr. 
Imperial, shahanshaht, humttyttnl, 


Impetuosity, tahawur. 
Impetuous, mutahawir. 
Impiety, U-d'tni, kufr. 
Impious, bi-dtn, knfir. 
Implement, Blot. 
Impolite, bi-adab. 
Import (to), dakhU sftkhtan. 
Importance, qadr, ahammiyyat. 
Important, rmtliimm : (city), 



Impossible Insist. 

Impossible, tnuhal, ghair i mum- 

Jnn, mumtani'. 
Impostor, faribandeh. 
Impregnable, mani e . 
Imprison (to), hobs k:. 
Improbable, ba'td, ghair i muh- 

Improper, na-munasib, na-shciyis- 


Impudence, gustakhi, bi-adabi. 
Impudent, gustakh, bi-adab. 
Impure, nci-pak, najis, palid. 
Impurity, ncipaki, najasat. 
Impute, mansub k:, nisbat dadan. 
In, dar, tu-yi, tu. 
Inability, 'ajz, na-tavunai. 
Incapable, na-qabil. 
Incarnate, mujassam. 
Incarnation, tajassum. 
Incense, bukhur. 
Inch, vajab. 
Incite, ibrSm n: tahrik dadan, 

Inclination, mail. 
Inclined, mail. 
Incomparable, la-sani, la-misal, 

Incomplete, nSqis, ns-tamam, na- 

Inconstant, lii-qarnr, muta- 


Incorruptibility, M-fasadi. 
Increase, afzilni, tazayud. 
Increase (to), afzudan, mazidk:. 
Incumbent, vajib va lazim. 
Incursion, hamleh, hujum. 
Indecision, taraddud, tardid i ra'i. 
Indeed, fflvagi i , fflhaqiqeli, ya- 

Independent , khyud - mukhtar, 


Index, filirist. 
India, Hind, Hindustan. 
Indian, Hindu: Hindi. 
Indicative (mood), mutlaq. 
Indigestible, nU-guvar. 
Indigestion, bad-hazmi. 
Indolence, susti, tanbali. 
Induce (to), tdhrik n:, targhib 

Industrious, mihnati, miJmat- 

dust, sa'i, jahid. 

Industry, mihnat, sa'i. 
Ineffable, ms la kalam. 
Inestimable, bi-baha, bi-qaimat. 
Infancy, bachchagi, tufuliyyat. 
Infant, badicheh-yi kiichik, tifl 

(Ar. pi. atfal). 
Infantry, fauj i piyadeh. 
Infect, sirayat n : 
Infection, sirayat. 
Infectious, musri. 
Infidel, kafir (Ar. pi. kuffar), 


Infidelity, kufr, bi-dini. 
Infinite, ghair i mutanaM, la- 

intilia, bi-hadd, bi-payan, ghair 

i mahdud. 

Infinitive (mood), masdar. 
Influence, nufuz. 
Influenza, zukam, nazleh. 
Inform (to), ikhbar n:, khabar 

dadan, muttali' saklitan, ittila' 


Informer, munhi. 
Ingratitude, na-sipasi, haqq na~ 

shinasi, kufr i ni'mat. 
Inhabitant, sakin (Ar. pi. sa- 

kaneh, sukkan). 

Inhabited, maskun, ma'mur, abad. 
Inherit (to), bi-mira* giriftan. 
Inheritance, miras, irs. 
Inheritor, varis. 
Inhuman, bi-insaniyyat, M-mu- 

ruvvat, zalim. 
Injure, zarar rasanidan, azurdeh 


Injury, zarar, iza, asib. 
Injustice, zulm, bi-insafi. 
Ink, murakkab. 
Inkbottle, davat. 
Inkstand, qalam-dan. 
Innocence, bi-gunahi. 
Innocent, bi-gunah. 
Innumerable, bi-shumar. 
Inquirer (religious), haqq-juy. 
Inquiry, istifsar, taftish, tafahhus. 
Insane, divaneh, majnun. 
Inscription, raqam (Ar. pi. 


Insect, hashrat: janivar. 
Insert, dakhil s:, darj n:. 
Inside, darun, andarun, daklnl. 
Insist (to), israr n:. 

Inspect Journal. 


Inspect (to), snn didan (an army). 
Inspiration, ttham : (verbal, vahy). 
Inspire (to), ilham n: 
Inspired, mutiiam. 
Instant, dam, lahzeh. 
Instantly, fflfaur. 
Instead, bi- l avaz i, bi-jci-yi. 
Instigate (to), tahrik &:, an- 


Instigator, muharrik. 
Instinct, 'aqZ i haivani. 
Instruct, amuzamdan, ta l Hm d:. 
Instruction, ta'Um. 
Instructor, mu'allim. 
Instrument, ulat. 
Insult, bi-hurmati. 
Insurance, blmeh. 
Insurrection, fitneh, ightishash. 
Intellect, 'aql, hush, zihn. 
Intelligence, i aql: khdbar. 
Intelligent, 'aqil (Ar. pi. 'uqala'), 

Intend (to), ira&eh dashtan, azt- 

mat k: 
Intention, iradeh, murad, l azimat, 

qasd, maqsud. 

Intentionally, qasdan, l amdan. 
Inter, dafn k:. 
Intercession, shafa'at. 
Intercessor, shafp. 
Intercourse, mubasharat, mu'&sli- 


Interest, dil-bastagi: (money), sud. 
Interesting, dil-chasb. 
Interfere (to), dakhl dashtan. 
Interment, dafn. 
Internal, bstini. 
Interpret, tarjumeh k: (dreams) 

Interpreter, mutarjim, tarjuman. 
Interrogation, istifsur, istifhttm. 
Interrupt, qat 1 n: 
Interval, fasileh, bain, asncl. 
Interview, mulaqttt. 
Interview (to), mulaqat k:. 
Into, dar, tu. 

Intoxicated, mast, makhmftr. 
Intoxicant, muskir. 
Intoxication, tnasti. 
Intransitive (verb), lazim. 
Intreat (to), istid L tt w:, iltimas k:, 
madalat n:. 

Intreaty, iltimns, istid'a. 
Intrenchment, sangar. 
Introduce (to), (person), ushnffi 

srikhtan, mu'arrafi k:. 
Introduction, mu l arraft; (pre- 
face), muqaddameh. 
Intrust (to), sipurdan, hav&leh k:, 

tafviz n: 

Invade, takhtan, hamleh k : (bar). 
Invalid, na-khyusk, mariz. 
Invaluable, bi-baha. 
Invasion, hamleh, yurish. 
Inveigle (to), ighva n:, targhib n: 
Invent (to), ikhtirti' n: 
Invention, ikhtira 4 . 
Inventor, mukhtari'. 
Investigate, rasidagtk: tafttsh n:. 
Invisible, ghair i mar't. 
Invitation, da'vat. 
Invite (to), va'deh khvastan, 

da^vat n:. 
Invoice, fihrist. 
Involuntary, bi-ikhtiyar, n<l-da- 

Iron, ahin: (for clothes) uttll: 

(adj.) ahini. 

Ironclad (ship), zareh-pljsh. 
Irregular, M-q&ideh. 
Irrigation, ub-yari. 
Irritate (to), bi-kltashm avardan, 


Island, jazireh (Ar. pi. jazair). 
Itch, Tihnrish. 
Ivory, l aj. 

Jackal, shaghal. 

Jam, murabba. 

January, k&nttn i fani. 

Jar, sabu, khum, khumreh. 

Javelin, naizeh, harbeh. 

Jealous, ghayyilr, hiisid. 

Jealousy, ghairat, hasad, rashk. 

Jehovah, Ya/mwa/i. 

Jesus, 'Isa 1 . 

Jew, Yahndi. 

Jewel, jauhar (javahir, javnhirat). 

Jeweller, jauhart, javahiri. 

Join, paivastan, chasbanidan, 

mulhaq snkhtan. 
Joint,' band, mufsal (Ar. pi. wia- 

Journal, rilznnmeh, *-Hznniclieh. 


Journey Lane. 

Journey, safar (Ar. pi. as far]. 
Joy, IthyusM, masarrat, surur, 


Joyful, masrur, shad, khurram. 
Judaism, din i Yahud, yahudiyyat. 
Judge, d&var: (civil), hakim i 

'arf: (religious), hakim i shar'. 
Judge (to), davari k: 
Judgment, davari, hukm. 
Jug, kuzeh. 

Jugular vein, hdblu'l varid. 
Juice, 'asir, sMreh. 
July, tammuz. 

Jump (to), jastan (jah), paridan. 
June, haziran. 
Jupiter, mushtart. 
Jurisdiction, hukmram. 
Just, 'adil, munsif, ba-insaf. 
Just now, al'an, jakh (vulg.) 
Justice, 'adl, 'adtilat, msaf, haqq. 
Justify (to), ibra n: , l adil shd- 


Keen, tiz: sar-garm. 

Keep (to), nigah dashtan, mah- 

fuz dashtan; (promise), vafa 


Keepsake, tazkireli. 
Kernel, maghz. 
Kettle, katri. 
Kettle-drum, naqqareh. 
Key, kittd. 
Kick, lagad. 
Kick (to), lagad zadan. 
Kid, buzglialeh. 
Kill (to), Tcuslitan, maqtul s:, bi- 

qatl rasanidan : (domestic ani- 

mals for food), zibh k: 
Kind, nau' (Ar. pi. anva'), qism 

(Ar. pi. aqsam), jins, qabil: 

(adj.), mihraban, mushfiq. 
Kindle (to), afriilihtan (afruz), 

angiklvtan (angiz). 
Kindly, dustaneh, inuslifiqaneli. 
Kindness, mihrabani, shafaqat, 

King, shall, padshali, malik (Ar. 

pi. muluk). 
Kingdom, saltanat, padshaM, 

mulk, mamlikat (Ar. pi. ma- 

Kingly, multtkaneli. 

Kinsman, qaum va lilimsh. 

Kiss, buseh, mach (vulg.) 

Kiss (to), busidan, mach dadan 

(vulg.) [Buseh dadan means 

to permit another to kiss 


Kitchen, cishpaz-khaneh. 
Kite, lush-khvar : (paper), Tcagh- 


Kitten bachcheh-gurbeh. 
Knave, dagha-baz, makkar, Mleh- 

baz, ghaddar. 
Knee, zanu. 
Kneel (to), zanu zadan, bi-zanu 

bar amadan. 
Knife, kard: (penknife), qalam- 

tarash, chaqu. 
Knit (to), baftan. 
Knock, zarb, (at door Tcubeli). 
Knock (to), kubidan, zadan. 
Knocker (at door), kubeh. 
Knot, ginh, 'uqdeh. 
Knot (to), girih zadan. 
Know (to), danistan: (a person), 

shinakhtan: (a place, thing), 

balad budan. 

Knowledge, 'Urn, ma'-rifat. 
Known, ma'lum, ma'ruf, mashhur. 
Kran, qiran. 
Kuran, qur'an. 

Labour, kar, 'amal (Ar. pi. a'mal), 
(childbirth), dard i zih. 

Labour (to), 'amal n;, ktlr k:. 

Labourer, 'amaleh, muzdur. 

Lace turt, qaitan. 

Lad, pisar, kudak. 

Ladder, narduban. 

Lade (to), bar k : 

Lady, khanum, khatun. 

Lake, daryacheh. 

Lamb, barreh. 

Lame lang, shal. 

Lament (to), nalidan, nauheh- 
gari k: 

Lamentation, nauheh, naleh. 

Lamp, chiragh. 

Lampoon, hajv. 

Lance, naizeh. 

Lancet, mshtar. 

Land, zamin, khushki, barr. 

Lane, kucheh. 

La nguage Library. 


Language, zabnn, lughat. 
Languor, susti, fatrat. 
Lantern, fanus: (magic), fanus 

i shu'badeli. 
Lap, daman, kanar. 
Lapis lazuli, lajavard. 
Lapwing, hudhud. 
Large, buzurg. 
Lark, chakavuk. 
Lasso, kamand. 
Last, bazpasin, akhiri : guzashteh : 

(last night), dishab. 
Last (to), baqi mandan. 
Lastly, akhiru'lamr, alqisseh. 
Late, dir: (deceased), marhum: 

(late afternoon) 'asr i tang. 
Lather, kaf. 
Latin, latini. 
Latitude, 'arz. 
Lattice, shabakeh. 
Laudable, situdeh, hamideh. 
Laugh (to), khandtdan: (aloud), 

qahqalieh k:, ( at), istihza 

n:, maskhareh k: 
Laughter, khandch : (loud), qah- 

Law, qanun (Ar. pi. qavaniri) : 

(Divine), shar', shari'at: (ci- 
vil), 'urf. 

Lawful, halal, ravel., jaiz. 
Lawsuit, murafa'eh. 
Lay (to), nihadan (nih), guzasli- 

tan, guzardan. 
Laziness, tanbatt. susti. 
Lazy, taribal, sust. 
Lead, surb. 
Lead (to), dalalat k:, rah namu- 

dan, (an army), kasMdan: (a 

horse) jilau giriftan: (in re- 
ligion) hidayat k: 
Leader (of army), sarkardeh. 
Leaf, barg: (of paper), varaq (Ar. 

pi. aurcki). 
League, farsakh. 
Lean, laghir. 

Lean (to), takyeli zadan; ittika k: 
Leap (to), jastan (jih): partdan. 
Learn (to), ftmvkhtan (amliz), 

tahstt k:, dars khvttndan, farn 

Learned, 'alim (Ar. pi. 'ulamtl), 


Learner, muta'ullim. 
Learning, 'ilm (Ar. pi. 'ulum). 
Lease, yareh. 
Lease (to), ijareh giriftan: yareh 


Leather, charm. 
Leave, izn, ijazat: rukltsat, mu- 

Leave (to), guzushtan, tarkk: va 

guzashtan; murakhklws shudan. 
Leaven, khamirmtiyeh. 
Lecture, khatsb, sabaq. 
Lecture (to), khatab k: . 
Lees, durd, fazlth. 
Left, chap. 
Leg. s&q. 

Legate, safir, ilchi. 
Legation, sifnrat; sifnrat-khaneli. 
Legend, afstineh : (inscription), 


Legislation, vaz' i qavanin. 
Legislator, vazi' i qavantn. 
Leisure, fursat. 
Lemon, Umu. 
Lend (to), (money), qarz dadan: 

(article to be returned), 'ari- 

yatan ( l ariyeh) dadan. 
Length, tul, darflzi. 
Lent, bahar. 
Lentils, l adas. 
Leopard, yuz. 

Leper, abras, mdbrus: majztlm. 
Leprosy, baras: juznm. 
Lessen (to), kam k:, takhfifn:. 
Lessor, ijsreh dihandeh. 
Lest, mabada. 

Let (to), guzurdan, izn dadan. 
Letter, harf (Ar. pi. hurtlf); 

(epistle), kagliaz, maktnb, kliatt, 

nttmeh, raqimdi. 
Lettuce, kahii. 
Level, barabar, mmattah. 
Levy (troops) (to), jam'avart k: 
Lexicon, lughat. 
Liar, durtlgh-gily, kntib (Ar. pi. ka- 

zabeh}, kazqab. 

Liberal, sakht, bn-sakhavat, zi-jnd. 
Liberality, sakhftvat, jttd. 
Liberate (to), riha k:, kJialffsi 


Liberty, ttzttdi. 
Library, kutub-khfineh. 


Lick Luggage. 

Lick, lisidan. 

Lid, sarpush. 

Lie, durugh, kizd. 

Lie (to), durugh guftan. 

Lie down (to), khvaWdan. 

Life, zindagt, hayat. 

Lifetime, i umr. 

Lift (to), bar dash tan, buland k:; 

Light, raushani, raitshanat, nur 

(Ar. pi. anvs-r): (adj.) raushan: 

(not heavy), subuk, khafif. 
Light (to), raushan k : afrukhtan. 
Lightning, barq, sa'iqeh. 
Like, chun, misl, manand, shaMh. 
Like (to) , pasandidan, dust 


Likelihood, ihtimal. 
Likely, aghlab. 
Liken (to), muqabaleh n: 
Likeness, mushabahat, shabahat. 
Likewise, vAz, ham. 
Lily, susan. 

Limb, l uz v (Ar. pi. a l z&). 
Lime, ahak: (sweet lime), pur- 


Limited, mahdud. 
Limp (to), langidan. 
Line, satr, kliatt. 
Linen, kattan, bazz. 
Lining, astar. 
Linseed, bazrak. 
Lion, shir. 
Lip, lab. 
Lisp, luknat. 
List, siyalieh, fHirist. 
Listen (to), gush giriftan (da- 

dan\ isgha n:. 
Litany, istighaseh. 
Literal, tahtu'llafzi. 
Literally, tahtullafz. 
Litter (travelling), taklit i ra- 

van: (rubbish), ashqal. 
Little (small), kucfiik, khvurd, 

saghir: (quantity), andak, kam: 

(noun), qadri, andaM. 
Live (to), ztst n: bi-sar burdan. 
Livelihood, ma'ishat, zindagani, 

Liver, jigar. 
Lizard, buzmajeh. 
Lo! inak, han. 

Load, 6ar, haml. 

Load (to), bar k; (a gun), pur k: 

Loaf, nan, qurs i nan. 

Loan, qarz: 'ariyeli. 

Loathe (to), makruh dashtan, 

nifrat k: 
Local, mahalli. 
Lock, qufl. 
Lock (to), qufl k: 
Locust, malakh. 
Logic, l ilm i mantiq. 
Long, daraz, tavtl, madid. 
Longing, arzy, tamannU. 
Look (to), nigaristan, nazar k : 
Loose, gushadeh, shul. 
Loose (to), gushadan, gushudan, 

baz k:, hall k: (release), riliS k:, 

vil k: (Vulg.). 

Lose (to), gum k\, khasarat liar- 
dan (kasMdan). 
Loss, khasarat, zarar: (in war), 


Lost, gum shudeh, mafqud. 
Lot, qur l eh: (to cast-) qur l eh 

andakhtan : (share) , qismat, 


Lotvis, nailufar. 
Loud, buland, buland-avaz. 
Loudly, bi-acaz i buland. 
Love, muhabbat (mahabbat,) hubb, 


Love (to), dust dashtan, mu- 
habbat namudan. 
Loveliness, husn, jamal, khvub- 

Lovely, jamil, khvushgil, kliyub- 

Lover, m. ashiq, muhibb : f. mah- 

~Low,past; (mean), pasthal, haqir, 

zattl, farumayeh. 
Lowliness, farutani, khuzu 1 va 

khushu', tavazu 1 . 
Lowly, farutan, mutavffzi'. 
Loyal, mukhlis, amin, ba-vafa. 
Luck, fiakht, nikbakhti, nik-akh- 

tari: badbakhti, kam-bakfiti. 
Luckless, kam-baklit. 
Lucky, nik-bakht, khvush-nasib, 


Ludicrous, muzhik. 
Luggage, asbab. 

Lukewarm Map. 


Lukewarm, shirgarm. 
Lunacy, diuanagi, junun. 
Lunatic, dicaneh, majnun. 
Lunch, nalmr. 
Lung, tihmh. 

Lure (to), ighva w:, targMb n: 
Luscious, faffe, mazeh-dar, shirin. 
Lusciousness,' lazzat (lizzat), sM- 


Lust, shahvat. 

Lustre, raunaq, ziya, jilveh. 
Lute, e ud, barbat. 
Luxuriance, vafrat. 
Luxuriant, vafir, faravan. 
Luxurious, khyush-guzran. 
Luxury, '"islirat, khyush-guzrani. 

Macaroni, rishteh. 
Mace, gurz, chumaq. 
Machination, Tnleh, makideli (Ar. 

pi. makaid), makr. 
Mad, divftneh, majnun. 
Madam, khanum. 
Madden (to), divaneh (majnun) s: 
Magazine, makhzan: (powder), 

burnt - khaneh, qftr - khsneh : 

(arms) silah-khaneh, qur-khttneh, 

Magian, majusi, gabr, atash-pa- 

rast, zardushti. 
Magic, jaditgari, j&du, sihr. 
Magician, jadugar, sahir, saTihnr. 
Magistrate, hakim (Ar. pi. huk- 

Magnanimity, himmat, javan- 

Magnet, sang i ahin-raba, maq- 


Magnificent, jalU, shdgarf. 
Magnify, tamjid n: mubalagheh k :. 
Magnitude, buzurgi, 'azamafr qadr. 
Mahomedan 1 Musalman: 
(Muhammadan)l (adj.), islamt. 
Mahomedanism, Islam, din t 


Maiden, bakireh, dukhtar. 
Mail (armour), zareh, silah (Ar. 

pi. aslaheh), jabbeh : (post), 

jposf, pusteh, chapttr. 
Maimed, chulaq. 
Maintain, bar pel dBshtan: par- 

varish k:. 

Maize, zurrat. 

Majesty, a l ltfhazrat (his): l ulyn 

hazrat (her) : jahnn -panah, 

'alam-panah, qibleh-y i 'alam. 
Major, yscar. 
Majority, taraf i aghlab. 
Make (to), sakhtan, durmt k: 

Maker , sazandeh : (of God), 

sSni 1 , khaliq. 
Malady, maraz (Ar. pi. amraz), 

Male, nar. 
Malediction, la-nat. 
Malefactor, bad-kttr. 
Malevolence, bad-andishi, bad- 

Malevolent, bad - andish bad- 


Malice, bad-kJ\vahi, bughz. 
Man, mard: insan (Ar. pi. nas\ 

fihakhs (Ar. pi. ashkhas), 

(Mankind) mardum, bani Adam, 

bant nau 1 i bashar. 
Management, nazarat, kar-guzari. 
Mane, yal. 
Manfully, ba-diliri. 
Manger, fikhiir. 
Manhood, bulughat: dittri, shu- 

Manifest, ashkar, huvaida, zjahir^ 

mubin, paida. 
Manifest (to), izhar n:. 
Manifestation, izhar: (Divine), 

mazhar i Ilahi. 
Manifestly, sarihan, vazihan. 
Manifold, '<uli<{. muta'addtd. 
Manliness, diliri, mardflnagt , 


Manly, mardtineh, dilir, shttja'. 
Manna, mann: gat. 
Manner, taur, nau', <y'/i, mintal. 
Manners, adab, akhlaq. 
Mantle, rida. 
Manufactory, kar-khaneh. 
Manufacture, san l at. 
Manufacture (to), sakhtan (sax). 
Manure, kud. 

Manuscript, nusKheh, navishteh. 
Many, bisyar, basa, ka*,ir, tomtit. 
Map, naqsheh. 


Marble Mercury. 

Marble, marmar. 

March, kuch k:, lashkar kashtdan. 

Mare, madiyan. ' 

Margin, hashiyeh (of book): 

kinnreh, lab (of sea). 
Marine, bahri, daryai. 
Mariner, mallah. 
Maritime, bahri, daryai. 
Mark, nishan, 'alamat, asar (Ar. 

pi. asar}; (brand), dagh: (target), 

nishaneh, hadaf. 
Mark (to), nishank., i alamatguzar- 


Market, bazar. 

Marriage, l arusi: izdivaj, nikah. 
Married (woman) , marikuheh, 

Marrow, magliz. 
Marry, zan giriftan, bi-zani gi- 

riftan: shauhar Jcardan. 
Mars, mirrikh. 
Marsh, mashileli. 
Martingale, sineh-band. 
Martyr, sliaMd (Ar. pi. shuhada.) 
Martyrdom, shahadat. 
Marvel, 'ajab, 'ajibeh (Ar. pi. 


Masculine, muzakkar. 
~K&son,sang-tarash, hajjar : (build- 
er), banna, mi'mar. 
Mass, tudeli, kuppeli: (religious 

service) quddas. 
Massacre, kushtar, Tdiun-rM. 
Master, aga, sahib, malik : (of 

school), mu'allim, ustad. 
Matting, hasir, bury. 
Matches, kibrit. 
Matchless, bi-nazir, la-misul. 
Materials, asbab, lavazim. 
Mathematics, 'Urn i riyazi. 
Matter, amr (Ar. pi. umur], 


Mattress, dushak (dushak). 
Maturity, bulugli. 
Maund, man. 
Mausoleum, maqbareh. 
May, ayar, may. 
Meadow, chaman 
Meal (flour), ard: (food) ghaza. 
Mean, furu-mayeli, past, zattl, 

Mean (to), wia'wl dashtan. 

Meaning, ma'ni, matlab. 

Meanness, duni, pasti. 

Means, vasileh (Ar. pi. vasail), 

vasiteh. tavassut. 
Meanwhile, dor in bain. 
Measles, surkhak. 
Measure, paimaneh :(proceeding) , 

maslahat (Ar. pi. masatih). 
Measure (to), paimudan, andazeh 

Meat, guslit. 

Mediation, shafa'at, tavassut. 
Mediator, shaft', vasiteh, miyanji. 
Medicine, dava. 
Meditate, fikr (tafakkur) k: 

ta'ammul n. 
Medlar, azgil. 
Meek, haltm. 
Meet, shayistsli, munasib, saza, 

sazavar, vajib, laiq. 
Meet (to), bar-khyurdan bi: do- 
char shudan : (formally) istiqbal 

n: (an assembly), mun'aqid sh:. 
Meeting, majlis (Ar. pi. majalis), 

mahfil: mtilaqat. 
Melodious, khvush-nava, khyush- 


Melody, navu, ahang. 
Melon, kharbuzeh: (watermelon) 

Melt, ab shudan: gudakhtan 

Member, l uzv (Ar. pi. afztf), juz' 

(Ar. pi. ajza). 
Memoir, tazkireh, yaddasht. 
Memorise, yadgart, yadavari. 
Memory, yad: hafizeh. 
Mend (repair) (to), ta'mir k:, 

durust k:. 
Mendicant, gada: (religious), 

Mention, %ikr. 

Mention (to), ?ikr k: mazkur k: 
Mentioned, mazkur, mazbur. 
Mercantile, tajarati. 
Merchandise, amval (mal) i taja- 


Merchant, tajir (Ar. pi. tujjar). 
Merciful, rahim: (of God, also) 


Merciless, W-rahm. 
Mercury, j'ireh: (planet) 'utarid. 

Mercy Monarchy. 287 

Mercy, rahm, rahmat, rahma- Mirror, nineli. 

niyyat. Mirth, inbisat. 

Merely, faqat, mahz, tanha. Misbehaviour, bad-raftari, bad- 

Merit, istihqaq, liyaqat. suluki. 

Merit (to), mustahaqq budan, laiq Miscellaneous, mukhtalif, muta- 

budan. farriq. 

Merry, khurram, farahnak. Mischief, shaitaniyyat, shararat. 

Message, paigham. Misconduct, bad-suluki, bad-raf- 

Messenger, qasid, rasul. tart. 

Messiah, Mas'ih. Misdeed, bad-kirdttri. 

Metal, filizz, ma'dant. Miser, bakhil (Ar. pi. bukJiala). 

Metaphorical, majazi. Miserable, misMn, shaqi, ba-slta- 

Metropolis, daru 1 ssaltanat, payi- qavat. 

takht. Misery, sltaqavat. 

Microscope, Zarreh-bin. Misfortune, a fat, asib, bala, mu- 

Middle, vasat, miyan. sibat (Ar. pi. masaib\ 

Midnight, ntm-shab, nisf i shab. Miss (to), khata k:. 

Midst (in the), dar miynn, dar Missing, gum, mafqud. 

vasat. Mission (political), sifarat, ma'- 

Mighty, 'ali-miqdar, muqtadir. muriyyat : (religious) sifarat 

Migrate (to), naql k:, intiqftl n:. i ruhani. 

Migration, intiqal. Missionary, kasMsh. 

Mild, mulaim. Mist, mih. 

Mile, mil. Mistake, ishtibah, zdttat, taqsir 

Military, nizcimi. (Ar. pi. taqasir), ghalat (Ar. 

Milk, sltir. pi. aghlaf). 

Milk (to), dusMdan. Mr. aqa, sahib. 

Mill, asiytt: (handmill), dast-as. Mrs. Khiinum. 

Miller, asiya-bun. Mix (to), Smikhtan, maklilTtt s: 

Mimic (to), taqlld n: Moan (to), ah kashidan. 

Minaret, manareh (Ar. pi. ma- Moat, kfiandaq. 

navir). Mob, luwgameh, jam', anbuh. 

Mind, 'aql (Ar. pi. 'uqul), hush. Mock (to), rishkhand k:, istihzit 

Mine, ma'dan (Ar. pi. maJ-adin). n : . 

Mineral, ma'dani, jamnd: filizz. Mockery, maskliareli, isttfizii, rish- 

Mingle (to), amikhtan (ttmiz), khand. 

makhlut s : Model, namuneh. 

Minister (of state), vazir (Ar. Moderate, mu'tadil. 

pi. vuzarti), (Prime minister) Moderation, i'tidal. 

sadr i a^zam: (of Christian re- Modern, nau, tazth, jadid: (the 

ligion) Khttdimu'ddm. moderns), muteC aklikliirin. 

Ministration, khidmat. Modest, sharms&r, bn-haytt. 

Ministry (State), vazflrat: (of Modesty sharm, hayfl. 

religion) khidmat i din. Moist, nam, tar. 

Minor, sagliir: (under age) nn- Moisten (to), nam (tar) k: 

baligh, kliyurd-sal, saghiru'ssinn. Moisture, muni. tari t rutllbat. 

Mint (coinage), zarrab-kltiineli. Moment, dam, lamheh, lahzdi: 

Mint (plant), na'nil. (importance) aJiammiyyat. 

Minute (small), daqiq, raqiq: Momentous, muhimm, ahamui. 

(time), daqiqeh. Monarch, sultan (Ar. pi. salatin), 

Miracle, mu'jizeh, ayat. padshah. 

Mirage, sarab, (ab i Yazid). Monarchy, saltanat, pildshahi. 


Monastery Naked. 

Monastery (Chr.), dair: (ofdar- Mournful, ghamgin, diltang. 

vishes) khanqah. 
Monasticism, ruhbaniyyat. 
Monday, doshanbeh. 

Mourning, mfftam, nauheh. 

Mouse, mush. 

Mouth, dahan : (of river), daJianeh. 

Money, pill: (cash) naqd (Ar. Move (to), (intr.), junbidan, jun- 

pl. nuqud). 
Money-changer, sarraf. 
Money-order, burnt. 

bish (harakat} k : ; (trans.) jun- 
banidan, junbish dadan. 
Movement, junbish, harakat. 

Monk, rahib (Ar. pi. used as Much, bisyar, khaili: (too much) 

sing, ruhbari). 
Monkey, maimun, buzineh. 
Monotheist, muvahhid. 
Month, mail. 
Mood (verbal), sigheh. 

Moon, muh: (full-) badr, mall i Mulberry, tut. 

Mud, gil. 

Muddy, gil-aludeh; (street), purgti. 
Muhammad, Muhammad. 
Muhammadan, Musalman. 

Moonlight, malitab. 
Moral (of tale), hasil i Ttalam, 

faideh: (adj.) parhtzkar. 
Morality, parhizkarJ, pak-damani. 

Mule, qatir. 

Muleteer, charcadar qatirchi 

Multiply (to) (intr.), afzudan, 

bisyar sh:. 

Morals, aklilaq: (good), akhlaq i Multitude, jam 1 , guruh. 

hasaneli. Murder, qatl, khunrtzi. 

More, bishtar, ziyadehtar: (much Murderer, qatil, khuni. 

more), bi-tartq i auia 3 (ula^): Murmur, hamhamdi. 

(no more) digar . . . nah. 
Moreover, 'aJaceh bar in. 

Miirmur (to), hamliameh k: 
Museum, tuhfeJi-khaneh. 

Morning, subh: (early), sitbh i Music, naghmeh, tarab, musiqi, 

znd, sahar-gah. 


Mortal (subject to death), fant: Musical instrument, sSz. 

(deadly), q&til, mulilik. 
Mortality, fans. 

Musician, mutrib, mughanni. 
Musk, mislik. 

Mosque, masjid (Ar. pi. masajid). Musket, tufang. 

Mosquito, pasheh. 
Most aksar. 
Moth, bid. 

Musketeer, tufangcM. 
Muslin, malmal. 
Mustache, sibil. 

Mother, madar, valideh: (in-law), Mustard, khardal. 

madarzan, madar i shauhar. 
Motion, junbish, harakat. 

Muslim, musalman. muslim. 
Mute, lal, gung. 

Motive, sabab, bn'is, qasd, gharaz Mutilated, chttlaq. 

(Ar. pi. aghraz). 
Mould (for casting), qalab : (soil), 


Mound, tappeh. 
Mount (to), bar amadan, baltt Muzzle-loader, dahan-pur. 

raftan : (horse) savar sh : Myrrh, *nurr. 

(throne) julus namudan. 

Mutineer, yaghi, bagM, mvfsid, 


Mutiny, fitneh, tughyfin. 
Mutton, gusht i gusfand. 

Mountain, kuh ; jabal (Ar. pi. Mystic, sufi. 

Mystery, sirr (Ar. pi. osrsr), roe. 


Mountaineer, kuhistani. 
Mountebank, luti. 
Mourn (to), naKdan, naldi k:, mikh. 

Mysticism, tasawuf. 

Nail (finger), nakJiun: (iron) 

imuheh k: 

Naked 3 barahneh, 'uryan, lukht 

Nakedness Nourish. 


Nakedness, barahnagi, 'urySni, 

Name, nam, ism (Ar. pi. asma, 

Name (to), nam niltadan,namidan. 

Named, musamma" 1 W-. 

Namely, ya'ni. 

Naphtha, naft. 

Napkin, daxtmffl. 

Narrate (to), naql (hikftyat) k: 

Narrative, na t l, hikayat, gisseh 

(Art. pi. qisas*). 
Narrow, tang. 
Nasty, makruh. 
Nation, qaum (Ar. pi. aqv&m), 

ummat (Ar. pi. umam), millat 

(Ar. pi. milal). 
Native, mulki: (-land), vatan. 
Nativity, tavaUud, vilddat. 
Natural, tab'i. 
Nature, tabi-at, tab'; qat. 
Nautical 1 , , ., 
Naval } W*' 
Navel, nuf. 
Near, nazdik, qarib. 
Nearly, qarib, taqriban: takh- 


Necessaries, lavazim. 
Necessarily, la-jaram. 
Necessary, lazim, v&jfb, zarur, 


Necessity, zarUrat; hajat, ihtiyQj. 
Neck, gardan. 
Necklace, uardan-band. 
Nectarine, shalil 
Need, h&jat, ihtiyaj. 
Needle, auzan. 
Needy, muflis, bi-nava. 
Negation, inkar, naft. 
Neglect, ghiflat, ihmal. 
Neglected, muhmal. 
Negligent, ghafil. 
Negro, zangi, shaklis i siyah, 

kaka (vulg.). 

Neigh (to), shaikh zadan. 
Neighbour, hamsSyeh. 
Neiglibourhood, nazdikt. 
Neither . . . nor, noli . . . va nah. 
Nephew, baradar-zadeh\ khpahar- 

Nest (bird's), fohiylfneh, laneh 

(vulg.): (of ants, etc.), chal. 

Persian Conv.- Grammar. 

Net, dam; fur, tureh. 

Newter (in grammar), bi-jins, 

ghair i jins. 
Neutral, bi-taraf. 
Never, hargiz, asla, abada. 
Nevertheless, ba-vujud i in, har- 

chand kih. 
New, a, tazeh, jadid: (New 

Year's Day), nauruz. 
News, khabar (Ar. pi. akkbar] : 

(good news), muzdek. 
Newspaper, rttzn&meh. 
Next (after), ba'd, diqar. 
Nib (of pen), sar i qalam. 
Nice, marghub, ba-aafa.. 
Niche, taqcheh. 
Niece, dukhtar ibaradar, dukhtar 

i khvshar. 
Night, shab: (to-night), amshab 

(imxhab), (last night), dixhab : 

(night before last) parishab. 
Nightingale, bulbul. 
No, khair, nah : hich. 
Noble, sharif: (noun), amir (Ar. 

pi. umara), (nobles), arkan 

((a'yllri) i daulat. 
Nobody, hich kas. 
Noise, shufak (vulg.), sods. 
Nomads, Uyat. 

Nominative, f&'tt: halat fa'itt. 
None, hich, hich kudam. 
Nonsense, bihtldagl. 
Noon, zuhr. 
Noose, kamand. 
North, shimal: (adj.) shimali. 
Northern, xhimatt. 
Nose, bint, daniagh. 
Nostril, minkhar. 
Not, tiah: (not at all), aala, 

mutlnqn, hn-l/n r knllu. 
Notable, mewMfZr. 
Note, yod-dosht: (marginal), 

hOshiyeh: (letter), ruq'eh. 
Nothing, /</'/( 
Notice, multafit shudan. 
Notify (to), i'lam (i'lan) k:, 

khabar dadan, ittiW dadan, 

mutttili 1 s&khtan. 
Notion, khiynl, ra'i, ganiiln. 

rahw. zann. 
Noun, inn. 
Nourish, parvarish k: 



Nourishment Opponent. 

Nourishment, ghiffi ta'sm, qut. 
Novelty, tasagi. 
November, tasltrin i sani. 
Now, aFsn, ilhal, haU, hat, 


Nowhere, hich ja. 
Numb, bi-hiss. 
Number, i adad (Ar. pi. a'tford), 


Number (to), shamurd&n, 'adadk:. 
Numberless, bi-sliamsr. 
Numerous, l adid, muta'addid. 
Nun, r&hibeh. 

Nurse, dftyeh, bBji (vulg.). 
Nurture, farbiyyat, parvarish. 
Nutmeg, jauz. 

O! at. 

Oak, battut. 

Oar, paru. 

Oath, qasam, saugand. 

Obedience, fami&n-burdari^ita'at. 

Obedient, farman-burdar, mutt', 

Obey (to), 'ita'at n: muti' shu- 

Object, maqsud, matlyb, gliaraz, 

qasd. niyyat. 
Object (to), i'tirsz k: 
Objection, i'tirftz. 
Oblige (compel), ijbar n:, maj- 

bur s:. 
Obliged (grateful), mamnun, 


Oblivion, nisyan, faramushi. 
Obscure, t&rik, tireh : gh&miz, 


Obscurity, tarikt, ttragf, zulmat. 
Observe, mulahizeh k: nigsh 

dashtan, hifz k:. 
Obsolete, muhmal, mansukh. 
Obstacle, sudd, mumana'at. 
Obstinacy, isr&r, khvudsart, l in&d. 
Obstinate, khvudsar. 
Obtain (to), yafton, hcteilk:, tdh- 

stl n , paida k :, bi-ham rasani- 

dan,bi-chang avardan,(in trans.): 

riv&j dashtan (y elf tan). 
Obtainable, muyassar: (it is-) 

gir mt tzyad. 

Obvious, paida, ftshkftr, v&zih. 
Occasion, mauqa 1 -. 

Occasion (to), sabab i (an) bu- 

dan, tahrik n: 
Occasionally, g&hgahi. 
Occupation, shughl, l amal, kar; 


Occupied (busy), mashghul. 
Occur (to), vziqi' sh:, ittifaq 

Occurrence, liadiseh (Ar. pi. 

havftdis), vaqi'eh (Ar. pi. vaqai', 


Ocean, bahr i muhit. 
O'clock, sh'at. 

October, tashr'in i awed, aktUbar. 
Ode, ghazal, qastdeh (Ar. pi. 


Odour, buy, rniheh. 
Offence, taqsir, qvsur, guntih. 
Offend (to), ranjanidan: (cause 

to stumble) laghzSnidan. 
Offer (to), taqdim n: 
Offering, nafr, pishkash: qurb&ni. 
Office, daftarkhsneh: mansab. 
Officer, sshib-mansab, sarkarddi. 
Offspring, nasl, auJad (Ar. pi. 

of valad), zurriyyat. 
Often barhfi, aksar i auqnt, niu- 

Oil, raughan. 
Old (persons), ptr, kuhan-sal, 

salkhyurdeh: (things) Jwhneli. 
Olive, zaitun. 
Omen, fat. 

Omnipotent, qstdir i mutlaq. 
On, bar, bar rwyi, bar sar i. 
Once, yak daf'eh; bttri: (at once) 

fi'l faur ; afan. 
One, yak. 
Onion, piyaz. 
Only, faqat, tariha: vaMd, ya- 


Onset, hamleh, yurish, hujum. 
Onyx, 'atfiq, sang i sulaimani. 
Open, baz, gushadeh, maftuh. 
Open (to), baz (va) Tear dan, gu- 


Openly, 'alfinvyyatan, sarihan. 
Operation (surgical), jarraM. 
Opinion, ra'i (Ar. pi. ara and 

araf), khiyftl. 
Opium, tiryak. 
Opponent, mukhalif. 

Opportunity Pamphlet. 


Opportunity, fursat. 

Oppose, mukh&lafat n : , bar zidd 

Opposite, rubiru, muqnbil ; zidd, 

Opposition, mukhalafat,ziddiyyat, 


Oppress (to), mazlTim s : jafa k : 
Oppression, zulm, ta'addt, satam. 
Oppressor, zalim, satamkar. 
Optative (verb), fi'l i tamanna. 
Option, ikhtiyftr. 
Or, ytt, khvrih. 
Orange, narangi, madani. 
Oration, khitab, nutq. 
Orb, firm. 
Order, hukm (Ar. pi. ahk&m), 

amr (Ar. pi. avftmir), farmftn: 

(arrangement), intizftm, nizttm, 

Order (to), farmudan, hukm k:, 

amr n : , ma'mur s : 
Ordinary, 'umumi. 
Ordnance, tupkhuneh. 
Organ (instrument), alat: (mu- 
sical instrument) saz. 
Organisation, niz&m, intizltm. 
Orient, sharq, mashriq. 
Oriental, sharqi, mashriqi. 
Origin, asl (Ar. pi. usttT), sar- 


Original, asli, awaUn. 
Ornament ztnat, ffrayish. 
Ornament (to), arasteh s:, mu- 

zayyan s: 
Orphan, yatim. 
Orthography, imln. 
Ostrich, shutur-murgh. 
Other, digar, gliair. 
Otherwise, va agarnah, va ilia. 
Ottoman, 'usmant 
Ought, bftyad. 
Out, birftn. 
Outpost, qaruvul. 
Outside, birttn, khnrij. 
Outstrip (to), sibqat justan bar. 
Outwardly, dar surat. 
Oven, kureh, tannttr. 
Over, bala, bar bala, fauq az. 
Overcast, girifteh. 
Overcome, ghtilib ttmadan bar. 
Overseer, nazir. 

Overturn (to), vazgun s:, sarni- 

gun k : . 
Overwhelm (to), mustautt ah : 

bar, glialabeih yttftan bar. 
Owe (to), qarz dashtan, bidih-kar 


Owl, bym: jughd. 
Own (to), dashtan: (confess) 

iqrUr n:, i'tir&f k:. 
Owner, sahib, malik. 
Ox, g&v, gav i nar. 

Pace (step), qadam (Ar. pi. aq- 

Pacific, sulh-ftmiz; sulh-dilst. 
Pack, dasteli, basteh. 
Pack (to), 
Pack-horse, yabu. 
Packing-needle, suzan i javsl- 


Packsaddle, paten. 
Padlock, qufl. 
Pagan, but-parast. 
Page, safheh. 
Pail, sail, dalv. 
Pain, dard, alam (Ar. pi. atom), 

vaja' (Ar. pi. ai^'ff'). 
Pains (trouble), gahmat, ma- 

shaqqat, diqqat. 

Painful, pur-dard, dardnak, vaji'. 
Painstaking, mihnati, mihnat- 

dust, muvazib. 
Paint, rang. 
Paint (to), rang zadan: naqsh 


Painter, n<t<iijnxli, musawir. 
Painting (a), naqsh, tastitr. 
Pair juft. 
Palace, qasr, kakh. 
Palanquin] taklit i ravan. 
Palatable, guvara. 
Palate, kam. 
Pale, kamrang, pariddi-rang, 

Palm (tree), naklil, nakhleh, da- 

raklit i khurma : (of hand) 


Palpitate, taptdan. 
Palpitation, iapish. 
Palsied, maflttj, ifltj. 
Palsy, fnlij. 
Pamphlet, risaleh. 



Pan Pavement. 

Pan (earthen), dizi ; (frying) 

Pane (of glass), jam; (coloured) 


Panic, hazimat, khaufi nagahan. 
Panniers (for fruit), laudeh: (for 

travelling), kajSveh. 
Pantaloons, zir-jameh, shatear. 
Panther, palang. 
Pantry, sharbat-khaneh. 
Papa, bab&. 
Paper, kaghaz: (blotting), kaghaz 

i khushk kun. 
Papist, p&paci. 
Parable, maxal (Ar. pl.amsal), 

Paraclete, fciraqlit, tasalli-dihan- 


Parade, san. 

Paradise, bihisht, fardaus, jannat. 
Paraffin e, naft. 

Paragraph, fasl (Ar. pi, fmuT). 
Parallel, mutavazi. 
Paralysis, falij. 
Paralytic, iflij, mafluj. 
Parapet, kangureh. 
Parasang, farsakh, far sang. 
Parasol, chair, aftab-gir. 
Parcel, basteh. 

Parch (to), birixhtan, birishteh s: . 
Pardon, 'afv; ftmurzish, maghfi- 

rat: e uzr. 
Pardon (to), 'afv A;:; amurzidan 

(said of God only) : bakhsM- 

Pare (to), nakliun giriftan (nails), 


Parentage, nasdb, nizad. 
Parents, vaVdatn (Ar. dual). 
Parish, mahalteh. 
Parliament, daru'sluihlira, p&rla- 


Parlour, utsq * sufreh. 
Parole, qaul. 
Parrot, tuti. 

Parsi, pGrgt, eardushti, gabr. 
Parsley, kirafs. 
Part, pareh, tikkeh, jus? (Ar. pi. 

ujza), bahreh. 

Part (to), judn s:, taq*1m k:. 
Partake (to), shartk budan dar 

(of), shirnkat dashtan. 

Partaker, shartk (Ar. pi. 


Partiality, tarafdari, tar a f girt. 
Participle (act.), ism i fa'il, 

(pass.), ism i maf'ul. 
Particle, zarreh,rizeh: (grammar) 

Particular, khffss, makhsus, mukh- 

Partner, shartk (Ar. pi. shit- 

Partnership, sliirakat, mushclra- 


Partridge, kabk, durraj. 
Party, mihmani, ziyajat : (even- 

ing) shab-nishtni : (political 

etc.) firqeh. 
Pass, tangrali, gardaneh, tangnS: 

(letter) tatkireh. 
Pass (to), guzashtan (by az); 

(be current) rivsj dashtan, 

raij b: (the night), shabra bi- 

ruz avardan, bi-sar burdan 


Passenger, musafir. 
Passion, haca-yi-nafscini. 
Passionate, tund-khwy, tund-mizuj. 
Passive, mutahummil : (verb), 

maf'ul, majhul. 
Passover, 'id (^aid) i fash. 
Passport, tazkireh. 
Past, guzashteh, salaf, ssbiq: 


Paste, sirish. 
Pasteboard, muqawa'. 
Pasture, charagah, marta', cha- 


Pasture (to), charidan. 
Patch, pineh, vasleh. 
Patch (to}, va'skh k 

Path, jaddeh. 
Patience, sabr. 
Patient, sabir : mariz (sick). 
Patriarch, abu'l aba. 
Patrimony, ir%, mirB*. 
Patriot, habibu' > l vatan. 
Patriotism, hubbu'l vatan. 
Patron, murabbi. 
Pattern, nam&neh. 
Pauper, faqir, miskin, bi-nava. 
Pavement, sang-farsh. 


Paw Person. 


Paw (fore-), dost; (hind), pay. 

Pawn, rahn, girau. 

Pawn (to), rahn guzashtan. 

Pawnbroker, rahn-gtr. 

Pay, ujrat, mavajib, muzd: (dai- 
ly) ruzaneh, (monthly) musha- 
hareh, (yearly) saliyaneh. 

Pay (to), ada k: 

Payment, ads. 

Pe&,nukhud(ifarangi), karsanneh. 

Peace, svXh, musalaheh. 

Peaceable, sulk-dust, sulh-juy. 

Peach, hullft. 

Peacock, tavus. 

Peak (mountain), sar, qutteh. 

Pear, gulabi. 

Pearl, murvartd, lu'lu 1 (Ar. pi. 
Watt), durr (Ar. pi. durar). 

Peasant, riHstai, dihqan, ra'iyyat, 

Pebble, sang-rizeh. 

Peck, minqar zadan. 

Peculiar, gharib, 'ajib: mukhtasa 
(to, &*-). 

Peddler, dast-furysh, pttavar. 

Pedigree, nasab, nasabnumch. 

Peel, qishr, pftst. 

Peel (to), p%st kandan. 

Peer (noble), amir (Ar. pi. 
umarti): (equal) naztr. 

Peerless, bt-nazlr, bt-mis&l, la- 
Peg, mikh. ' [qant. 

Pelican, murgh i saqqa. 

Pellmell, harj-marj. 

Pellucid, shaffaf. 

Pen, qalam (steel), qalam i ahin 
(fulad), (nib), sar (nauk) i 
qalam; (-case), qalamdsn. 

Pencil, midad. 

Pendulum, langar (i sa'af). 

Penetration, fimsat, fatanat. 

Peninsula, nim-jaztreh. 

Penman, khvush-navfo. 

Pension, vaztfeh, mustamarrt. 

Pentateuch, Taurnt. 

People, khalq, mardum, ahl (Ar. 
pi. ahalf). 

Pepper, filfil. 

Peppermint, na'nff. 

Per cent, ft sad: (ten per cent, 
ft sad daK). 

Perdition, liaUTcat. 

Perfect, kamU, famm, tamam, kuttt. 
Perfect (to), bi itmam (Hcmal) 

rasflnidan, takmil k: 
Perfection, kamal; takmil. 
Perfectly , kamikm, tamaman , 

Perfidy, khiyanat. 
Perform (to), bi-ja avardan, bi- 

kar bur dan, ijra n\, if a n:, 

vafs k:. 

Perfume, 'or, khvushbiti, raiheh. 
Perfumed, mu l attar. 
Perhaps, sh&yad, gUya. 
Peril, khatr, mukhatareh. 
Perilous, khutarn&k, pur khatar. 
Period, 'arseh, muddat, vaqt (Ar. 

pi. auqsf). 

Perish (to), halak sh:, tabah 
Perishable, fani. [ganhtan. 

P erj ury , saugand (qasam ) i duruyh . 
Permanence, baqa, davam. 
Permanent, payadar, qaim, dnim, 


Permissible, jaiz, rava, halal. 
Permission, ten, ijazat, rtyff, 


Permit (to), tfn (ijasat) dadan, 
Pernicious, muzirr. [guzardan. 
Perpetrate (to), murtakib bildan. 
Perpetual, daim, jacid, jaoidani. 
Perpetually, daiman, paivasteh. 
Perplex (to), hairnn *:, muta- 

hayyir n : parishan 8 :, M- 

hairat andnkhtan. 
Perplexed, muztarib, hairan, mu- 

tahayyir, parishan. 
Perplexity, hairat, iztirab, iash- 

Vt*h, tahayyur. 
Perquisites, tnadakhU. 
Persecute (to), jafa n: ta'aqub n:. 
Persecution, jafa, ta'aqub- 
Perseverance, israr, muvaztbat, 
Persia, Tran. [istiqamat. 

Persian, Irani: (language), Farsi. 
Persist (to), israr n:. 
Person, shakhs (Ar. pi. ashkhOt), 

kas, nafar, adam: (of Holy 

Trinity), aqnVm (Ar. pi. aqa- 

ntm): (of verb.) zamir: (! 8fc P.), 

mutakallim, (2^ P.) mukhatab, 

(3rd p.), ghaib. 


Personal Plaster. 

Personal, shdkhsi, q&ti. 
Personality, shakhsiyyat. 
Personally, ft nafsthi. 
Perspicuous, mubin, vuzih, paida. 


Perspiration, 'araq. 
Perspire (to), i araq k:. 
Persuade (to), mail gardanidan. 
Perusal, mutcila'eh, multihazeh. 
Peruse (to), mutola'eh, (mulsha- 

zeh) k: orm: namwdan, or m: 

Perverse, khvud-sar, sarkash, 

Perverseness, tamarrud, kfivud- 


Perversion, inhir&f. 
Pervert, bargashteh, murtadd. 
Pestilence, ta-un, vabtt. 
Pet (to), nat&zish k: 
Petition, 'aiizeh, 'ars-dasht. 
Petroleum, naft. 
Petticoat, Jistan. 
Phantom, khiyal. 
Pharisee, fartsi. 
Pheasant, qareh qavul. 
Phial, shisheh. 
Philology, l ilm i alsaneh. 
Philosopher, Tihiradmand, faila- 


Philosopher's stone, kimiyB. 
Philosophy, hikmat. 
Phoenix, Jiuma. 
Photograph, 'aks. 
Photograph (to), 'aks andnkhtan. 
Photographer 'dkkUs. 
Physical, taM'i. 
Physician, hakim, tabib (Ar. pi. 


Piano, saz, ytiyanu. 
Pick (to), cMdan (chin); (out), 

bar cMdan, barguzidan, inti- 

khab k:. 
Pickles, turtishi. 
Picture, tascir, naqsh. 
Piece, pnreh, rizeh, tikkeh. 
Pierce (to), suftan (swnft), sun- 

bidan, sifrakJi k:. 
Piety, taqccf, dindari. 
Pig, khug, guruz, khineir (Ar. pi. 

Pigeon, Icabutar, kaftar (vulg.) 

Pile, tudeh, kuppeJi. 
Piles, bavasir. 

Pilgrim (to Mecca), haji: (else- 
where) zaw&r, ziy&rat kunan- 

Pilgrimage (to Mecca), hajj : 

(elsewhere), ziyarat. 
Pill, habbeh. 

Pillage, tnraj, turk-tttzi, chapav. 
Pillar, sutun, rukn (Ar. pi. ar- 


Pillow, bslish, btittn, pushti (vulg.) . 
Pin, sangaq. 

Pine-tree, sinaubar, ka$. 
Pine-apple, 'ainun'nas. 
Pink (flower), mikhak: (colour), 


Pinnacle, kangureh. 
Pious, muttaqi, dindttr, khudn- 

Pipe (smoking), chibuq: (for 

water) Ivleh. 
Pistachio, pistih, fistuq. 
Pistol, tapSncJieh. 
Pit, chah, gaud (vulg.), hufreh. 
Pitcher, sabu, kuzeh. 
Pitchfork, cliangal, 
Pith, maghz. 
Pitiless bi-rahm. 
Pity, shafaqat, riqqat, rctfat: 

(it is a ) haif ast. 
Pity (to), shafaqat n: bar. 
Place, makcln, maqUm, j&y, mau- 

qa': (dignity), mak&nat. 
Place (to), guz&shtan, nihadan. 
Plague, ta'un. 
Plain, dasht, sahra: (ugly), zisht- 

ruy, (evident), sarih. 
Plainly, sarihan, vazihan, 5slir 


Plaintiff, mudda'i. 
Plait (to), baftan. 
Plan, tadbir (Ar. pi. tadaUr). 
Plane (instrument), randeh: 

(surface), sath: (tree), chinar. 
Planet, sayyareh. 
Plank, takhteh. 
Plant, nabat, rustani. 
Plant (to), ksshtan (k&r), nishzn- 

dan, ghars n: 
Plaster, gach, kah-gil: (medical), 


Plaster Power. 


Plaster (to), andudan. 

Plate, bushqab. 

Platform, takhteh. 

Play, bazi: (gambling) qumftr, 

Play (to), bcizi k: (music), na- 

vakhtan, zadan. 

Pleasant, latif, dil-pasand, lafftf. 
Please (to), khvushnttd s:, pa- 

sand amadan : (if you ), ilti- 

f&t farmudeh. 
Pleased, khvushnud, razi. 
Pleasure, sh&di, khyiwhnudi, lazzat, 
Pledge, girau, rahn. 
Plenipotentiary, vazir (saftr) i 


Plenteous, ) vafir, faravan, bcl- 
Plentiful, \ ki#rat. 
Plenty, faravani, vafrat, kisrat. 
Plot, sazisli, vifaq, mu'Bhadeh.' 
Plough, khish f shukltm. 
Plough (to), shukhm k: 
Pluck (to), cMdan (chin). 
Plum, ate, aliicheh. 
Plumage, par va bal. 
Plump, farbih, chaq. 
Plunder, taraj, chap&u, ghsrat 
Plunder (to), taraj k : , gh&rat n : . 
Pluperfect, mazi-yi ba'id. 
Plural jam'. 

Plurality, Icisrat, ta'addud. 
Pocket jib. 

Pocket-handkerchief, dastmnl. 
Poem, shi'r (Ar. pi. ash'ar). 
Poet, sha'ir (Ar. pi. shu'ara). 
Poetry, slii'r, nazm: (art of ), 

'Urn i 'ariZf . 

Point, sar, nauk: (dot), nuqteh. 
Point (to, out), nishan dadan, 

ishsreh bi-stt-yi . . . n: . 
Poison, zahr, samm. 
Polar qutbi. 

Pole, (of heavens), qutb; chub. 
Policy, maslahat. 
Polish (to), zidudan, saiqal k:, 

jiitt dadan. 
Polite, adib (Ar. pi. udabrf), ba- 


Politeness, adab. 
Pollute (to), afadeh s:, mulawas 

ft:, najis gardanidan. 
Pollution, najasat, alltdagi. 

Polo, cliauytin, chaugiin bazt. 
Polygamy, kisrat i azvaj. 
Polytheism, shirk. 
Polytheist, mushrik. 
Pomegranate, anar 
Pomp, damdameh, karr o farr, 


Pond, hauz, sbgir. 
Pony, yabH. 
Poor, faqir (Ar ; pi. fugara), 

muflis, bi-navs. 
Pope, pSpa-yi Rum. 
Poppy khash-khash. 
Populace, f avamm(u'nnas), arnzil 

(Ar. pi.). 

Populate (to) abad s: 
Population, jam'iyyat. 
Populous, abad, ma'mftr. 
Porch, rav&q. 

Porcupine, khftrpusht, qunfuz. 
Pork, gvsht i khinzir. 
Port (harbour) bandar. 
Porter, darban: (carrier), ham- 

Portion, bahreh, juzv (Ar. pi. 


Portmanteau, khtlrjin. 
Portrait, tasvir, shabih. 
Possess (to)', dashtan (dar). 
Possessor, sahib, malik. 
Possibility, imkan. 
Possible, mumkin. 
Possibly, shayad. 
Post, chapar, pUsteh; (postage- 

stamp) tamr. 
Posterity, aulad, a'qab. 
Postpone (to), ta'tfq andakhtan 

(andaz\ ta'khirk:. 
Posture, m?'. 

Pot, dig: (earthen) dizi, knzeft. 
Potato, sib i zamini. 
Potter, kttzeh-gar. 
Pouch, Much, kif. 
Pound (to), kliftan, klibidan. 
Pound (jg\ Itreh. 
Pour, rikhtan (rie). 
Poverty, iflas, muflist, bt-navai, 

Powder, safnf: (gunpowder), 

Power, qudrat, quwat, yarn, 


Powerful Private. 

Powerful, qcidir, qavi, zuravar, 


Powerless, ns tatan. 
Practice, mashq: l adat, 'amoil. 
Practise (to), mashq k:. 
Praise, madh, sitayish, ta'rif, 

hamd, sans. 
Praise (to), situdan (sitay), tau- 

sif k:. 

Pray (to), du'a k:. 
Prayer, du'cl: (fixed), namaz. 
Preach, va'z k: mau'izeh n: 
Preacher, v&'iz. 
Precede (to), pish raftan. 
Preceding, subiq. 
Precept, pand, nasihat (Ar. pi. 

Precious, M-balia, btsh-qtmat, 

qimat-dar, girun-bdhu. 
Precipice, part-gah. 
Predestination, qismat, qaz&, 


Preface, dibctclwh, muqaddamdi. 
Prefer (to), tarjih dadan, rujhan 


Pregnant, hamikli, abistan. 
Prejudice, ta'-assub. 
Prejudiced, muta^assib. 
Preparation, tadsruk. 
Prepare (to), tadsruk didan 

(for): hSzir (durust) k:. 
Prepared, muhayyn, hazir, amo,- 


Preposition, harf i jarr. 
Presage, /ffJ, shukwn. 
Presbyter, kashixh. 
Prescience, pish-btnt. 
Presence, huzur: hazrat. 
Present, hazir, (time), hal: (gift), 

bakhshish, pishkash, saughnt. 
Present (to), httzvr k:; bakhshi- 

dan, dddan, 'atak:, 'insyatn:. 
Preservation, muhafizat, hifazat. 
Press (printing), chapkhnneh, 

matba 1 : (cupboard), ganjeh. 
Press (to), fishurdan (fishsr). 
Presume (to), (fancy), pandash- 

tan (pand&r), ingttshtan (ing&r). 
Presumption (fancy), mazanneh, 

gamun: (arrogance), takabbur, 


Pretence, bahsneh n: 
Preterite, mnzl, yi mutlaq. 
Pretty, khyushgil, qashang, maq- 

Prevail (to), ghalabeJt, yftftan, 

ghalib amadan, mustauli shu- 

dan, isttfa yaftan (over, bar): 

(be prevalent), shuyW dttshtan, 

ravaj dsshtan: (become preva- 
lent), shuyu 1 (ravclj) y&ftan. 
Prevalent, tari, ray. 
Prevent (to), baz dashtan, m&ni 1 

bvdan (or shudan). 
Previous, sabiq, ptshin. 
Previously, sabiq bar in, min 


Prey, sliikur, said. 
Price, qimat ^qaimaf), baha, (price 

current) nirkh. 
Priceless, bi-baha, bish-qaimat, 

giran-m&yeh, giran-baha. 
Prick (to), khalidan. 
Pride, takdbbur, ghurur. 
Priest, Taihm (now a sorcerer: 

Ar. pi. kalianeti)] (presbyter) 


Priesthood, kahttnat, kalianttt. 
Primary, awattn, astt. 
Prince, shahzadeh, sarvar, mtrea.* 
Princess, banu, banu-yi e uzma\ 

Principal, l umdeh: ra'is (Ar. pi. 


Principally, ghtiliban, kliususan. 
Principle, miljib, asl (Ar. pi. 

Print (foot-), axr (Ar. pi. nsar), 

qadam (Ar. pi. aqd&m). 
Print (to), chap k:, tab' k:. 
Printed, matbu'. 
Printer, cha^chl, tabba 1 . 
Prison, zindan, habs-khaneh. 
Prisoner, zindaM, mahbus; atir 

(Ar. pi. twara). 
Privacy, khalvat. 
Private, khass: (soldier), sar- 

bss : (secret) mahramsneh. 

* Mirza prefixed to a name = Mr., but affixed it means 

Privately Public. 


Privately, mahramaneh. 

Privilege, imtiyttz. 

Privity, Ogahi. 

Prize, in'am (an'am). 

Probability, ihtimal. 

Probable, muhtamil: (to be ), 

ihtimal dashtan. 
Probably, ihtimal hast, shayad, 

Probation, imtihctn, azmayish : 

(time of) muhlat. 
Problem, mas'aleh (Ar. pi. ma- 

sail), mu'amma. 
Probosis, khurtum. 
Proclamation, ishtihar-nameh. 
Procurable, muyassar. 
Procurator, hakim, hukmran. 
Procure (to), hasil n:, tahstl k:, 

paida k:, bi-ham rasamdan, 

yaftan (yab). 
Prodigal, musrif. 
Produce, hasil, mahsul. 
Produce (to), paida k:, bar avar- 

dan: zaidan. 
Profession, igrar: (business), 

ptsheh, hirfeh, 
Professor, ustad, mu'alMm, mu- 


Profit, sud, naf, manfa'at, faideh. 
Profitable, mufid, sudmand. 
Profligate, badkar, fasiq, fajir. 
Progenitor, jadd (Ar. pi. ajdad). 
Progeny, nasl, furriyat, aufad 

(Ar. pi. of valad). 
Progress, taraqqt, irtiqa. 
Prohibit (to) man' k:, qadaghan 

(ghadaghan) k:, nahy k:. 
Prohibition, mumana'at, man 1 , 


Prolix, tavtt, tulant. 
Prolong (to), daraz k:, (to be 

prolonged), tul kashidan, bi- 

tul anjamidan. 
Promenade, garfish, tafarriy, 

Prominent, mashhttr (Ar. pi. 

mashaMr), mumtaz. 
Promise, va'deh, qarnr, qaul. 
Promise (to), va'deh A;:, qaul 


Promised, mau'ttd. 
Pronoun (personal), zamir, (de- 

monstrative), ism i ishareh, 

(relative) mausul. 
Pronounce (to), talaffuz k:. 
Pronunciation, talaffuz. 
Proof, daUl (Ar. pi. datoti, adilr 

leh), burhan (Ar. pi. baraMn), 


Propensity, mail, righbat. 
Proper, laiq, shayisteh, munttsib, 

ravel, sazttvtlr. 

Property, milk, ma yamlik, mal. 
Prophecy, nubumat, pishing ni. 
Prophesy (to), nubuwat k: 
Prophet, nabt (Ar. pi. anbia 

paighambar: rasul (Ar. pi. ru- 


Prose, n<ajr. 

Proselyte, mu'min i jadid. 
Prosody, 'Urn i 'aruz. 
Prosperity, iqbal, kam-rarit, sa'- 

adat-mandt, bili-budt. 
Prosperous, kamran,sa'adatmand. 
Prostration, nujddi, sujud. 
Protect (to), himayat k: hifn- 

zat n: 

Protection, himayat, hifazat. 
Protector, hamt, muhafiz. 
Protestant, pratistSnt, raf? 6t- 


Proud, maghrttr, mutakabbir. 
Prove (to), *abit k:, iqbat n:, 

dalalat k: or dashtan, mudal- 

lal *:. 

Proverb, masal (Ar. pi. amfffZ). 
Proverbial, zarbu'l ma^al. 
Provide, aniadeh (hazir) k: t to- 

hiyeh n: 
Providence, ptsIMnt: (Divine-), 

Province, mamlikat (Ar. pi. mo- 

malik), vilayat. 
Provisions, ghaqa, ta'nm, azttqeh: 

(for journey), tUsheh. 
Provoke (to), bar angikhtan (an- 

giz), tahrik n:, junbish dadan. 
Proxy, vaktl (Ar. pi. vukala). 
Prudence, ptshbtnt, hllsh, bastrat. 
Prudent, ptxhbtn, hftshyar. 
Psalm, zabttr, mazmftr (Ar. pi. 

Puberty, bulttgh. 
Public, 'armm, 'ffmme/i, l umttmt. 


Public-house Bam. 

Public-house, sharab-khandi, mai- 

Pull (to), kashiddn. 

Pullet, jujeh. 

Pulpit, miribar. 

Pulse, nabz. 

Pumice-stone, sang i pa-maleh. 

Pump, tulumbeh. 

Pumpkin, kadii. 

Pun, kinayeh, afliam, latifeh. 

Punctual, muvaqqat. 

Punctually, sar i vaqt, bi-vaqt. 

Punish (to), saza dadan, taribih, 
ft:, siyasat, ft:, l uqubat n:. 

Punishment, saza, ta'dib, tanbih, 
siyasat, 'uqubat. 

Pupil, shagird, muta'aUim: (of 
eye), mardumak i chashm. 

Purchase (to), kharidan, ishtira k: 

Purchaser, mushtari, kharidar. 

Pure, pak, tahir; khalis: pale- 

Purify (to), tankiyeh k:, pak k:. 

Purple, binafsheh-rang, arghavani. 

Purpose, iradth, niyyat, qasd, 
maqsud, gharaz : ma^rii. 

Purpose (to), qasd k\, irttdeh 

Purse, Mseh. 

Pursue (to), dar pai . . . raftan, 
'aqab . . . raftan, ta'aqub n: 

Pursuit, ta'dqub. 

Push (to), randan, takan dadan. 

Put (to), nihadan, guzardan- (on), 
pusMdan, (out a light), nish- 
ttndan, khamush k:, itfa n: 
(eject), birunk: ikhr&jn:, ran- 

Puzzle, inu'amma. 

Puzzle (to), dtt-chtlr k:. 

Pyramid, haram (Ar. pi. ahrum). 

Quadruped, chahar-ptty. 

Quail baldarchin. 

Quality, khassiyyat, khislat (Ar. 

pi. khisah, sifat, vasf (Ar. pi. 

ausaf), kaifiyyat. 
Quantity, qadr, miqda'r, andazeli. 
Quarantine, karantin. 
Quarrel, da'va, niztz 1 , munaza'eh. 
Quarrel (to), da'-ca (nizci', mu- 

nttza'eK) k:, jangidan. 

Quarry, ma'dan i sang: (game) 

said, shikar. 

Quarter, rub 11 : (mercy) amUn. 
Queen, malikeh. 
Quench (to), (thirst), faru ni- 

sliandan; (fire), khamush ft:, 

itfa n : . 

Query, mas'aleh, sw'aZ, pursish. 
Question, su'al, istifsar. 
Question (to), pursidan, su'al ft : . 
Quick, zyd, chabuk, tund. 
Quickly, zud, bi-zudi. 
Quickness, zudi, sur'at. 
Quicksilver, jtveh, sim-ab. 
Quiet, aram, ram; asudeh. 
Quiet, aram s:. 
Quietly, ahisteli, yavash. 
Quilt, lahaf. 
Quince, bih. 
Quinine, gineh-gineh. 
Quinsy, khunaq. 
Quire (of paper), dasteh-yi ka- 


Quite, tamaman, kuttiyyatan. 
Quiver, tarkash. 
Quote (to), iqtibas k : 

Rabbit, khar-gvsh. 

Babble, 'avammu'nnas, arafil. 

Bace (family), khanadan, asl, 

nasab, nizad, nasl: (running 

match) musabaqat, asb-davani. 
Bace-course, maidan. 
Back, shikanjeh. 
Badish, turbcheh. 
Bafter (beam), ttr. 
Bag, zindeh, pineh, pareh, kuhneh. 
Bage, ghaiz, qahr, ghazab. 
Bailing (balustrade), dast-andaz. 
Baillery, mazah, shukhi. 
Bailway, rah t ahin. 
Bail way-carriage, kaliskeh-yi bu- 

khar, vagun. 

Baiment, rakht, pushak, libas. 
Bain, bar an, barish. 
Bain (to), (in tr.)baridan: (trans.), 


Bainbow, qaus, qaus i quzah. 
Baise (to), bar dmlitan, buland 

ft:, bala ft:, afrashtan. 
Baisins, kishmish. 
Bam, quch, ghuch. 

Ramparts Regiment. 


Ramparts, hisar. 

Ramrod, sunbeh, mil. 

Rank, mansab, darajeh, marta- 

beh: (row, line), saff (Ar. pi. 


Ransom, fida, fidyeh, tasadduq. 
Rapacious, darandeli, ziyan. 
Rapid, tund, tund-rau: (water- 
fall) Gb-shar. 
Rapture, vajd, sha'af. 
Rare, nadir, kam-yab. 
Rarely, nadiran, nudratan. 
Rascal, hileh-baz, dagha-baz, mak- 

k&r, aubash. 

Rash, dast-pftclieh, mutohawir. 
Rashness, tahawur. 
Rat, mush, mush i buzurg, mush 

i Sultaniyyeh. 
Rather, bishtar, balkih. 
Ravage (to), chaptiu k:, gharat 

n:, tsraj n:. 
Raven, ghurab. 
Raw, kham. 
Ray, partau, shu'a'. 
Razor, tigh (i dallakt). 
Reach (to), rasidan bi-. 
Read (to), khvandan, mulahizeh 

(mutala l eh)n: (Can you read?) 

savad darid? 
Ready, hazir, musta'idd, clmftdeh, 

muliayyn: ( money), naqd. 
Real, sahih, haqjlqi. 
Really, haqtqatan, filvnqi'. 
Realm mamlikat (Ar. pi. mama- 

lik), mulk, kwhvar. 
Reap, daravidan, dirau k:. 
Reaper, dirau kunandeh, dira- 


Rear, 'aqab, pas. 
Rear (to), tarbiyyat n : ; (intr., 

of a horse), sar i do pa tsta- 

Reason, 'aql (Ar. pi. 'ttqitf), 

idrak, fahm: (cause), sabab, 

ba'ifi, jUiat. 
Reasonable, ma'qul. 
Rehel, yOghi, bagM, mufsid, ta- 

ght, fitneJi-angiz. 
Rebel (to), yaghi shudan, bagha- 

vat n ; . 
Rebellion, baghavat ; ightishash, 

fitneh, tughyan. 

Rebuild (to), tafmir n : . 
Rebuke, sarzanish, malamat, tau- 


Rebuke (to), sarzanish (etc.) n: 
Receipt, rasid, qabz t rasid. 
Receive, giriftan, qabul k : , pazt- 


Recent, tszeh, nan. 
Reception, paeirai, qabul. 
Reckon (to), shamurdan (sha- 

mar), hisab k:. 
Reckoning, hisab. 
Recline, takyeli zadan. 
Recognise (to), shinakhtan (ftt- 

Recommendation (letter of) '- 

Recompense , 'avaz, makafat, 

muzd, ajr; sain, kaifar. 
Recompense (to), ajr dadan. 
Reconcile (to), ashti (aulh) kar- 

dan, musalaheh n : . 
Reconciliation, ashtt, s\dh, mu- 


Recreation, tafarrqj. 
Recruit, sarbaz i jadid. 
Recruit (to), (health), aihhat 

yaftan : (soldiers), jam'-aoari 


Red, surkh. 
Redeem (to), fida k:. 
Redeemer, fida kunandeh. 
Redemption, Jidyeh. 
Redoubt, qal'eh, Man. 
Reed, nat. 
Refer (to), nytt' n: bi, roji' Ml- 

dan bi, ishnreh n : bi-sn-yi. 
Reflect (to), 'afo n:; (think), 

ta'ammul n:. 
Reformation, islnh. 
Reformer, muslih. 
Refuge, panah-gah, pannh, mal- 

ja, bast. 

Refusal, inkar, iba. 
Refuse (to), iba n:, inkar k:. 
Refute (to), radd n : ; mujnb sakh- 

Regarding, dar bab i, nisbat bi, 

dar bareh. 

Regeneration, tavaUud i tnzeh. 
Regiment (infantry), favj (Ar. 

pi. afvaj): (cavalry), hazareh. 


Register Best. 

Register, daftar. 

Regret, ta'assuf^ anduh: pasM- 


Regret (to), afsus khyurdan. 
Regular, bar hasb i 

(troops) nizBmi. 
Regularly, bi-tartib, bs-q&ideh. 
Regulation, q&'ideh, (/ftnun. 
Reign, saHanat, padshaM. 
Reign (to), saJtanat n:. 
Rein, jilau, 'man. 
Reject (to), radd k:, daf k: 
Rejoice (to), shftd shudan, khyu- 

sM k:. 
Rejoicing, shctdt, shftdmani, khyush- 

Relate (to), avardan, hikclyat n:. 
Relation (relative), khyitsh, qaum 

va khyish, qarib. 
Reliable mu'tabar, mu'tamad. 
Reliance, i'tim&d, i'tiqttd: (on 

God), tavakkuL 
Religion, din (Ar. pi. adynn), 

mazhab (Ar. pi. wa?#M>). 
Religious, dind&r, muttaqi, imttn- 


Remain (to), m&ndan. 
Remainder, baqiyyeh, bftqi, mu 


Remarkable, gharib, maslihur. 
Remedy, ch&reh, 'ilaj; davtt. 
Remember (to), (bi-]yud ttvar- 

dan, yud dashtan. 
Remembrance, yttd-avari. 
Remind (to), bi-y&d cf cardan. 
Reminder, yftd-dti>iht. 
Remorse, pasWmani, nad&mat. 
Remote, dur, ba'id. 
Remove (to), bar-d&shtan, naql 


Rend, daridan, chalc k:. 
Renegade, murtadd. 
Renew (to), tajdid :. 
Renewal, tajdid. 
Renewed, mujaddad. 
Renown, shuhrat, nv&zeh. 
Renowned, ntknam, mashhur. 
Rent (house-), ijnreh. 
Rent (to), igureh giriftan. 
Renter, mu,jir, rmistfqjir. 
Repair (to), ta'mir k:., durust 


Repeat (to), mukarrar k:; baz 


Repeatedly, mukarraran. 
Repel (to), daf n : , mudafa'eh k: . 
Repent (to), taubeh k:. 
Repentance, taubeh. 
Repetition, takrur. 
Reply, javBb. 
Reply (to), javub d:. 
Report (on dit), afvsh: (of fire- 
arms) shalik, sada. 
Report (to), khabar d: , ikKbar n: . 
Repose, ttrcim, muisli, istirahat. 
Repose (to), ttram k :, ist'rtlhat k :. 
Reproach, zajr, ta'zir, sarzanish, 

malamdt, tauMkh, mu'akhaeeh. 
Reproach (to), taubikh n:, l it&bn:. 
Reproof, 'itnb, taubikh. 
Reptile, khazandeh, hasharat. 
Republic, daulat i jumhuriyyeh. 
Republican, jumhurt. 
Reputation, abru, niknttmi, shuh- 
Request, darkhyast, tamannti, il- 

Request (to), darkhyast A:, il- 

timtts n: 
Requirements, lavftzim (Ar. pi. 

of lazimeh}, 

Requital, mukafat, mujazat. 
Resemblance, muahabahat, sha- 

bahat, shibh, misal. 
Resemble (to), tashbih d&shtan 

bi, manand budan. 
Reside, sakin budan, nishastan, 

sukunat dttshtan. 
Residence, manzil, makan, khaneh 
Resident (political), batyuz. 
Resign (to), az dost dadan, isttfftt 

giriftan, (kardan). 
Resist (to), muqUoamat n: biz. 
Resolve (to), musammam sh:, 

tasmim bastan. 
Respect (to 1 ), ihtirarn k:, muhta- 

ram dashtan. 

Respectable, mu'tabar, abrudar. 
Respected, muhtaram, mu'azzam. 
Respite, muhlat. 
Responsible, masful: zftmin: mu- 

Rest, rahat, istirtthat, nrum: ba- 

Rest Roll. 301 

Rest (to), istirahat ft:, aram k: Rhyme, saj 1 , qafiyeh. 

Restive, sarkash. Rib, dandeh. 

Restless, mutazalzil. Ribbon, navar. 

Restore (to), radd n:, pas da- Rice (growing), shaltuk: (for 

dan: ta'mtr k: food) birinj. 

Restrain (to), va (buz) dashtan. Rich, daulatmand, ghant, maldar. 

Restraint (self-), imtina', khyud- Riches, daulat, ghina. 

dart. Riddle, mu'amma. 

Restrict (to), ikhfisar n:. Ride (to), savar slvudan. 

Result, natfjeh, akhir. Rider, savor. 

Resurrection, qiyam, qiyamat, Ridicule maskhareh, istihzff, rish- 

rantakhiz. khand, sukhriyyeh. 

Retailer, khurdeh-farush. Ridicule (to), istihza etc. k: 

Retain (to), nigah dfinhtan. Rifle, tufang i shish khaneh. 

Retaliation, qistts, intiqam, l avaz. Right, durust, rast: munOsib; 

Retinue, khadam va hasham, mau- sahlh ; mustaqim. 

kab, qabqabeh. Righteous, 'adil, sadiq. 

Retreat (to), pas ('aqcib) nishas- Righteousness, 'adalat, rastt. 

tan (nisMri). Rigour, shiddat, sakhti. 

Retribution, jiztt, padssh. Rind, pust, qishr. 

Return, muraja'at, baz-gasht, Ring, angitshtar; (signet) kha~ 

rvtj^. tarn. 

Return (to), bttz-gasht (muraja- Ring (to), zang zadan. 

'at) n: ruffi ft:, bar-gashtan, Ringlet, zulf, gluil. 

bsz ftmadan: (give back) bsz Riot, ightishush, shuluk, shVrish, 

dadan, radd k:. nshttb. 

Reveal (to), izhar n:, kashf n:, Ripe, rasideh. 

makshvfk:. Rise (to), bar khastan (khiz), pa 

Revelation, kashf; mukashafat; shudan: (of sun), tulip k:,bar 

tunztt. amadan. 

Revenge, intiqsm. Risk, khntar. 

Revenge (to) oneself, intiqBm Rite, rasm (Ar. pi. fttsffm). 

giriftan. Rival, harif. 

Reverence, ta'ztm, takrlm, ihti- River, rttd, rttdkhaneh, nahr (Ar. 

ram, hurmat. pi. anhar. 

Reverend, muhtaram, mukarram. Road, rah, shari', shahrah. 

Reverse (disaster), sudameh, Roam, acareh gaahtan, sargardan 

shikast. sh : 

Review ^military), san. Roan, surkiiiln, giztt. 

Review (to), san dtian. Roar, bang, gliwrrish. 

Revive (to), ihya n:, eindeh s: Roar (to), bang tadan, ghurft- 

(trans.) dan, ghurrish k: 

Revolt, fitneh, fasad, baghavat. Roast (to), kabab ft:, biryan ft: 

Revolve (to), garditih ft:, daurk:. Rob (to), duzdtdan. 

Revolver, tapancheh-yi shish ta- Robber, duzd, rnlaan. 

leh. Robbery, duz<tf, rahzant, sarqat. 

Reward, ajr, in'am: (in next Rock, sakltreli. 

world) favab. Rocket, mHahak. 

Rheumatism, bad, vaj' i mafa- Rod, 'off. 

sti. Roe, ahtt. 

Rhinoceros, kargadan. Rogue, htleh-sSt, dagha-ba*. 

Rhubarb, ribas, rivand. Roll, tolch, 


Roll Sanction. 

Roll (to), (intr.) ghaJtidan: 

(trans.) ghaltantdan : pidiani- 


Roller (for roof), bum-ghaltan. 
Roman Catholic, papavi. 
Roman, rumi. 
Roof, bam, pitshti bam: (ceiling) 


Rook, kalagh. 
Room, utaq. 

Root, risheh: asl (Ar, pi. usul). 
Root (to take), risheh zadan: (to 

root up), bar kandan. 
Rope, tanab. 
Rosary, tasbih. 
Rose, gid i surkh. 
Rosy, gul-gun, gtd-rang. 
Rot (to), pusidan, gandidan. 
Rough, durusht; na-hamvar. 
Roughness, durushti. 
Round, gird, mudavvar. 
Rouse (to), bar angikhtan, tah- 

rik k : 

Rout, hazimat, shikast. 
Rout (to), shikast dadan. 
Row (line), saff; (tumult), han- 

gameh, shuiwk, ightishash, ghau- 


Row (to), paru zadan. 
Royal, mulukaneh, slialii, sultani, 

shaftrysrt, humayvni, shshan- 

Rub (to), mctlidan; ssidan, ma- 

lish k: 

Rubbish, asTiqal. kJittsh&k. 
Ruby, la'l, ysqyt i ahmar. 
Rudder, sukkan. 
Rude, bt-adab, gustakh, vahshi. 
Rudeness, bt - adabi, 


Ruffian, IvM (Ar. pi. 
Ruin, talaf, taboM] kharabi: vi- 


Ruin (to), kliarab k:. 
Rule, hukumat, hukm-rani qft'i- 

deh (Ar. pi. quvci'id} q&nun 

(Ar. pi. gavsntn). 
Rule (to), hukm randan, hukm- 
rani n: 
Ruler (instrument), mistar : 

(governor), hakim, vaU, sultan, 

(Ar. pi. salatiri). 

Rumour, afvah, shuhrat, at 
Run (to), davidan: (flow), jar 

shudan : (away), gurikhtan (gt<- 

riz), firar k : 
Rupee, rupiyeh. 
Rust, zang. 
Rusty, zang-alvdeh. 
Rye, gandum i siyali. 

Sabbath (Saturday) sabt, shan- 

Sable (animal), sammur : (black), 


Sabre, shamshir. 
Sack, javal: (in war), tttkht va 

tarffj, gharat. 

Sack (to), gharat n:, chapau k: 
Sackcloth, palas. 
Sacrament, paiman (i nmqaddas}, 
Sacred, muqaddas. 
Sacrifice, qurbani. 
Sad, dU-tang, dil-gir, ghamgin, 

Saddle, em 
Saddle (to), zin k:. 
Sadness, ghamgini, dil-tangi, dil- 

giri, huzn. 
Safe, anAn, salim, sahih va sala- 

mat, salamat: (cupboard), gan- 


Safety, salamati, amniyyat. 
Sage, hakim (Ar. pi. hukama), 

khiradmand, danislimand. 
Sail, badban, shira'. 
Sailor, mallah. 

Saint, vali (Ar. pi. auliytf), pir. 
Salary, mavajib. 
Sale, furush: harraj, bai'. 
Sallow, zard, partdeh-rang. 
Salmon, azad-malii. 
Salt, namak: (adj.) namakln, 


Salt-cellar, namak-dan. 
Salutary, mufid; gurara. 
Salutation, salam, tahiyeh. 
Salute (cannon), shattk. 
Salute (to), salam k: (guftan): 

shalik andakhtan. 
Salvation, najat, rfliai. 
Same, hamin, haman. 
Sample, namuneh. 
Sanction, tew, ijazat, riza. 

Sanctity Seek. 


Sanctity, taqaddus, qiddasat. 
Sanctuary, #an<%r#/, ma^'ff, 6o. 
Sand, rig. 

Sandals, na'lain (Ar. dual). 
Sanguinary, khvn-khvar, khun- 


Sapphire, yaqut i kabud. 
Sash, shal (i katnar). 
Satan, IbUs, Shaitcln (Ar. pi. 

Satiated, sir. 
Satin, atlas. 

Satisf action, razclmandi : 'avaz. 
Satisfied, ruzi, khvushnud: sir. 
Satisfy (to), razi sclkhtan, khvush- 

nud k: 

Saturday, sharibeh. 
Saucer, na'lbaki. 
Saucepan, digcheJi. 
Savage, vdhshi; (cruel), bi-rahm. 
Save (to), rihanidan, rihai del- 

dan, najat dadan: hifz k:, mah- 

fuz dashtan. 

Saviour, najat-dihandeh, mwji. 
Savour, mazeh. 
Saw, arreh. 
Saw (to), arreh kashidan, bi- 

arreh buridan. 

Say, guftan (guy): farmudan. 
Saying, qaul, sukhan. 
Scabbard, ghilaf. 
Scales, tarazu. 

Scandal, tuhmat, faditan, iftvra. 
Scar, dagh. 

Scarce, kam, kam-yab; qalil. 
Scarcity, kami: tawgi, girani. 
Scarlet, qirmizi. 
Scatter, pashtdan, pakhsh k: 

(vulgar): parakandeh sakhtan; 

Scavenger, kannas. 
Scent, bvy; 'atr. 
Scented, wm'attar. 
Sceptre, 'ass. 
Schism, shtqaq i dar din. 
Scholar, muta'ttim, ttilib (Ar. pi. 

talabeJi, tuttab) : (learned man), 

f aUm (Ar. pi. f ulama). 
School, madraseh, maktab. 
Schoolmaster, mu'attim, akhyund, 

Scissors, miqraz, qamchi. 
Scold (to), malamat k:, 'itab n: 
Scorn (to), tahqir n:, ihfinat n: 
Scorpion, 'aqrab, kazdum. 
Scourge (to), taziyttneh zadan. 
Scout, J08W8. 
Scratch (to), khsridan, khirllsM- 


Scream, ghariv. . 
Screen, pardeh. 
Screw, pich. 
Scribe, kntib, navisandeh, khwsh- 

navis, muharrir. 
Scriptures (Holy), kutub i mu- 

Scroll, tttmar. 
Scull (oar), par. 
Sea, darya, bahr (Ar. pi. bihar). 
Seal, muhr, khatam. 
Seal (to), muhr k:, makhtftm s: 
Sealing-wax, Isk. 
Seam, dare. 
Seaman, mdttah. 
Search, taftish, tafahhus, j 
Search (to), justan O'y), j 

A;:, taftish n:, tafahhiM k:. 
Season, fasl (Ar. pi. 

Seat, nishiman: (of govern- 

ment) maqarr i aytileh. 
Seat (to), nishandan. 
Second, duwum, duyum, qltnl: 

(of time), qllniyyeh. 
Secret, rile, sirr (Ar. pi. asrar) : 

(adj.) makhft, panhan, nVtan, 

Science, 'Urn (Ar. pi. 'ulilm). 

Secretary, mtrza, mustauft, naib. 

Secretly, dar khafa, sirran. 

Sect, firqeh, taifeh. 

Secular, dunyavt. 

Secure, amin; imin, tnoA/fe, o- 

Security, amniyyat, aalttmati : 

(person), zamin. 
Sedition, jfltneh, baghnvat. 
Seditious, Jitncli-angie, mufsid. 
Seduce, ighva n : , fariftan (fa- 


See! (behold!) inalc, Jan. 
See (to), dtdan (bin). 
Seed, tukhm. 
Seek (to), justan (jVy),ju*tujn k:. 


Seem Shroud. 

Seem (to), namudan (namay). 
Seize (to), giriftan (gir*); girifffir 

k:, dastgir k:. 
Seldom, kam, kamtar. 
Select (to), bar guzidan (guziri), 

ikhtiyctr k:, mumtaz n:, w- 

tikhab k:. 

Self, khyud, khvish, khvtshtan. 
Selfish, khmu/gharaz. 
Sell (to), furukhtan (furysh). 
Send (to), firistadan, irsal n: 

( for), talab d&shtan, khvan- 

Sense, hiss (Ar. pi. ah-yas); ( aql, 

fahm, hush. 
Senseless, bi-hiss, bf-liavass: bi- 


Sensible, ba-hush, 'aqil, fahim. 
Sensual, wa/>awt, shahvat-parast. 
Sensuality, nafsaniyyat, shahvat- 

Sentence (gram.), jumleh, faqa- 

reh : (legal), hukm, fatotf, fai- 


Seutinel, qaravul, kashikchi, pas- 

Separate, juda, 'ala'haddeh. 
Separate (to), jud& k:. 
Separately, judaganeh, far dan 

Separation, mufaraqat, firaq, ju- 


September, ailuL 
Sepulchre, qabr (Ar. pi. qubur\ 

maqbareh, gur. 
Seraglio, andarun, haram. 
Sergeant, vakil. 
Sermon, va'z, mau'izeh. 
Serpent, mar. 
Servant, naukar, Tchadim, mula- 


Serve (to), khidmat k:. 
Service, khidmat, khidmat-gvzari. 
Session, ijlss. 
Set (to;, (of sun), ghw&b n: f 

fwrv, raftan. 

Several, chand, chand ta, ba'zi. 
Severe, sakht, shadid. 
Severity, sakhti, shiddat. 
Sew (to), dukhtan (due). 
Sewer, ab-ris. 
Sex, jins. 

Ihatw, } "* 

Shake (to), (intr.), takSn k:, 

junbidan; larzidan: (trans.) 

takan dadan, junbanidan. 
Shame, sharm, haya, khajalat, 

sharmandagi: (disgrace), nang, 

rusv&t, 'ar. 

Shameless, bi-sharm, bi-hayS. 
Shape, shikl, siirat, hai'at. 
Share, qismat, bahreh. 
Share (to), taqsim k:, qismat k? 

(intr.) sharik budan. 
Sharp, tiz, fand. 
Sharpness, ttzi. 
Shatter (to), pareh pareh k:. 
Shave (to), tarashidan. 
Shawl, shal. 

Shear (to), pashm buridan. 
Sheath, ghifaf. 
Shed kappar. 
Shed (to), rikhtan (rfe). 
Sheep, guafand, rnish. 
Sheepfold, l Oghil (i gusfand). 
Sheet, chadur: (paper) varaq (Ar. 

pi. auraq). 
Shell, sadaf: (of nut), pvst, 


Shelter, panah, malja. 
Shepherd, sliab&n. 
Shield, sipar. 
Shine, tabidan. 
Ship, kashti, jahaz. 
Shocking, haubiak. 
Shoe, kafsh: (European) art*s. 
Shoot (to), gululeh andakhtan. 
Shop, dukkan (Ar. pi dakakin). 
Shore, kinar, sahil (Ar. pi. nacO- 


Short, kutsh. 
Shot (small), sachmeh. 
Shoulder, shsneh, dush, kitf (Ar. 

pi. aktaf). 
Shout, bang, ghiric. 
Shout (to), bttng zadan. 
Show, tamasha. 
Show (to), namudan (namSy), 

niiihan dadan. 
Shrimp, maigu. 
Shrine, ziyclrat-gah, imam-zadeh, 

zftviyeh, mazar. 
Shroud, kajan. 

Shrub Smith. 


Shrub, buteh. 

Shun (to), ijtinttb n: az, parhiz 

Shut (to), bastan (band}, bi-ham 

Sick, Mmttr, na-khyush, martz: 

(to be ), hal no, dashtan. 
Sickness, maraz (Ar. pi. amrttz\ 

bimarij na-khyushi; kisalat. 
Side, palilu: janib, taraf (Ar. 

pi. atruf], su. 
Siege, muhasareh. 
Sieve, ghurbal. 
Sigh, ah. 

Sight, nazar, dtdar: binai (spec- 
tacle) tamasha. 
Sign, nishan, ishareh, 'alamat, 


Sign (to), imza navishtan. 
Signal, ishttreh, 'alamat. 
Signature, imzs, sihheh. 
Signet, khatam. 
Significance, ma'ni, matlab (Ar. 

pi. matalib): (importance) a- 


Signify (to), ma'm dashtan. 
Silence, khamuahi, sukiit. 
Silent, khamush, sakit. 
Silk, abrishum. 

Silly, bi-hudeh: nnddn, bi-fahm. 
Silver, nuqreh: (adj.) nuqreh-i, 


Similar, misl, munand, yaksttn. 
Similarity, misttl, musliabdhat. 
Simple, basit: bi-riya, sudeh-dil. 
Simplicity, sftdeli-ditt. 
Simply, rnahz, faqat. 
Sin, gwntili: gustlr, taqsir. 
Sin (to), gunclh k:. 
Since, chunkih, az has kih, zanru 

kill, zirci kih : (from time that), 

az ctn vaqt kih, az Mm kih. 
Sincere, khalis, ssdiq, bi-riyU. 
Sincerity, ikhlds, sidq. 
Sinew, pai, l asab (Ar. pi. a'sab). 
Sing (to), sar&idan: khrandan. 
Singer (musician), mutrib, mu- 

Single, mufrad, yak, yaganeh; 

farid, vflhid. 
Singular (gram.), mufrad: 

(strange) gharib. 
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 

Sink (to), gharq sh:. 

Sinless, in-gwnah, ma'sum. 

Sinner, gunah-kar. 

Sir, nqa, Sahib. 

Sister, khyahar, hamsMreh. 

Sit (to), nishastan (nisMn): jti- 

lus n: 
Site, vaz'. 

Size, andazeh, miqdar. 
Skating, yakli-bazi. 
Skein (of thread), Mafeh. 
Skiff, zauraq. 
Skilful, hunarmand, qabil, hfiziq, 

zarang, zirak. 
Skill, hunar, qabiliyyat. 
Skin, pusl; charm, jild. 
Skin (to), pust kandan. 
Skirt, daman. 
Skull, kaseh-yi sar, jwnjumeh 

(Ar. pi. (jamajim). 
Sky, ttsman, falak (Ar. pi. af- 


Slack, siist, shvl. 
Slackness, sitsti, fatrat. 
Slake (to), nishandan. 
Slander, buhtfln, tuhmat, ghlbat. 
Slate, lauh (Ar. pi. alvah). 
Slave, bandeh, ghulflm. 
Slavery, bandagi, 'uttudiyyat. 
Slay (to), kushtan, bi-qatl rastin- 


Sledge, ktiliskeh-yi barft. 
Sleep, khvab, naum. manfim. 
Sleep, khvabidan, khrab raftan, 

dar khyfib budan. 
Sleeve, flstin. 
Slender, nazuk, barik. 
Slide (to), laghzidan. 
Slipper, pdpilsh. 
Slippery, laghsandeh. 
Slowly, kund, yavilsh, flliisteh. 
Small, khvurd, kUchik: rizeh. 
Smallpox, abileh. 
Smart, zarang; (pain) dard, 

alam (Ar. pi. alam). 
Smash (to), shikastan (shikan). 
Smell (to), shamidan, shanidan. 
Smell, buy. 
Smile, tabassum. 
Smile (to), tabassum k: 
Smite (to), zadan (ean). 
Smith, ahingar. 



S moke Spite. 

Smoke, dud. 

Smoke (to), kasMdan. 

Smooth, hamvar, saf. 

Smother (to), khdfeh k: 

Snake, mar. 

Snare, talch, dam. 

Sneeze 'atseh. 

Sneeze (to), 'atseh zadan (kar- 


Snipe, nykdaraz. 
Snore (to), khwrkhwr k: . 
Snout, puz. 
Snow, barf. 
Snow (to), barf amadan (bari- 

Snuff, nushuq. 

So, chinin, badm taur: bi-nau" 

- kih. 

Soap, sabun. 
Society, mu'-asharat, suhbat: 

(company), anjuman, sharSkat. 
Socks, jurab. 
Sod, kulukh. 

Soft, norm, nazuk : mulaim. 
Sojourn, iqamat, tavaqquf. 
Solace, tasalli, dil-asai. 
Solar, shamsi. 

Solder (to), qal' k:, lahim k: 
Soldier, sarbaz, sipaM. 
Solitary, tanha. 
Solitude, khalvat. 
Solve (to), hall k:. 
Some, chand, ba'zi: qadri. 
Son, pisar, valad (Ai. pi. aulad). 
Song, surud. 
Soon, zud. 
Sop, luqmeh. 
Sorcerer, jadugar, sahir. 
Sorcery, jadu, jadugart, sihr. 
Sorrow, gham, anduh, huzn, dil- 

Sorrow, gJiamgin, ghamnak, hazJn, 

mdhzun, dilgir, diltang. 
Sort, qism (Ar. pi. aqxam), nau 1 

(Ar. pi. anva'), qaMl. 
Soul, ruh (Ar. pi. arcaJi): Jan. 
Sound, acaz, soda, saut: (adj.) 

durust, saluh : ( sleep) girSn, 


Sound (to), navakhtan, sadan. 
Soup, shyrvB, ab-gusht. 
Sour, turush. 

Source, asl (Ar. pi. usul), mas- 
dar, mabds, yaribu' (Ar. pi. 
yanabi'), manba'. 

South, junub. 

Souvenir, yadgar. 

Sovereign, sultan (Ar. pi. sala- 
fln), p&dshah: (money) Hreh. 

Sovereignty, saltanat, padshahi. 

Sow (to), kashtan (kar). 

Sower, karandeh, bazrgar. 

Space, fastidi: (time), muddat. 

Spacious, vast 1 , farakh. 

Spade, bil. 

Span, vajab. 

Sparing, kam-kharj. 

Spark, sharareh, atash-pareh. 

Sparrow, gunjishk. 

Speak (to), guftan (gfty), harf 
zadan, sukhan randan. 

Speaker, q&il, guyandeh. 

Spear, naizeh. 

Special, khass, makfisus. 

Specially, khususan, 'ala'lkhusus. 

Species, nat*' (Ar. pi. anva'], 
jins, qism. 

Speck, lakkdi. 

Spectacle, tamasha. 

Spectacles, 'ainak. 

Speech, kalam, guftar: nutq, 
tanuttuq, kliatab. 

Speed, sur'at, sliitab, ta'jil, 'aja- 
leh, tundi. 

Spell (to) imla k:. 

Spelling, imla. [talaf n: 

Spend (to), kharj k:, sarf k;, 

Spice, adviyyth. 

Spider, l ankabut. 

Spill (to), rikhtan (riz). 

Spin (to), rtishtan (ris), risidan. 

Spinach, isfinnj. 

Spire, manar, manardt. 

Spirit, ruh (Ar. pi. an-ah) ; 
(courage), dilM, shuja'at: (li- 
quor), 'araq: (Holy Spirit), 
Xuhu'l Qudus. 

Spiritual, ruhani. 

Spirituality, ruhaniyyat. 

Spit (instrument), sikh. 

Spit (to), tuf zadan. 

Spite, Mneli, bad-khpahi: (in 
spite of), ba vujudi kih, bi- 
raghm i 'anf. 

Spittle Stink. 


Spittle, tuf, Ub i dahan. 
Splendour, raunaq, jalveh. 
Split (to), shikaftan. 
Spoil (to), zayi' k:, (pillage), 

gharat n:. 
Sponge, abr, isfavij. 
Sponsor, zamin. 
Spoon, qaxhuq. 
Sport, bazi, tafarruj: shikar. 
Sportsman, sMkar-chi. 
Spot (mark), lakkeh : (place), 


Spotless, M-dagh, bi-'aib. 
Spout, (on roof), nav-dan. 
Spread (to), (trans.), gustardan, 

pdhn k:, parakandeh k:, pa- 

shtdan : (circulate), intishar 

dadan: (intr.), shuyu' yaftan, 

intishdr yaftan. 
Spring (season), bdhflr: (of 

watch), fanar: (water), chash- 

Spring up ^to), jastan (jaK), sar 

zadan ; rmdan ; .jusMdan. 
Sprout (to), nimuvv k:, rtitdan. 
Spur, mihmtz. 
Spur (to), mihmiz zadan, bar 

Spurious, qullabt, qalb, magh- 

Spy, jasus. 
Squadron, dasteh. 
Square, murabba 1 , chahtlr-gusheh : 

(city); maidan, chahstr-stt. 
Squeak (to), mikh-mikh k:. 
Squeeze (to), afshurdan (af- 

shnr), chalsndan. 
Stable, tavileh, ttkhUr. 
Staif, 'asa. 
Stag, gavazn, mar til. 
Stage (on journey), manzil (Ar. 

pi. manazif). 
Stain, lakkeh, dagh. 
Staircase, pilleh. 
Stale (food), baynt, shdb-mandeh. 
Stalk, sag, saqeh. 
Stallion, naryftn. 
Stammer, lukneh k:. 
Stamp (postage), tamr. 
Stand (to), istadan, pa shudan. 
Standard (flag), 'alam, liva, bai- 


Star, sitsreh, najm (Ar. pi. nu- 


Starch, nishasleh. 
Stare (to), ntk nigarlstan, chashin 

Start, ravaneh sh:, kuch k:, ha- 

rakat k:, rah uftadan. 
State, hal, halat, ahval (Ar. pi. 

of hal) kaifiyyat: (nation), dau- 

lat (Ar. pi. duval). 
Statement, qaul, sukhan; tauzih. 
Station, makan, jay: martabeh. 
Statue, mujassameh. 
Stature, qadd,, qamat. 
Statute, qanun (Ar. pi. qavu- 


Stay (to), mundan. 
Stead (in-), bi- l avaz; bi-ja-yi. 
Steadfast, ustuvar, payad&r, ra- 

sikh. sabit, bar-qarar. 
Steal (to), duzdidan, duzdi k:, 

sarqah (sariqeh) k : . 
Steam, bukhflr. 
Steamer, kashti-yi bukhar. 
Steed, asb, markab. 
Steei, fulad. 

Steep, sarazir, part (vulg.). 
Steep (to), khisanidan, tar kar- 


Stench, bu-yi bad, gand, 'uftlnat. 
Step, qadam (Ar. pi. aqdilm): 

(stair), darajeh, jnllfh. 
Stern (adj.^, muta'abbis : (of 

ship) tafar, avakhir. 
Steward, nazir. 
Stewardship, nazarat. 
Stick, chttb-daat. 
Stick (to), (intr.), chasbidan, JMI*- 

vastan, mulhaq bttdan: (trans.), 

cha&banidan, mulhaq s: . 
Stiff, sakht, khushk, sift. 
Stiffnecked, gardan-kash, sar- 

Still (adj.), sakit, stikin, (iblideh, 

nram: (till now), hanttz, ta 

Stimulate (to), bar angikhtan, 

tahrik n:. 
Sting, nish: (to sting), // 

Stink (to), gandidan, muta'affin 




Stir Sugar. 

Stir (to), (intr.), harakat k:: 

(trans.) junbanidan, junbish 

dadan, bar ham zadan, bar 

Stirrup, rikab. 
Stockings, jurab. 
Stomach, mi'deh; shikam (belly). 
Stone, sang: (of fruit), Khasteh, 

hasteh, tulkdi. 
Stone (to), sangsar n: 
Stoop (to), kham shudan. 
Stop (to), (intr.), istadan, va 

istadan (ist) : (trans.), baz (va) 

dashtan, mani' shudan. 
Store, zakhireh: ( house) makh- 

zan, anbsr. 
Stork, laqlaq. 
Storm, tufan: (in war) yurish, 

hamleh, hujum. 
Storey, tabaqeh, martabeli. 
Story, hikayat, qisseh (Ar. pi. 

qisas), naql. 

Stout, qavi, tanumand: farbih. 
Stove, bukhari. 
Straight, rast, mustaqim. 
Strait, tangrah. 
Strange, gharib; baM i . 
Stranger, ghartb (Ar. pi. ghura- 

ba], ajnaM. 

Strangle (to), khafdi k: 
Strap, tasmeh, charm. 
Straw, kah. 

Strawberry, tut i farangi. 
Stream, juy, jub (vulg.) ; sail. 
Street, Tcucheh, rah. 
Strength, quvvat, tavanai. 
Strengthen (to), qoaA s&kJitan, 

mustahkcnn s: 
Stress, ta'kid. 

Stretch (to), daras k:, kasMdan. 
Strife, niza', munffza'at. 
Strike (to), zadan (zan). 
String, nakh, risman ; tar. 
Strip (to), birun k:, kandan (li- 

fcas), lukht k: (vulg.) 
Stripe, zarb: kJiatt. 
Strive (to), kushidan, kushish k :, 

jadd va jahd n ; (contend), 

niza' k:, mujadaleh n:, jangi- 


Stroll, gardish, tafarruj. 
Strong, qavn, tavana, zuravar. 

Struggle, kashmakash. 
Stubborn, khvudsar, sarkasli, 

Student, muta'attim ; talib (Ar. 

pi. talabeii, tullab). 
Study, dars, ta'allum, dirasat. 
Stuffing hashv. 
Stumble (to), laghzidan. 
Stumbling-block, sang : l tasa- 


Stupid, bi-falim; ahmaq, ableli. 
Stupidity, ablahi, himffqat. 
Stupor, ghash. 
Stutter (to), kikneh k:. 
Style, '"ibarat. 

Subdue (to), mutr saklitan. 
Subject (matter), matlab (Ar. 

pi. mat&lib), mauzu': (of king). 

ra'iyyat (Ar. pi. ra'aya) tabi'. 
Subjunctive, mashrut, muqayyad. 
Sublime, 'alt, rafi'. 
Sublimity, 'uluvv, rif'at. 
Submission, inqiyad, ita'at, ib- 

tihal, zara'at. 
Submit (to), mutt' sli:, farm an 


Subsistence. gu*rcin, zindagsni. 
Substance, jauhar: asl i matlab. 
Substantive, ism i zat. 
Suburbs, navahi, savad. 
Succeed (to), kamyab sh:. 
Successor, jay-nishin, khalaf (Ar. 

pi. khulafa). 
Succinct, mukhtasar. 
Succour, madad, kumak, i'anat, 


Such, chinan, chintn, hamchinan. 
Suck (to), makidan. 
Sudden, nagahan. 
Suddenly, daf'atan, baghtatan, 

Suet, pih. 
Suffer, a/am kashtdan, dard didan 

(kasMdan): tahammul n:, mu- 

taliammil budan: (permit) gu- 

zardan, izn dadan. 
Suffering, 'dard, alam (Ar. pi. 

alam\ vaja ( (Ar. pi. auja 1 }. 
Sufficiency, kifayat. 
Sufficient, bos, kafi, vafi. 
Sugar, shakar, (lump sugar) 

qand : (sugar cane) nai yi shakar. 

Suicide Tall. 


Suicide, qail i nafs i khyud. 
Suit (of clothes), dost i libas: 

(law ) muraja'eh. 
Suit (to), bi-kar (bi-dard) khyur- 

dan, farakhyur amadan. 
Suitable, munasib, shayisteh, bi-ja. 
Suite, khadam va hasham. 
Sulphur, gugird. 
Sultan, sultan (Ar. pi. salatiri). 
Sum (of money), mablagh. 
Summer, tabistan: ( residence) 


Summit, qulleh, sar. 
Summons (written), ihzar. 
Sun, khyurshid, shams. 
Sunshine, aftab. 
Sunday, yakshanbeh. 
Superior, faiq, a'ltf, afzal. 
Superlative degree, tafzil. 
Supper, sham: (Lord's Supper) 

'asha-yi Mabbsni. 
Supplication, iltimas, istid'a, 

mas'alat, ibtilial. 
Suppose (to), farz k:, qiyas Tc\, 

Sure, yaqin, muhaqqaq. 
Surety, znmin: zamttnat. 
Surface, safheh, satli, ruy. 
Surgeon, jarrtih. 
Surgery, jarrahi. 
Surname, kunyeh: laqab (Ar. pi. 


Surpass (to), sibqat burdan bar. 
Surprise, l qjab, ta'ajjub, dihsJiat, 

Surprise (to), bi-hairat andakh- 

tan: (to be surprised), ta'aj- 

jub n: (dashtan). 
Surrender (to), (trans.) taslim 

w:, sipurdan (sipar), havaleh k:. 
Surround (to), daur irit giriftan. 
Surroundings, atrnf (Ar. pi. of 

taraf), navtiht (Ar. pi. of na- 

Suspicion, shulheh, shakk, shayi- 

Suspicious, bad-gaman : pur-shub- 


Sustenance, qut, ghaqa ; guzrun. 
Swallow, parastii. 
Swallow (to), bal'idan, furjl bur- 
dan, bal' namudan. 

Swamp, mashileh, Iqjan-zar. 

Swan, ghau. 

Sway, hukm-rani, farman-farmfli. 

Swear (to), qasam (saugand) 

Sweat, e araq. 

Sweep, jarub k: , ruftan (rub). 
Sweet, shirtn. 
Sweets, shirini. 
Sweetness, shirini. 
Swell (to), bad k:. 
Swelling, varam. 
Swift, tund, zud, tizrau. 
Swiftness, tundi, zudt, sur'-at. 
Swim (to), shina (shinaoari) k:. 
Swindle (to), fariftan (fartb), 

gul zadan. 
Swine, khugftn, klmnazir (Ar. pi. 

of khinzir). 
Swoon, ghash. 
Sword, sliamshir, saif (Ar. pi. 


Syllable, jwf i lafz. 
Symbol, 'alamat. 
Sympathetic, ba-riqqat, mushfiq. 
Sympathy, riqqat, shafaqat. 
Symptom, l alainat, agar (Ar.-pl. 

Synagogue, kantseh (Ar. pi. ka- 

Synod, majlis. 
Syntax, nahv. 
Syringe, sb-duzdak. 
System, intizam, nazm. 

Table, mi/s. 

Tablecloth, sufreh, khvUn. 

Tablet, lauh (Ar. pi. alcah). 

Tail, dum, dunbal. 

Tailor, khayyat. 

Take (to), giriftan (gir); (away), 

bar dashtan: ( care) bar 

haifar bndan, kJiabar dilshtan. 
Tale, qisseh (Ar. pi. quits), hi- 

kayat, dnstan. 
Talent, fazilat, kliaslat (Ar. pi. 

khisaf): firasat. 
Talisman, filt-m. 
Talk (to), harf eadan, stiklum 

randan, guftugU k : . 
Tali, buland-qadd. 


Tallow Threat. 

Tallow, pik. 

Talon, chang, changal. 

Tambourine, daireh. 

Tame, ram, khanagi. 

Tank, havz, ab-anbar. 

Tape, natareh. 

Tar, qir. 

Tarantula, rutail. 

Target, hadaf, nislianeh. 

Tariff, nirkli 

Tartar, Tstsr. 

Taste, mazeh; zauq, zaiqeli: (good 
) saliqeh. 

Taste (to), chasMdan, mazeh gi- 

Tavern, sharab-khaneJi. 

Tax, baj: (taxes), maliyat. 

Tea, chahi, chat. 

Teach (to), smuzanidan, ta'lim 

Teacher, mu l allim, ustad. 

Teapot, quri. 

Tear, ashk. 

Tear (to\ daridan, diak kardan. 

Telegram, talagraf. 

Telegraph, talagraf: (to ) ta- 
lagraf zadan. 

Telegraphist, talagrafcM. 

Telescope, dur-bin. 

Tell (to), guftan, ittila' dadan, 
muttali 1 s : . 

Temper, mizaj, khuy, tab', taWat. 

Temperance, i'tidal, parMz. 

Tempest, tyfan. 

Temple, quds, haikal. 

Temporary, muvaqqat. 

Tempt (to), tajribeh A:, azmaish n:. 

Temptation, tajribdi, azmaish. 

Tenant, musta'jir. 

Tender, narm, mulaim. 

Tenderness, nartui, mulayimat. 

Tenet, 'aqideh (Ar. pi. l aqaid). 

Tense (gram.), zatnan. 

Tent, kliaimeh, chadur. 

Tepid, sMrgarm. 

Termination, akliir, itmam, l aqi- 
bat, atyam. 

Terrace, sakku. 

Terrible, haulnak, hail, muMb. 

Terrify (to), tarsamdan. 

Territory, marz o bum, mulk. 

Terror, haul, dihshat, niliib, haibat. 

Testament, vasiyyat-nameh : (Old 
T.), l ahd i 'atiq, (New T.) 
'olid i jadid. 

Testify (to), shahadat dadan. 

Testimony, slidhadat, gavahi. 

Text (of book), matn: (verse), 

Than, az. 

Thank (to), shukrk:, tashakkurn:. 

Thanks, shukr. 

Thanksgiving, shukr-guzari. 

That, an: kill. 

Thaw (to), ab shttdan. 

Theft, duzdi, sarqeh (sariqeli). 

Then, pas, angah, ba l d az an : dar 
Un surat, az an jihat. 

Thence, az anju: az an sabab: 
az an zaman. 

Theology, hikmat i ruhani. 

Theory, qiyas, hads. 

There, anja. 

Therefore, lihazu, bana bar an, 
az an jihat. 

Thermometer, garma-nama'. 

Thick, kuluft. 

Thief, duzd, sariq. 

Thigh, ran. 

Thimble, angushtaneh. 

Thin, laghir: barik. 

Thing, chiz, amr (Ar. pi. umur), 
shai (Ar. pi. asliya}. 

Think (to), fikr (tafakkur, ta'am- 
mul, khiyal) kardan (about, 
dar): (fancy) gaman k: (bur- 
dan), ingaslitan (ingcir), pan- 
dashtan (pandar), danistan 

Thirst, tishnagt, 'atasli. 

Thirsty, tishneli. 

Thistle, kangar khasak. 

Thither, bi-anja, anja. 

Thorn, kltar. 

Thorny, khar-dar, pur-khar. 

Thorough, kamil, tamm, tamam. 

Thoroughbred, astl. 

Though, agarchih, harchand Trih, 
ba vujudi kih. 

Thought, fikr, tafakkur, khiyal, 
ta'ammul, ra'i. 

Thoughtless, M-fikr. 

Thread, nakh, rishteh, risman. 

Threat, tahdid, va'id. 

Threaten Translation. 


Threaten (to), tahdtd, n:. 
Threshing-floor, kharman-gah. 
Threshold, astaneh. 
Thrice, sih bar, sih martabeli, sih 


Throat, galu, halq. 
Throne, takht, sarir. 
Through, az, az rah i; bi, bi- 

Throw (to), andakhtan (andaz), 


Thumb, shast, ibliam. 
Thunder, ra'd. 
Thunderbolt, sa'iqeh. 
Thursday, panj-shanbeh. 
Thus chimn, badtn taur. 
Tide (flood-), madd: (ebb-) jazr. 
Tidings, khabar (Ar. pi. akhbar), 

(glad ), muzdeli. 
Tidy, jtt bi-ja. 
Tidy (to), ja bi-ja kardan. 
Tie (to), bastan (band). 
Tiger, babr. 

Tight, tang, mtthkam, sift. 
Tile, kashi. 

Till, ta, hatttf: ta vagtt kill. 
Timber, chub. 
Time, vaqt (Ar. pi. auq&t], zamSn 

(Ar. pi. azmaneh): zamaneh; 

Mn, liingnm: (leisure), fursat. 
Timid, tarsan, kam-dil, khsif. 
Timidity, tars, kamdili, khauf. 
Tin, hctiabt. 
Tin-opener, halabi-bur. 
Tinder, qau. 
Tiny, kuchik, Tchyurd, kucliuU 


Tip, sar, nauk. 
Tipsy, makhmur, mast. 
Tired, khasteh. 
Tithe, 'ushr, dalvyak. 
Title, laqab (Ar. pi. alqab); (of 

book) 'unvan: (claim), iddi'ii. 
To, bi. 

Toast, nun i birishteh. 
Tobacco, tfttftn: (coarse) tan- 


To-day, amruz. 
Toe, angusht i pUy. 
Together, ba-ham, hamrBh. 
Toil, mihnat. 
Token, ishareh, 'alamat. 

Toll, rah-dart. 

Tomato, badinjan i farangi. 

Tomb, qabr (Ar. pi. qubur), maq- 


To-morrow, farda: bamd&dan. 
Tone, sada, navft. 
Tongs, anbur. 
Tongue, zabdn, lisSn (Ar. ]>1. 

alsaneh): (of fire), zabaneli. 
Too (much), ziyad: (also) niz, 


Tool, alat. 
Tooth, dandan: (of saw etc.) 


Toothbrush, misvsk. 
Top, sar, qulleh 
Topaz, zabarjad, ySqUt t zard. 
Topsy-turvy, sar-nigun, vazgun. 
Torch, mash'al. 
Torment, 'aztib. 
Torment (to) azurdan (nzar), 

'aqub n:. 

Torrent, sail, sailab. 
Tortoise, Isk-pusht. 
Tossing (of waves) talatum. 
Total, majmu', jam', jumleh. 
Totally, tamaman, kulliyyatan. 
Touch (to), lams n:, dost burdan. 
Touchstone, mVyar, l iyar. 
Towards, bi-taraf (J7) t. 
Towel, dastmal. 
Tower, burj. 
Town, qaryeh: shahr. 
Toy, bazicheh. 

Trace, suragh, asar (Ar. pi. a*iir. 
Trade, tijarat, kJiarid va farjlsh. 
Trade (to), tijarat n:. 
Trader, tajir (Ar. pi. tujjar): 

Tradition, hadi* (Ar. pi. ahadty, 

kJiabar (Ar. pi. akftbar); ricayat 

(Ar. pi. ravayti): tavatur. 
Traffic, amad o shttd: (trade) 


Train, kaliskeh-yi buklMri. 
Traitor, khain. 
Transcribe, naql k:. 
Transgress, ta/avuz n: az. 
Transitive (verb), fi'l i mu- 


Translate, tarjumeh k:. 
Translation, tarjumeh. 


Translator Uncircumcised. 

Translator, mutarjim, tarjuman. 

Transmigration, tan asukh, maskh. 

Transport, naql: (delight), vqjd. 

Trap, dam, taUh. 

Trappings, yaraq. 

Travail, dard i zih. 

Travel (to), safar k:. 

Traveller, musafir: sayyah. 

Traverse, tai k:. 

Tray, sini. 

Treacherous, khain, bi-vafa, gliad- 


Treachery, khiyanat, bi-vafai. 
Treasure, ganj, kliazaneh, khazt- 


Treatise, risaleh. 
Treaty, 'ahd: (document), 'a/tdf- 

Tree, darakht, shajareli (Ar. pi. 

ash jar}. 

Tremble (to), larzidan, 
Trench, khandaq. 
Trial, azmaish. 
Tribe, taifeh (Ar. pi. tavaif), 

qaum (Ar. pi. aqvam) : qabtleh 

(Ar. pi. qabail): U (pi. ilyat), 
Tribunal, mahkameh. 
Tribute, baj. 
Trickle (to), chakidan. 
Trinity, ta*tis i aqdas. 
Troop, dasteh, risaleh. 
Troops, lashkar, 'asafo'r, qushun. 
Trot (to), lukkeh raftan, yurtmeh 

Trouble, zahmat, tasdi', aziyyat, 

Troubled, muztarib: (water) mu- 

Troublesome, muzahim, musaddi 1 : 


Trousers, slialvar, zir-jameh. 
Trousseau, jahaz. 
Trout, qizil-aleh. 
True, rast, haqiqi. 
Truly, bi-durusti, Ji'lhaqiqeh. 
Trumpet, karranU, buq, swr, 

Trunk (tree-), taneh yi darakht: 

(box), sanduq : (elephant's) 

Trust, i'timad, i'tiqad: (in God) 


Trust (to) i'timad etc. w: bar. 
Truth, rasti, haqq, haqiqat, 

haqqiyyat, sidq. 
Try (to), kushidan, kushish k:, 

sa'i nij tajribeh k:, nzmudan 

(azmay), imtihnn k: 
Tube, luleh. 
Tuesday, sih-shanbeh. 
Tulip, laleh. 

Tumbler, shisheh, finjan. 
Tumour, dunbal. 
Tumult, hangameh, ightishasli, 

shurish, shuluk (vulg.). 
Tune, navel, aTiang. 
Tunic, qabs. 
Turban, 'amameh. 
Turk, Turk (Ar. pi. atrak). 
Turkey (country), nitdk i Bum : 

(bird), bu-qalamun. 
Turn, naubat, passa (vulg.). 
Turn (to), (intr.) gardidan, bar 

gardldan, gardish (daur) k:: 

(trans.), (bar) gardantdan. 
Turner, kliarrat. 
Turnip, shalgliam. 
Turnscrew, achar. 
Turquoise, firuzeh. 
Turtle, sang-pusht:(-&.ovv) qumrl. 
Tutor, lakh; mu'attim. 
Twice, do daf'eh, do martabdi. 
Twilight, shafaq. 
Twin, tau'am. 
Twine, risman. 
Twinkle (to), darakhshidun (du- 


Tyranny, zulm, ta'addi, satam. 
Tyrant, zalim, satamktir. 
Tyro, mubtadi. 

Ugliness, zishtt. 

Ugly, zisht, bad-manzar, bad-gil. 

Umbrella, chatr. 

Unanimity, yaganagi, itlihad, 

Unanimous, yakdil, muttafiq, 


Unawares, nagali. 
Unhelief, kufr: bi-imani. 
Unbeliever, kafir (Ar. pi. Ttuffar), 

M-din, bt-tman. 
Uncircumcised, na-maklttlin. 

Uncle Vague. 


Uncle (paternal), 'amm, 'ammu : 
(maternal), khal, Tchalu, dai 
Unclean, na-pak, najis: chirk, 

Uncleanness, napaM, najasat: 


Under, z'ir, pain, taht. 
Underneath, z*r, pain. 
Understand (to), fahmidan, idrak 

n:, multafit sh: 
Understanding, l aql, fahm, idrak: 

(agreement), ittifaq. 
Undoubtedly, bi-shakk, bi-shubheh. 
Undress (to), rakht (lib&s) birun 

ft:, kandan. 

Unequalled, U-misal, bi-nazir. 
Unexpectedly, nagahan. 
Unfaithful, bi-vafa, namak-ha- 


Unfortunate, bad-bakht. 
Ungodly, bidin. 
Ungrateful, na-sipas, haqq na- 


Unhappiness, dil-tangi, dil-giri. 
Unhappy, dil-tang, dilrgir, musta- 

mand, malul. 
Uniform, litMs i ni^ami. 
Union, ittihad. 
Unite (to), paivastan. 
Unity, yagnnagi, ittihad. 
Universal, jftmi 1 , kulli. 
Universe, 'alam, jahan, jumleh- 

yi kai/n&t. 
University, daru'l'ulum, madra- 


Unjust, bi-insaf, zsUm. 
Unlearned, ummi, M-savad. 
Unleavened, fatiri. 
Unless, agarneh, varneh, ilia, 

magar, juz in kill. 
Unlucky, badbakht. 
Unmarried, 'azab, mujarrad, 

ghair i muzavvaj. 
Unmeaning, bi-ma'nt, bi-hudeh. 
Unmerciful, In-rahm, bi-muruvvat. 
Unofficial, ghair i rasmi. 
Unpaid, muft, majjnnan. 
Unpalatable, na-guvar, bad-ma- 


Unpleasant, n(i-pasand, gliair i 

Unprofitable, bi-faideh, ghair i 


Unripe, nu-ras, na-rasideh. 
Unspeakable, ma la kalam. 
Unstable, bi-qar&r. 
Unsuccessful, na-kamyab, mah- 

Unsuitable, na-shayisteh, ns- 


Untie, hatt k:, va kardan. 
Until, til; ta an kih; hatta' an 


Untrue, durvph. na-rast, kazib. 
Untruth, durugh, ki$b. 
Unwary, ghafit, bi-ihtiyat. 
Unwell (to be) hat na dSshtan, 
kisalat dashtan, na-klwush b:. 
Unwholesome, nS-guvftreh. 
Unwise, ntt-dan, M-falim. 
Unworthy, na-laiq. 
Up, bala. 

Upon, bar. bar bate, bar sar, ru-yi. 
Upside down, vazgun, zir-zabar, 

Upwards, bala. 
Urgency, zarWat, luziim; aJwn- 


Urgent, lazim, zarTir; aJiamm. 
Usage, wia'mSi, rasm (Ar. pi. 

runUrn), 'adat: suluk. 
Use, isti'mal; faideh, masraf: 
(to be of ) bi-kar amadan, 
bi-kar klwurdan, bi-dard khmtr- 

Use (to), isti'mnl k:, bi-kar bur- 
dan: (be in habit of) 'adi 
b'tfdan, k adat dashtan. 
Useful, mufid, bi-kar. 
Useless, bi-faideh, bi-masraf. 
Usual, ma'mttl, ma l m~aU. 
Usually, 'um%man. 
Utility, faideh, manfa'at. 
Utter, talaffuz dadan. 
Utterance, talaffuz. 
Utterly, tamaman, kuUan, knl- 
liyyatan, katnilan. 

Vacant, khaU. 


Vaccinate (to), abileh knbidan. 

Vague, mushtabili, maghnhilsh. 


Vain Virginity. 

Vain (fruitless), batil, bi-faideh, 
'ofro.: (conceited), khvudpa- 
sand, mnghrur: (in vain), 
'060.9, batilan. 

Valet, pish-khidmat. 

Valiant, diMr, ships'. 

Valid, bar-qarar, sahib,. 

Valley, darreli, julgeh, vadi. 

Valour, diliri, shuja'at, mardan- 

Valuable, bish-qaimat, giran-balia, 
girSn-mSydi, qaimat-dar. 

Value, qaimat, arzish, balta : (use), 
masraf, faideh. 

Value (to), qaimat guftan: (es- 
teem), qadr danistan: ghanimat 
shamurdan (danistan). 

Van (of army), talayeli. 

Vanguard, muquddatnatu'l jaish. 

Vanish (to), ghaib sh:. na-padid 

Vanity (uselessness), butlan, 
batalat: (conceit), ghurur, ta- 
kabbur, khpud-pasandi. 

Vanquish (to), ghalib sh:, ghala- 
beh yaftan bar. 

Vapour, bukh&r. 

Variance, ikhtil&f. 

Variegated, gunagun, rangarang, 

Various, mutafarriq, mukhtalif. 

Varnish, raughan i kaman. 

Varnish (to), raughan zadan. 

Vary (to), tafaout dashtan (ba, 

Vase, zarf (Ar. pi. zuruf). 

Vast, a'zam, bi-andazeh. 

Vault, taq; qabheh. 

Vaunt (to), gilaf guftan, laf za- 
dan, fakhr k:. 

Veal, gusht i gusaleh. 

Vegetables, sabzi/at, tarakari. 

Vehemence, tundi. 

Veil, ru-band, chadur, izar: hyab, 

Vein, rag, 'irq (Ar. pi. { uruq). 

Velocity, tundi, zudi, sur'at. 

Velvet, makhmal. 

Venerable, muhtaram, muJcarram, 

Venerate (to) muhtaram etc. 

Veneration, ihtiram, ikram, Jnir- 


Vengeance, intiqam. 
Venison, gusht i ahu. 
Venom, zaJir, samm. 
Venomous, zahr-dar. 
Venture (to), igdam n\, zahrdi 

k : , jur'at k : , jasarat varzidan. 
Venturesome, jasur. 
Venus (planet), zuhreh. 
Verandah, aitttn. 
Verb, fi'l 

Verbally, zabzni: lafzan. 
Verdigris, zangar. 
Verge, lab, dam: (on verge of) 

mushrif i bi. 
Vermicelli, rishteh. 
Vermin, j&nivar. 
Verse (poetry), shi l r (Ar. pi. 

asli l ar\ nazm: bait (Ar. pi. 

abyaf): (of a song) band. 
Version, tarjumeh. 
Vertige, sar-gardani. 
Very, khattt, bisyar. 
Vest, qaftan. 

Vestige, osar (Ar. pi. as&r}. 
Vesture, pushak, libas (Ar. pi. 

albaseli), rakht. 
Veterinary surgeon, baitar. 
Vex (to), ranjsnidan, azurdeh s:. 
Vexation, azcir, aziyyat, ran/. 
Vexed, muztarib, ranjidth, mu- 


Vice, badi, shararat, fasad. 
Viceroy, qaim-maqam, farman- 


Victor, ghalib, fatih, muzaffar. 
Victory, fath, zafar, nusrat. 
Victuals, ghazS, azuqeli, khvurak. 
View, nazar, manzar: (opinion), 

ra'i (Ar. pi. ara, ar&), kliiyal. 
Vile, furu-mayeh, khabi*, sifleh. 
Village, dih (pi. dihaf): (adj.) 


Vine, ink, mau. 
Vinegar, sirkeh. 
Vineyard, takistan. 
Violence, ztlr, jabr: shiddat. 
Violet, binafsheh. 
Viper, af'i. 

Virgin, bakireh, dukhtar, dilshtzeli. 
Virginity, bikarat. 

Virtue Wet. 


Virtue, hunar: 'iff at, i asmat > pak- 


Virtuous, tahir, pak-daman. 
Visage, ruy, chihreh, surat. 
Visible, zahir, huvaidit, ashkar : 

mar'i, didani. 
Vision (sight), binai, basarat: 

ru'ya, khyab. 
Visit, didani: did va baz did: 

(to sick) 'iyadat. 
Visit (to), barayi didani amadan. 
Visitor, mihman. 
Vocabulary, lughat. 
Voice, acaz, saut. 
Void, khali/tuhi: (null), batil, 


Volcano, kuh i atash-fishan. 
Volley, sliaMk. 
Volume, jild. 

Vomit (to), qai k:, istifragh k:. 
Vortex, gird-ab. 
Vow, nazr. 

Vowel, harf i 'Mat, harakat. 
Voyage, safar i darya. 
Vulgar, l &mm. 
Vulture, lash-khvur, karkas. 


Wages, mavtfjib; Vijrat, muzd. 

Waggon, 'arradeh, 'arrabeh. 

Waist, kamar, miyttn. 

Waistcoat, jilakeh. 

Wait (to), mandan; intizar k: 

sabr k; . 

Wake (to), (intr.) bidttr sh:. 
Walk, gardish, tafarruj. 
Walk (to), piysdeh raftan: khar- 

amidan; gardish raftan. 
WaU, dicar. 
Walnut, girdu. 
Want, hajat, ihtiyaj; kami: bi- 

navai, mufliai. 
Want (to), lazim dash tan, hajat 

War, Jang, jadal, harb, muha- 


War (to), jangidan, jang k:. 
Warehouse, nuikhzan, anbffr. 
Warlike, jang-ju. 
Warm, garm : (to warm) gartn 

s :. 
Warmth, garma; hararat (heat). 

Warn (to), mutandbbih s:, again 


Warning, agahi, tanlnh: 'ibrat. 
Warp and woof tar o pud. 
Wash (to), sliustan (shuy) ; 

ghusl k:. 
Washerwoman, rdkht shuy (raklit- 

shur vulg.). 
Wasp, za*bur. 
Waste (adj.), viraneh: (noun), ta- 

laf, israf. 
Watch, sa'at: (night-), pas: 

(guard), kashik; qaraoul, ka- 


Watchword, WOT * shab. 
Water Qb : (to water) sirab k:. 
Wave, mauj (Ar. pi. amvsj). 
Wax, mum : (sealing ), Ink. 
Way, rah, tariq (Ar. pi. turuq). 
Weak, za'if, kamzur, na-tavan. 
Weakness, za'f, kamzUri, na- 


Wealth, daulat, ghana. 
Wealthy, daulattnand, ghani (Ar. 

pi. aghniya). 

Weapons, aslaheli yi jang, 
Wear (to), pttxhidan. 
Weariness , kftastagi, dartnan- 


Weary, khasteh, darmandeh. 
Weather, hava. 
Weave (to), baftan. 
Web (spider's), tar (i 'ankabnf). 
Wedding, 'artist; 'aqd, nikah. 
Wednesday, chahar-shanbeh. 
Week, liafteh. 
Weep, giristan, giryeh k : , giryan 


Weeping, giryeh. 
Weigh (to), sanjidan, vazn k : . 
Weight, vazn. 
Weight, mi 1 1./,' n. 
Welcome (to), tarhib k. 
Welcome! khrush amadid. 
Welfare, bili-bttdi, salnmnti. 
Well, diah: (adj.) d\aq, sahih 

va salamat: (adv.) bi-khvubl. 
Well-wisher, JV nir-khroh. 
West, maghrti>, i/harb. 
Westerly, maghiibl. 
Wet, far, nam. 
Wet (to), tar s:. 


Whale Worthiness. 

Whale hut. 

What, chih : anchih. 

Whatever, liar an chili. 

Wheat, gandum. 

Wheel, charkh. 

When, vaqti kill, chun: kai? 

Whence, as Tcuja? az jai kih. 

Where, kuja? ku?: jot kih. 

Whether ... or, khvah . . . va 

khvah : chili . . chih, ya . . . ya. 
While, muddat, chandt, andaM : 

dar Mni kih, ma dami, kih. 
Whip, shall Ugh, qamcht. 
Whirlpool, gird-ab, taiteh. 
Whirlwind, gird-bad. 
Whiskers, burnt, siMl. 
Whisper (to), bi-gush guftan, 

zir i lab guftan. 
Whistle (to), nut zadan, saftr 

White, safid: (of egg), sapideh 

yi tukhm. 

Who, kih ? an kih, kasi kih. 
Whoever, har kih, har an kih. 
Whole, tamam, kutt, hamagi. 
Wholesome, guvar. 
Why, chira, az chih sabab. 
Wick, fatUeh. 
Wicked, bad, badlcar, sliarir, fa- 

Wickedness , fasad, shararat, 

Wide, gushadeh, farakh, vast 1 , 


Widow, liveh zan. 
Width pahna~i, vus'at, 'arz. 
Wife, zan, zaujeh. 
Wild, vahshi. 
Wilderness, biyaban. 
Will, iradeh, murad: (testament) 

Willow, bid. 

Win (to), burdan (bar), Msilk:. 
Wind, bad. 

Window, panjareh, daricheh. 
Wine, sharab, khamr, mai. 
Wing, bal, par, janah (Ar. pi. 


Winter, zamistcln. 
Wipe (to), pak k:. 
Wire, &im, maftul. 
Wisdom, hikmat, danisli, khirad. 

Wise, dana, danishmand, khirad- 


Wish, khvahish, arzu. 
Wish (to), khvastan (klivah). 
Wit, firasat: latafat. 
Witchcraft, jadugari, sihr. 
With, ba; bi. 
Withdraw (to), kanar giriftan, 

baz ifitadan. 

Wither (to), pazmurdeh sli: 
Withhold (to), va (baz) dsshtan. 
Within, dakliil, darun, tu yi. 
Without, Mrun: bi, bi-dUn i. 
Withstand (to), muqacamat n: 

Witness, shahid, garah: (evi- 
dence), shahadat, gavahi. 

Witty, zarif. 

Wolf^ gurg. 

Woman, zan, za'ifeh. 

Womb, rahim. 

Wonder, ta'ajjub, hairat. 

Wonder (to), ta'ajjub n:. 

Wonderful, 'ajib. 

Wood, chub: Mzum, Mmeli: (for 
-est) jcmgal, bisheh. 

Woodcutter, tabarzan, Mzum-kan. 

Wool, pashm. 

Word, sukhan, kalimeh, lafz (Ar. 
pi. alfaz). 

Work, kar, 'amal (Ar. pi. a l maT) ; 

Work (to), kar k: . 

Workman, 'amaleh. 

Workshop, kar-khaneh. 

World, dunya; jahan: 'alam: 
(this ) dunya: (the next) 

Worldling, dunya-parast. 

Worldly, dunyam. 

Worm, kirm. 

Worn-out, mundaris (clothes). 

Worse, badtar, kharahtar. 

Worship, 'ibadat, parastish. 

Worship (to), parastidan, 'ibadat 
n:, parastish k: 

Worshipper, parastish kunandeh. 

Worst, badtarm, kharabtarm. 

Worth, qadr, qaimat, baha, arzish. 

Worth (to be), arzidan (bi-). 

Worthily, bi-taur i shayisteli. 

Worthiness, liyaqat. 

Worthless Zoroastrian. 


Worthless, bi-f&ideh, M-masraf. 
Worthy, sazavar, laiq, mustahaqq, 

mustaujib, vsjtb. 
Wound, zakhm, risk. 
Wound, zakhm kardan, majruh s: . 
Wounded, zakhm - dar, zakhm- 

Tchvurdeh, majruh. 
Wrap (to). picMdan, malfuf k: 
Wrath, qahr, hiddat: ghaiz. 
Wrecked, shikasteh sh: 
Wrestle (to), kushti giriftan. 
Wrestler, kushti gtr. 
Wrestling, kushtt. 
Wretched, mustamand, ghamgin, 


Wrinkle, chin. 
Wrist, band i dost. 
Write (to), navishtan (navis), 

tahr'ir n: . 
Writer, naifisandeh, Ttatib, mu- 

Writing, khatt; raqam (Ar. pi. 


Written, maktub, marquin. 
Wrong, ghair i saMh: (injury), 

Wroth, kliashm-nftlc, ghazdbnak. 

Yard (measure) zar', gaz: (court) 

Yawn, khamyazeh k : . 

Year, sal, saneh. 

Yearly, har saleh, salsneh, sanati. 

Yeast, mayeh. 

Yell (to), bung zadan, farysd k : . 

Yellow, zard. 

Yes, 6aZi, art. 

Yesterday, diruz: (day before ) 

Yet, amma, Itikin, likin, magar, 

vaU: (still), til hanuz, haiffiz, 

til bi-hal. 

Yoke, yugh: (pair), juft:. 
Yolk (of egg), zardeh-yi tuTdim. 
Young, kuchik; jarSn, khrurd- 

sal: (noun), bachcheh. 
Youth, javani, sughr i sinn: 

(young person), javfln. 

Zeal, ghairat; ta'assuh. 

Zealous, pur-ghairai; muta'assib. 

Zephyr, nasim, bsd i saba. 

Zero, sifr. 

Zinc, rui. 

Zodiac, mintaqu'l bwuj. 

Zone, mintaq: kamarband: mm- 


Zoroaster, Zardusht. 
Zoroastrian, Zardushti, gabr. 


Besides the usual ones, e. g. adj. for adjective, trans, for 
transitive, intr. for intransitive, etc., the following are used: 

k ; = Tear dan (kun). 

s ; = sakhtan (saz). 

6 : = budan (b&sli). 

d: dadan (diK). 

sh : = shudan (sliav). 
Ar. pi. = Arabic plural. 

n : = namudan (namay). 

It should be hardly necessary to remind the student that 
the various Persian words given in explanation of any English 
word must not be used indiscriminately. There are often very 
important differences between them, the English word having 
several different meanings. Accents have not been inserted in 
this vocabulary, as the student should now have no difficulty 
in knowing their places in Persian words. 



CJ rT^>r. /u f\, 4 



_-^, .. J^ , 

.4- 1^0 


ft ^^'<^'>/^fc 
U %:&^'X/J/jt/tit 

^^ /~s Y /* r s 

. v 



Persian Conv. -Grammar. 

^^ o ^ 


* I* * * 





-U A ' rfW&rfato <&2>&Zb 

i+ I * */ 

^> t -/ ^ jJ^iiJ^V/y t" y Ty i 


S Mvil Cx* 

Persian Conv.-Gvammar. 



i v I - * # i - 

' ' 


J &g^J^JW%&'+ 


{SJ&s&rJt&j&S' ( A$) (f'xfj 

f_f /, IX " / 

ft * 

I *> 

Vcrsian Conv.- Grammar. 








I I " / *+ J 


^Jd^J'jtf^ 1 ^^ 


{ __ ^- 

!/ i- 




^ #tyl '< %^*/& 
fr ^i^W^* '> Wy?^'* 
J *Jfj'JjJnJ \ i&ij&fe*} 

** TT * ^^ > 4^ 


2, Extract from "The Shah's Third 
Journey to Europe! 


-^ "^ 

jl -j 









^V^ % bl^^5U^ 








Persian Conv.-Grammar. 





1 * J * \ * 

^^ttA y V.^w-^^V ^ 


v/5^ ' c$"r 





>x fci 



~ rx x 

y\JL* '+^ . .\^ * ^\L^ 









J p 



\ * 




Beading Lessons. 

1. From the lC Sad Hikayat'.' 


Persian Conv.-Grammar. 

FEB 2 1989